EHEST has developed this comprehensive and fully illustrated Helicopter Flight Instructor guide based on a manual developed by the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) and other international organisations. CASA kindly made the contents of the publication available to EHEST for dissemination without restriction. In issue 1, EHEST incorporated changes to reflect European terminology and syllabus content and also enriched the manual.
Aviation is a complex environment covering a variety of activities. The human component is one of the most important elements in this system, thus having fit aeronautical personnel is essential in order to ensure aviation safety. This creates the need for Aeromedical Examiners (AMEs) to be aware of the different operational environment and the corresponding risk factors.
The purpose of this document is to share recommended practices and information on Crew Resource Management (CRM) and promote the development of CRM training for both Air Operators having CRM training responsibilities, and Competent Authorities having oversight responsibilities.
The EASA Safety Risk Management process has identified CRM as one of the most important safety factor in the domain of Commercial Air Transport (CAT) Aeroplane operations.
This leaflet aims to reinforce to pilots the need to understand aviation weather, including the appropriate threat assessments and strategies to adopt in relation to pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight operations for a helicopter flight to be conducted under Visual Meteorology Conditions (VMC).
This leaflet discusses the factors affecting helicopter performance. It then provides pilots with guidance, tips and techniques to ensure safe operations.
Most of performance-related accidents can be avoided if the pilot is conscious of the performance limitations of the operated rotorcraft.
Pilots should keep in mind that performance calculations must be part of each and every flight preparation briefing.
One of the core capabilities required to support effective implementation of safety management is the ability to monitor the effectiveness of an organisation's management systems. Competent authorities must be able to assess the effectiveness of management systems as part of their oversight. The EASA Management System Assessment tool is intended to support authorities with this task.
This Practical Guide on ‘Management of hazards related to new business models of commercial air transport operators’ is part of EASA’s safety promotion strategy. The Guide has been developed by a group of dedicated safety management managers from Europe’s airline industry and includes a number of easy to use and practical examples for SMS managers for hazard identification and management in the following five areas:
The Mission Request Vade Mecum has been developed to help emergency front-line personnel to safely deal with helicopters. Policemen, firefighters, ambulances, and all the personnel who may be involved in requesting and handling a helicopter mission will benefit from the tool. A comprehensive document explains what information should be given to the helicopter pilot and describes how to set up the landing area. Together with the emergency dispatch centre they can go through the R.O.M.A. checklist in order to quickly check all the required information and safety provisions.
Here is a link to the International Helicopter Safety Team (IHST) webpage dealing with Safety Management. Several Safety Promotion materials and toolkits are available.
In particular, SMS toolkits (please use the latest version) are available in English and Spanish.
ECAST sponsored the European Plan for the Prevention of Runway Incursion (EAPPRI) and ECAST organisations participated in its development.
The link below redirects to the EAPPRI web-page of the SKYbrary website.
The EHEST MARIA Risk Assessment Toolkit contains a methodology and a database system that support safety studies and keep track of hazards and other risk assessment elements. Safety studies are organised around causes, hazardous events (or hazards), consequences and safety barriers. Elements are linked together to describe cause-effect relations and orient action. MARIA functionalities include producing reports and exporting data to external databases and safety documents.
This tool has been developed to allow pilots and technicians to evaluate the actual risk of the flight or of the maintenance.
The tool is based on the PAVE (Pilot, Aircraft, environment, External pressure) check list and adapted for the type of flight (HEMS, leisure, training, passenger, etc.).
The final purpose is to make pilots and technicians aware that simple factors, when combined, can raise the total risk significantly, eventually resulting in a situation where the helicopter should not flight unless some of the risk factors are mitigated.
The following link redirects to the Runway Incursion Portal of the SkyBrary website.
This leaflet provides guidance and safety tips for pilots, instructors and examiners on the subject of training and testing of emergency and abnormal procedures.
This leaflet provides guidance to helicopter instructors and examiners on how to conduct aircrew training and testing in Flight Simulator Training Devices (FSTDs), and provides basic principles on how to get the best use of this invaluable training asset. The benefits of FSTDs are covered in the previously published leaflet HE6 Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training.
This leaflet addresses safety at flying displays and events and provides guidance for pilots. Originally published by UK CAA, the leaflet was adapted by EGAST for wider use in Europe. The European Airshow Council (EAC) supported this work. The leaflet addresses various important subjects such as managing the risk involved in airshows, planning your display, and practicing and preparing for your display. It also addresses the airshow itself and provides measures to take on the display day and after the display.
This leaflet identifies current best practice on automation and flight path management. Over the years helicopter manufacturers have used more automation to assist crews and reduce manual flying workload. The rapid advances in technology have given rise to significant capabilities. Automation has contributed substantially to the sustained improvement of flight safety. Automation increases the timeliness and precision of routine procedures reducing the opportunity for errors and the associated risks to the safety of the flight.
ECAST sponsored the European Plan for the Prevention of Runway Excursion (EAPPRE) and ECAST organisations participated in its development.
The link below redirects to the EAPPRE web-page of the SKYbrary website.
The EHEST European Helicopter Safety Analysis Team (EHSAT) published between 2008 and 2015 three accidents reports using an adapted version of the taxonomy developed by the IHST Join Helicopter Safety Analysis Team (JHSAT) and the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).
EHSAT Regional Teams (RTs) spread all through Europe analysed hundreds of national accident reports and EASA aggregated and further analysed results centrally.
The following link redirects to the Runway Excursion Portal of the SkyBrary website.
This leaflet focusses on In-Flight Icing.
It provides guidance to pilots of non-complex aeroplanes without modern ice protection systems. Topics include icing after landing, effects of icing, propeller icing, pre-flight planning, pre-flight checks and ground de-icing, and typical in-flight icing scenarios.
Actions to be taken when encountering icing are presented in a summary section.
EHEST has developed this Helicopter Flight Instructor manual based on a manual developed by the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA), incorporating extensive feedback from the helicopter training community. CASA has kindly made this manual available to EHEST for dissemination. EHEST has incorporated changes to reflect European terminology and syllabus contents and also enriched the manual.
This leaflet introduces and illustrates the concept of Threat and Error Management (TEM) to flight crews and training organisations. Data analysis confirms that a continuing significant number of helicopter accidents occur due to poor decision making and human performance both prior and during flight. This leaflet contributes to address these weaknesses by describing and illustrating a methodology to manage threats and errors.
Technology is not high on the list of accident factors, as it is merely the lack of technology that may have led to an accident.
Technology provides a variety of solutions that can contribute to prevent various types of accidents or to increase survivability.
The EHSIT Specialist Team Technology of EHEST was created to assess the potential of existing and emerging technologies to mitigate accident factors.
This Toolkit has been created by the Specialist Team Operations & SMS of EHEST. The SMM Version 1 for Non-Complex operators has been developed with consideration of Annex III of the EU regulation on Air Operations, Part ORO Subpart GEN Section II ‘Management System’ and the relevant AMCs and GM published in October 2012. It will be particularly useful for Non-Complex operators with limited experience of running a Safety Management System (SMS).
This leaflet presents techniques for helicopter operations in hilly and mountainous terrain. It helps pilots and instructors understand basic principles, threats, errors and possible undesirable aircraft states when flying in mountainous terrain. Developed in partnership with major stakeholders, the leaflet also provides guidance to manage the risks associated with these operations.
This leaflet focusses on the use of Flight Information Service (FIS). It is intended to assist pilots – particularly VFR pilots – in the correct use of FIS frequencies. As pilots are required to contact FIS at AFIS aerodromes or in certain circumstances such as crossing international borders, this leaflet describes the advantages and limitations of using the service.
The leaflet aims to help light aeroplane pilots recognise situations potentially leading to stall, while also providing generic principles for stall and spin prevention and recovery. Loss of Control Inflight (LoC-I) has been repeatedly identified as the main accident category in light aeroplanes. The stall recovery procedure in the leaflet is consistent with the new standard approach described in the FAA AC 120-109 and EASA Safety Information Bulletin 2013-02, on Stall and Stick Pusher Training.
This leaflet helps pilots in Using Advanced Navigation Technology Safely. The market for on-board navigation technology is evolving quickly. The immediate potential safety benefits are numerous including reduced workload and unprecedented information to enhance situational awareness but may induce overreliance on systems and distraction. This leaflet intends to raise awareness on potential traps and share good practices for better and safer use of advanced technology for navigation in day VFR.
This leaflet deals with bird strikes. Yes, a collision with a nice soft-feathered bird can lead to serious damage; such as a destroyed windshield (that can injure the pilots), clogged air intakes, a broken pitot tube, damaged brake lines, holes or dents in the fuselage or wings… This leaflet was translated from a German AOPA Safety Letter.
This leaflet focusses on piston engine icing. Induction system icing in piston engines is commonly referred to as ‘carburettor icing’. Although that is only one form, such icing can occur at any time, even on warm days, particularly humid ones… If correct action is not taken, the engine may stop, especially at low power settings during approach. This leaflet is intended to assist pilots of carburetted piston engined aircraft operating below 10 000 feet by providing background information and a few practical tips.
This leaflet gives tips to flight close to high grounds (mountain flying). It gives some basic information and advice to pilots of light aircraft who wish to cross ranges of hills or even mountains. As in all flying, pre-flight preparation is essential for success and reading this brochure could be one element of it!
This leaflet emphasises the advantages of simulators in helicopter flight training. The document presents the various helicopter flight simulation training devices available and reviews the additional training and safety benefits related to recent technological and regulatory developments.
The EHEST Safety Management Toolkit for Complex Operators has been developed by the Specialist Team Operations and Safety Management System (EHSIT ST Ops and SMS) of EHEST. It has been developed with consideration given to Annex III of the EU regulation on Air Operations, Part ORO Subpart GEN Section II ‘Management System’ and the relevant AMCs and GM published in October 2012, and is therefore specially adapted to European operators.
This leaflet provides tools and methods to improve risk management in training. Training for autorotation is used as a practical example to illustrate the method.
The US Helicopter Association International (HAI) produced a 30-minute video taking us through the 12 principles of SMS.
This leaflet focuses on Decision Making.
Decision Making is a major factor in aircraft accidents and incidents. Pilots intend to fly safely, but can make errors. EHST data show that the majority of fatal crashes are attributable to decision errors rather than to perceptual or execution errors.
While human error can not be eliminated, a thorough understanding of human factors principles can lead to appropriate strategies, means and approaches to prevent most errors, better detect and manage them, and mitigate their adverse consequences on safety.
Aviation forecasts are important, and pilots must always expect to meet the forecast conditions.
However, a forecast only describes what is most likely to happen, and pilots must consider other possible scenarios. This leaflet help pilots recognise the approach of worsening weather before they fly into it.