Cabin Crew

Medical fitness

Is Cabin Crew Member required to carry his/her medical certificate when on duty?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 Aircrew, Annex IV Part-MED and ED Decision 2011/015/R are available on EASA website. 

EU legislation does not contain any provisions on the carriage of a medical report when on duty. MED.C.030(a)(2) requires cabin crew members to provide the related information of their medical report or the copy of their medical report to the operator(s) employing their services. MED.C.030(b) requires the cabin crew medical report to indicate the date of the aero-medical assessment, whether the cabin crew member has been assessed fit or unfit, the date of the next aero-medical assessment and, if applicable, any limitation(s). Any other elements shall be subject to medical confidentiality in accordance with MED.A.015.

Cabin crew members are encouraged to carry their medical report or a copy while on duty to attest their medical fitness and limitation(s). The operator may also have procedures in place through which a cabin crew member’s medical report can be readily available upon request by a competent authority.

 

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Decrease of medical fitness and an ‘unfit’ medical report.

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 Aircrew, Annex IV Part-MED and ED Decision 2011/015/R are available on EASA website.

In case of a decrease in cabin crew member’s medical fitness, the cabin crew member shall, without undue delay, seek the advice of an aero-medical examiner or aero-medical centre or, where allowed by the Member State, an occupational health medical practitioner who will assess the medical fitness of the individual and decide if the cabin crew member is fit to resume his/her duties.

In case a cabin crew member has been assessed as ‘unfit’, the cabin crew member has the right of a secondary review. The cabin crew member shall not perform duties on an aircraft and shall not exercise the privileges of their cabin crew attestation until assessed as ‘fit’ again.

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Where can I find the EU medical requirements for Cabin Crew?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 Aircrew, Annex IV Part-MED and ED Decision 2011/015/R are available on EASA website.

Annex IV, Part-MED:

  • Subpart A, Section 1: general requirements, such as competent authority, scope, definitions, medical confidentiality, decrease in medical fitness and obligations of medical doctors conducting the aero-medical assessment of cabin crew;
  • Subpart C, all three Sections: requirements  for medical fitness of cabin crew;
  • Subpart D, Section 1: on Aero-medical examiners (AEM);
    • Section 3: on Occupational Health Medical Practitioners (OHMP), the requirements for the medical doctors who conduct aero-medical assessment of cabin crew. Please note that general medical practitioners (GMP) (Section 2) may not conduct aero-medical assessment of cabin crew.
  • ED Decision 2011/015/R contains the associated acceptable means of compliance (AMC) and guidance material (GM) which complement the above referenced rules. The AMC and GM specify the detailed medical conditions and the related medical examinations or investigations.
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Language proficiency

Is there any requirement on cabin crew member(s) communication with passengers in a certain language?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations, Annex III (Part-ORO) and Annex IV (Part-CAT) is available on EASA website.

There is no EU (or ICAO requirement) that cabin crew members must speak English. It is a general practice that cabin crew members do speak English to facilitate the communication in the aviation industry. The operator defines what languages its cabin crew members must be able to speak and at what level. 

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 specifies the following two requirements:

 

  • The operator shall ensure that all personnel are able to understand the language in which those parts of the Operations Manual, which pertain to their duties and responsibilities, are written (ORO.MLR.100(k)), and
  • The operator shall ensure that all crew members can communicate with each other in a common language (CAT.GEN.MPA.120).

    There is no EU (or ICAO) requirement for a specific language regarding cabin crew communication with passengers. It must be noted that it is difficult, if not impossible, to mandate the ‘required’ languages to be used on board with regard to communication with passengers, as this differs on daily basis from a flight to flight. For example, a German airline has a flight departing from Frankfurt to Madrid and it is assumed that the cabin crew members speak German since they work for a German operator. In addition, they may speak English if the operator selected this language as a criterion. The passenger profile may, however, be such that these languages are not ‘desired’ on this flight as passengers do not necessarily speak or understand any of the two languages (passengers may be e.g. Russian, Chinese, Iranian, Indian, Pakistani, Polish, Finnish, Croatian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Czech, Slovak, etc., or there is a large group of e.g. Japanese tourists).

    Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 mandates the operator to ensure that briefings and demonstrations related to safety are provided to passengers in a form that facilitates the application of the procedures applicable in case of an emergency and that passengers are provided with a safety briefing card on which picture type-instructions indicate the operation of emergency equipment and exits likely to be used by passengers. It is therefore the operator’s responsibility to choose the languages to be used on its flights, which may vary depending on the destination or a known passenger profile. It is also a practice of some operators to employ ‘language speakers’, i.e. cabin crew members speaking certain languages, who mainly operate their language-desired route(s).   

 

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Do cabin crew members have to be able to speak English to obtain their Cabin Crew Attestation?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations, Annex III (Part-ORO) and Annex IV (Part-CAT) is available on EASA website.

There is no EU (or ICAO requirement) that cabin crew members must speak English. It is a general practice that cabin crew members do speak English to facilitate the communication in the aviation industry. The operator defines what languages its cabin crew members must be able to speak and at what level. 

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 specifies the following two requirements:

 

  • The operator shall ensure that all personnel are able to understand the language in which those parts of the Operations Manual, which pertain to their duties and responsibilities, are written (ORO.MLR.100(k)), and
  • The operator shall ensure that all crew members can communicate with each other in a common language (CAT.GEN.MPA.120).

    There is no EU (or ICAO) requirement for a specific language regarding cabin crew communication with passengers. It must be noted that it is difficult, if not impossible, to mandate the ‘required’ languages to be used on board with regard to communication with passengers, as this differs on daily basis from a flight to flight. For example, a German airline has a flight departing from Frankfurt to Madrid and it is assumed that the cabin crew members speak German since they work for a German operator. In addition, they may speak English if the operator selected this language as a criterion. The passenger profile may, however, be such that these languages are not ‘desired’ on this flight as passengers do not necessarily speak or understand any of the two languages (passengers may be e.g. Russian, Chinese, Iranian, Indian, Pakistani, Polish, Finnish, Croatian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Czech, Slovak, etc., or there is a large group of e.g. Japanese tourists).

    Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 mandates the operator to ensure that briefings and demonstrations related to safety are provided to passengers in a form that facilitates the application of the procedures applicable in case of an emergency and that passengers are provided with a safety briefing card on which picture type-instructions indicate the operation of emergency equipment and exits likely to be used by passengers. It is therefore the operator’s responsibility to choose the languages to be used on its flights, which may vary depending on the destination or a known passenger profile. It is also a practice of some operators to employ ‘language speakers’, i.e. cabin crew members speaking certain languages, who mainly operate their language-desired route(s).   

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Practical ‘raft’ training

Why does Initial training under Part-CC require practical ‘raft’ training even if the operator’s aircraft is not equipped with slide rafts or life rafts?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 Aircrew as amended by Regulation (EU) No 290/2012 Part-CC available on EASA website.

Under EU-OPS, practical training on the use of rafts was required during Initial training. EU-OPS was a regulation directed, and applicable, to operators, therefore, an operator could provide raft training only when cabin crew member was to actually  operate on the operator’s aeroplane fitted with rafts or similar equipment. The training was conducted with that operator’s specific equipment/rafts.

The Initial training under Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011, Part CC is no longer ‘operator-related’, it is generic, therefore, the practical training on rafts or similar equipment and an actual practice in water are not specific to an operator’s equipment. 

CCA holders, when recruited by an operator, are expected to have the ability to perform all types of cabin crew duties, including ditching related duties in water. Part-CC Cabin Crew Attestation (CCA) is issued for a life time and is recognised across all EU. Unlike the EU OPS Attestation, the CCA is subject to validity to attest the competence of the individual cabin crew member. This is foreseen in the Basic Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 216/2008) taking into account the increasing mobility of personnel in the aviation industry and the need to further harmonise cabin crew qualifications.

An operator may be granted an approval to provide Part-CC Initial training and to issue the CCA (entitled to a mutual recognition across the EU). That operator no longer acts as an operator training only its own cabin crew for its specific operations. That operator acts as a training organisation training future cabin crew who, in their life time, may also operate with other operators and in other Member States. 

 

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Fire and smoke training

What are the requirements for cabin crew fire/smoke training?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 Aircrew as amended by Regulation (EU) No 290/2012 Part-CC; Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations and ED Decision 2014/017/R are available on EASA website.

Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 as amended by Part CC:

  • Annex V – Part-CC, CC.TRA.220 Initial training course and examination;
  • Appendix 1 to Part-CC Training programme of the Initial training course; 
  • Appendix 1 to Part-CC point 8.  Fire and smoke training.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012, Annex III, Part-ORO, Subpart-CC:
 
  • ORO.CC.125 Aircraft type specific and operator conversion training;
  • ORO.CC.140 Recurrent training;
  • ORO.CC.145 Refresher training.
ED Decision 2014/017/R contains Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Guidance Material (GM) to Annex III, Part-ORO which complement the above rules:
 
  • AMC1 ORO.CC.125(c) and AMC1 ORO.CC.125(d) Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training
  • AMC1 ORO.CC.140 Recurrent training
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Aircraft type training

Do I have to undergo Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training with every new operator I join if I am already qualified on that aircraft type?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations, Annex III (Part ORO) is available on EASA website.

Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training is not transferable from one operator to another as each operator may have its own customised aircraft cabin configurations incl. differences in safety and emergency equipment and standard operating and emergency procedures. Therefore, as required by ORO.CC.125, cabin crew members must complete Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training before being assigned to operate on the operator’s aircraft.

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Can a cabin crew training organisation (CCTO) provide Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations, Annex III (Part ORO) is available on EASA website.

Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training is a requirement directed to operators as specified in ORO.GEN.005, therefore the operator is responsible for this training. However, an operator may contract out some activities (e.g. training) as specified in ORO.GEN.205 complemented by AMC1 ORO.GEN.205 and GM1 ORO.GEN.205 and GM2 ORO.GEN.205. Therefore, CCTO can only provide Aircraft type specific training and operator conversion training if contracted by an operator to do so. The operator remains responsible for this training and for the competence of its cabin crew.

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Reduction of cabin crew during ground operations

Do the evacuation procedures with a reduced number of required cabin crew during ground operations or in unforeseen circumstances require prior endorsement?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations and the associated ED Decisions are available on EASA website.

The minimum number of cabin crew for an aircraft type, as determined by certification and approved by EASA, is stated on the Type Certification Data Sheet. The minimum number of cabin crew and the evacuation procedures form part of the Operations Manual. Reducing the minimum cabin crew is a deviation from the required minimum number and requires close monitoring. Changes to evacuation procedures with a reduced number of cabin crew are required to be acceptable to the Competent Authority.
The minimum number of cabin crew required in the passenger compartment may be reduced under conditions stated in ORO.CC.205 incl. AMC1 ORO.CC.205 (c)(1). Procedures must be established in the operations manual; it has to be ensured that an equivalent level of safety is achieved with the reduced number of cabin crew, in particular for evacuation of passengers.

 

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Instructor and Examiner being the same person – conflict of interest

Instructor who provided any topic of the Initial training should not act as Examiner to avoid conflict of interest. What about small operators / cabin crew training organisations employing only one ground Instructor, for example to cover dangerous goods or aero-medical aspects and first aid?

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 Aircrew and ED Decision 2012/006/R are available on EASA website.

ED Decision 2012/006/R, AMC1 ARA.CC.200(b)(2) clarifies that in such cases, the operator/training organisation establishes procedures to avoid situations that could lead to a conflict of interest, e.g. where an Instructor has to check/evaluate the proficiency of the trainee he/she has trained.
The qualifications of Instructors/Trainers, as well as of Examiners, are not defined at EU level, and remain to be defined by each Member State. Therefore, only the Competent Authorities may assess, when approving the training and checking programmes of the operator/training organisation, if the procedures can ensure that the objective of the rule is met. 
 
AMC1 ARA.CC.200(b)(2) Approval of organisations to provide cabin crew training or to issue cabin crew attestations 
PERSONNEL CONDUCTING EXAMINATIONS
For any element being examined for the issue of a cabin crew attestation as required in Part CC, the person who delivered the associated training or instruction should not also conduct the examination. However, if the organisation has appropriate procedures in place to avoid conflict of interest regarding the conduct of the examination and/or the results, this restriction need not apply.
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Minimum required cabin crew

Determination of the minimum required number of cabin crew on an aircraft

Reference: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations and the associated ED Decisions are available on EASA website.

NOTE: The purpose  of this FAQ is to explain how the operator and the Competent Authority (National Aviation Authority) conclude what is the minimum required number of cabin crew on the operator’s aircraft. This FAQ does not provide specific numbers for aircraft types. The minimum number of cabin crew may vary on each aircraft, depending on the certification history of that aircraft. To learn the minimum number of cabin crew on (your) specific aircraft, please, consult your Competent Authority. 

In summary:
1. An operator may apply ORO.CC.100(b)(2) when the aircraft’s airworthiness certification documentation for evacuation for the respective cabin configuration was issued before 3rd July 2017 and does not include the minimum number of cabin crew. 
2. An operator shall apply ORO.CC.100(b)(1), when the aircraft’s airworthiness certification documentation for evacuation for the respective cabin configuration  is issued after 3rd July 2017. As per CM-CS-008 Issue 01, the minimum number of cabin crew will be clearly specified. 
Therefore, the operator’s certification documentation related to the aircraft in question needs to be checked to see if the number of cabin crew has been established.

Background:
The development stage of the ‘AIR OPS’ regulation initially did not include the sub-paragraph (b)(2) in ORO.CC.100. This inclusion was done last minute in a way that resulted in the overall lack of clarity of ORO.CC.100(b). This led to some implementation difficulties for operators when the new operational rules (Reg. (EU) No 965/2012) were introduced. To help with the implementation, EASA published SIB 2014-29, which provided detailed information on how to comply with ORO.CC.100. The SIB was supported by the Members States, however resulted in a strong opposition by operators. As a result, discussions were held in 2015 between EASA and IATA/IACA on the application of ORO.CC.100(b). EASA acknowledged that the interpretation of ORO.CC.100(b) was unclear. As an outcome of these discussions, on 7th December 2015, EASA communicated to the stakeholders the ‘EASA conclusions following the consultation on the proposed Certification Memo and Safety Information Bulletin on minimum cabin crew for twin‐aisle aeroplanes’.    

In accordance with Regulation (EU) No 965/2012, paragraph ORO.CC.100, when establishing the number of cabin crew needed for each aircraft and flight, the operator has to consider all operational aspects as required by ORO.CC.100(a) and the associated AMC1 ORO.CC.100. Paragraph ORO.CC.100(b) then provides the methods for determining the minimum number of cabin crew.  
For each cabin configuration used by the operator, the operational rule relies on the airworthiness certification process (initial type certification or major modification or STC) to establish the minimum number of cabin crew required for a safe evacuation. This number constitutes the number ‘established’ in the context of ORO.CC.100(b)(1). Historically, not all aircraft currently still in operation, had the minimum number of cabin crew clearly defined in their certification documentation. For such cases, the minimum number of cabin crew shall be calculated by applying the paragraph ORO.CC.100(b)(2).
On 3rd July 2017, EASA published the Certification Memo (CM) EASA-CM-CS-008 Issue 01. This document clarifies to aircraft manufacturers and design organisations that the number of cabin crew assumed in their evacuation certification activity must be clearly stated in their documentation. Following the publication of the CM, Type Certification Data Sheets (TCDSs) have been amended and now include the minimum number of cabin crew already established by the aircraft manufacturers. In some cases the applicable minimum number of cabin crew for a particular aircraft may be different to that shown in the TCDS, for instance in case of specific cabin layouts if a lower number of cabin crew was approved by EASA. 

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Working for multiple operators

I work for Operator A and have short/long-term contract(s) with Operator B. What training do I require when I return back to Operator A after the completion of my short/long-term contract with Operator B?

Ref.: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 Air Operations, Annex III (Part-ORO) is available on EASA website.

When joining Operator B, the cabin crew member undergoes the Aircraft type specific and operator conversion training & Familiarisation.

When returning to Operator A (after completing the short/long-term contract with Operator B) the options are:

  • No training is required, provided the cabin crew member’s recency is within the validity of the Recurrent training and the cabin crew member has operated on Operator A aircraft type during the last 6 months. 
  • Recurrent training if the validity is about to expire.
  • Refresher training, provided the cabin crew member has not operated on Operator A aircraft type for more than 6 months.
  • Refresher training, if Operator A considers this training to be necessary due to complex equipment or procedures for the cabin crew member who has been absent from flying duties for less than 6 months.
  • Aircraft type specific and operator conversion training & Familiarisation if the validity of the Recurrent training has expired.
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