CRM Training Implementation

The purpose of this document is to share recommended practices and information on Crew Resource Management (CRM) and promote the development of CRM training for both Air Operators having CRM training responsibilities, and Competent Authorities having oversight responsibilities.

The EASA Safety Risk Management process has identified CRM as one of the most important safety factor in the domain of Commercial Air Transport (CAT) Aeroplane operations.

Under normal conditions, crew rely on highly automated systems. Complacency and overreliance on automation are well known threats and monitoring and communication have become core competences for safety.

When confronted to complex failure conditions or adverse unforeseen situations, automated systems might not be able to deliver their intended function or might revert to modes that can confuse pilots. Under such challenging circumstances, the psychological and cognitive reactions to an expected event play a critical role in maintaining control on the situation and preventing aircraft upsets. Pilot competences in non-technical skills are paramount to a safe system and are developed with CRM training.

On the subject of surprise and startle effect, see also the EASA study Startle Effect Management (EASA_REP_RESEA_2015_3).

Contact: Flight.Standards [at]