easa/eea logoThe following recommendations from EASA and EEA build on the information and analysis within the European Aviation Environmental Report (EAER) 2022. They aim to improve the level of environmental protection in the area of civil aviation and assist the European Union in ensuring that the aviation sector contributes to the objectives of the European Green Deal8 through effective collaboration, commitment and verification.

8The European Green Deal encompasses in particular the European Climate Law, the Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy and the Zero Pollution Action Plan.

  • To establish long-term noise and emissions reduction pathways and aspirational goals for European aviation in terms of in-sector (e.g. technology, operations, fuels) and out-of-sector (e.g. market-based) mitigation measures.
    — Support the European Green Deal objectives:
    • At least 55% reduction in economy-wide net greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, compared to 1990 levels, and a goal of climate neutrality by 2050.
    • 90% reduction in transport-related greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels.
    • 30% reduction in the share of people chronically disturbed by transport noise by 2030 compared to 2017.
    • Improvement in air quality to achieve a 55% reduc- tion in the number of premature deaths caused by air pollution by 2030 compared to 2005, including near airports by tackling the emissions of pollutants from aeroplanes and airport operations.
  • — Strengthen the aviation sector’s commitment in planning the necessary investments for the transition to a sustainable and climate-neutral economy.
  • To enhance information underpinning the EAER and ensure a robust EU monitoring system on the environmental performance of the European aviation sector in support of the implementation of EU legislation and policy objectives, and to help verify the achievement of these objectives.
    — Enhance datasets and analytical capabilities to provide an objective, comprehensive, transparent and accurate oversight of the historic and forecasted progress towards goals.


  • To enhance implementation of the Single European Sky (SES) by the Network Manager, Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs), airports and other service providers9, with a view to enable and incentivise airspace users to fly ‘green’ flight trajectories.
    — Promote cross-border solutions and minimise network restrictions.
  • To further explore economic incentives that encourage greater efficiency and improved environmental performance from airspace users, such as common unit rates and the modulation of Air Navigation Service charges.
  • To develop environmental metrics that better reflect the environmental performance of ANSPs subject to the SES Performance Scheme, as well as other relevant stakeholders.

9For example, Providers of Data Services (PDS), European Satellite Service Providers (ESSP), European aeronautical information services database (EAD).

  • To explore the feasibility of putting in place a long-term coherent support structure to ensure the successful introduction of new SAF production pathways in Europe with high potential for emission reductions.
    — Establish an EU Clearing House to support SAF producers through the fuel approval process and investigate an EU Fuel Standard to ensure robust certification processes that support environmental protection objectives.
    — Advance approvals of higher SAF blends up to 100%, based on a diverse mix of feedstocks. Different types of SAF may support different aviation market segments in the medium term.
  • To consider the use of the EU ETS Innovation Fund to support higher-risk SAF production investments, and other mechanisms that incentivise the uptake of SAF.

  • To respond to the IPCC 6th Assessment Report which states that aviation sector is a key vulnerable economic sector that is only in the early stage of adaptation to climate change.
    — Coordinate and enhance understanding on the hazards and risks to the aviation sector from climate impacts and extreme weather events.
    — Integrate climate adaptation and resilience considerations into planning processes, future investments and criteria applicable to the design of products and critical infrastructure.
  • To coordinate and perform further research on the overall climate impact of aviation, including non-CO2 emissions and contrail-cirrus cloud formation, that reduces scientific uncertainties and informs cost-effective actions.
    — Identify and apply ‘win-win’ solutions that reduce both CO2 and non-CO2 emissions and, where necessary, assess trade-offs from mitigation measures using a robust assessment methodology to ensure an overall reduction in climate and air quality impacts from aviation (e.g. changes to fuel specifications such as lower aromatics and/ or sulphur, ‘green’ flight trajectories and use of Sustainable Aviation Fuels).
  • To accelerate the development and deployment of technological and ATM solutions, in collaboration with key partners, to improve the environmental performance of the European and global fleet.
  • To assess the environmental impact from new market segments (e.g. drones, urban air mobility, supersonic), and develop certification standards that ensure a high and uniform level of environmental protection which facilitates their integration into the aviation system.
  • To develop, based on latest data, more stringent regulatory limits for existing ICAO environmental certification standards that are technologically feasible, economically reasonable and environmentally beneficial.
  • To keep Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) transition plans up-to-date and fully implement them in line with the applicability dates of EU Regulation 2018/1048 on airspace usage requirements and operating procedures.
    — Assess and optimise the environmental benefits (noise and emissions) from PBN implementation when preparing transition plans.
  • To incentivise and enable the development and implementation of necessary green airport infrastructure and operations (e.g. standards on supply of SAF / hydrogen / electrification).
  • To promote Airport Noise Action Plans that mitigate adverse effects from aircraft noise on citizens’ health by moving towards aircraft noise levels recommended by the World Health Organisation for the European Region.
  • To ensure the environmental credibility of voluntary and compliance-based carbon credits used in offsetting or reducing emissions within the aviation sector.
  • To continue the progressive inclusion of the costs from aviation environmental and climate impacts within market prices.
  • To encourage the use of the EU Taxonomy system to incentivise sustainable investment within the aviation sector.