FCL.900 Instructor certificates

Regulation (EU) 2019/1747

(a) General. A person shall only carry out:

(1) flight instruction in aircraft when he/she holds:

(i) a pilot licence issued or accepted in accordance with this Regulation;

(ii) an instructor certificate appropriate to the instruction given, issued in accordance with this Subpart;

(2) synthetic flight instruction or MCC instruction when he/she holds an instructor certificate appropriate to the instruction given, issued in accordance with this Subpart.

(b) Special conditions:

(1) The competent authority may issue a specific certificate granting privileges for flight instruction when compliance with the requirements established in this Subpart is not possible in the case of the introduction of:

(i)  new aircraft in the Member States or in an operator's fleet; or

(ii)  new training courses in this Annex (Part-FCL).

 Such a certificate shall be limited to the training flights necessary for the introduction of the new type of aircraft or the new training course and its validity shall not, in any case, exceed 1 year.;

(2) Holders of a certificate issued in accordance with (b)(1) who wish to apply for the issue of an instructor certificate shall comply with the prerequisites and revalidation requirements established for that category of instructor. Notwithstanding FCL.905.TRI(b), a TRI certificate issued in accordance with this (sub)paragraph will include the privilege to instruct for the issue of a TRI or SFI certificate for the relevant type.

(c) Instruction provided outside the territory of the Member States:

(1) By way of derogation from point (a), in the case of flight instruction provided during a training course approved in accordance with this Annex outside the territory for which Member States are responsible under the Chicago Convention, the competent authority shall issue an instructor certificate to applicants who:

(i) holds a pilot licence that meets all of the following criteria:

(A)  it complies with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention;

(B) in any case, it is at least a CPL in the relevant aircraft category with a relevant  rating or certificate;

(ii) complies with the requirements established in this Subpart for the issue of the relevant instructor certificate;

(iii) demonstrates to the competent authority an adequate level of knowledge of European aviation safety rules to be able to exercise instructional privileges in accordance with this Annex.

(2) The certificate shall be limited to providing flight instruction during a training course approved in accordance with this Annex which meets all of the following conditions:

(i) it is provided outside the territory for which Member States are responsible under the Chicago Convention;

(ii) it is provided to student pilots who have sufficient knowledge of the language in which flight instruction is provided.

GM1 FCL.900 Instructor certificates

ED Decision 2011/016/R

GENERAL

(a) Nine instructor categories are recognised:

(1) FI certificate: aeroplane (FI(A)), helicopter (FI(H)), airship (FI(As)), sailplane (FI(S)) and balloon (FI(B));

(2) TRI certificate: aeroplane (TRI(A)), helicopter (TRI(H)), powered-lift aircraft (TRI(PL));

(3) CRI certificate: aeroplane (CRI(A));

(4) IRI certificate: aeroplane (IRI(A)), helicopter (IRI(H)) and airship (IRI(As));

(5) SFI certificate: aeroplane (SFI(A)), helicopter (SFI(H)) and poweredlift aircraft (SFI(PL));

(6) MCCI certificate: aeroplanes (MCCI(A)), helicopters (MCCI(H)), powered-lift aircraft(MCCI(PL)) and airships (MCCI(As));

(7) STI certificate: aeroplane (STI(A)) and helicopter (STI(H));

(8) MI certificate: (MI);

(9) FTI certificate: (FTI).

(b) For categories (1) to (4) and for (8) and (9) the applicant needs to hold a pilot licence. For categories (5) to (7) no licence is needed, only an instructor certificate.

(c) A person may hold more than one instructor certificate.

SPECIAL CONDITIONS

(a) When new aircraft are introduced, requirements such as to hold a licence and rating equivalent to the one for which instruction is being given, or to have adequate flight experience, may not be possible to comply with. In this case, to allow for the first instruction courses to be given to applicants for licences or ratings for these aircraft, competent authorities need the possibility to issue a specific certificate that does not have to comply with the requirements established in this Subpart.

(b) The competent authority should only give these certificates to holders of other instruction qualifications. As far as possible, preference should be given to persons with at least 100 hours of experience in similar types or classes of aircraft.

(c) When the new aircraft type introduced in an operator’s fleet already existed in a Member State, the competent authority should only give the specific certificate to an applicant that is qualified as PIC on that aircraft.

(d) The certificate should ideally be limited in validity to the time needed to qualify the first instructors for the new aircraft in accordance with this Subpart, but in any case it should not exceed the 1 year established in the rule.

GM1 FCL.900(c); FCL.1000(c) Instruction or examination outside the territory of the Member States

ED Decision 2020/005/R

Instruction or examination outside the territory of the Member States is possible within the scope of:

      ATOs that have their principal place of business outside the territory of the Member States; or

      ATOs that have their principal place of business in a Member State and one or more additional training sites outside the territory of the Member States.

INSTRUCTION OUTSIDE THE TERRITORY OF THE MEMBER STATES

The competent authority may issue an unrestricted flight instructor (FI) certificate (FI(A) for aeroplanes or FI(H) for helicopters) to an applicant that has at least 100 hours of experience in flight instruction and 25 hours in solo-flight supervision.

FCL.915 General prerequisites and requirements for instructors

Regulation (EU) 2020/359

(a) General.

Applicants for the issue of an instructor certificate shall be at least 18 years of age.

(b) Additional requirements for instructors providing flight instruction in aircraft.

Applicants for the issue of or holders of an instructor certificate with privileges to conduct flight instruction in an aircraft shall:

(1)  for licence training, hold at least the licence or, in the case of point FCL.900(c), the equivalent licence, for which flight instruction is to be given;

(2)  for a rating training, hold the relevant rating or, in the case of point FCL.900(c), the equivalent rating, for which flight instruction is to be given;

(3)  except in the case of flight test instructors (FTIs), have:

(i)  completed at least 15 hours of flight time as pilots of the class or type of aircraft on which flight instruction is to be given, of which a maximum of 7 hours may be in an FSTD representing the class or type of aircraft, if applicable; or

(ii)  passed an assessment of competence for the relevant category of instructor on that class or type of aircraft; and

(4)  be entitled to act as PIC in the aircraft during such flight instruction.

(c) Credit towards further instructor certificates and for the purpose of revalidation:

(1) Full credit towards the teaching and learning skills may be granted to:

(i) holders of an instructor certificate who apply for further instructor certificates; and

(ii) applicants for an instructor certificate who already hold an instructor certificate issued in accordance with Annex III (Part-BFCL) to Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/395 or with Annex III (Part-SFCL) to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1976.

(2) Hours flown as an examiner during skill tests or proficiency checks shall be credited in full towards revalidation requirements for all instructor certificates held.

(d)  Credit for extension to further types shall take into account the relevant elements as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 (OSD).

(e)  Additional requirements for instructing in a training course in accordance with FCL.745.A:

(1)  In addition to (b), before acting as instructors for a training course according to FCL.745.A, holders of an instructor certificate shall:

(i)  have at least 500 hours of flight time as pilots of aeroplanes, including 200 hours of flight instruction;

(ii)  after complying with the experience requirements in point (e)(1)(i), have completed a UPRT instructor training course at an ATO, during which the competence of applicants shall have been assessed continuously; and

(iii)  upon completion of the course, have been issued with a certificate of course completion by the ATO, whose Head of Training (HT) shall have entered the privileges specified in point (e)(1) in the logbook of the applicants.

(2)  The privileges referred to in point (e)(1) shall only be exercised if instructors have, during the last year, received refresher training at an ATO during which the competence required to instruct on a course in accordance with point FCL.745.A is assessed to the satisfaction of the HT.

(3)  Instructors holding the privileges specified in point (e)(1) may act as instructors for a course as specified in point (e)(1)(ii), provided that they:

(i)  have 25 hours of flight instruction experience during training according to FCL.745.A;

(ii)  have completed an assessment of competence for this privilege; and

(iii)  comply with the recency requirements in point (e)(2).

(4)  These privileges shall be entered in the logbook of the instructors and signed by the examiner.

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTRUCTING IN A TRAINING COURSE IN ACCORDANCE WITH FCL.745.A — GENERAL

(a) The objective of the course required by point FCL.915(e)(1) is to train instructors to deliver training on the advanced UPRT course according to point FCL.745.A using the train-to-proficiency concept.

(b)  Training should be both theoretical and practical. Practical elements should include the development of specific instructor skills, particularly in the area of teaching upset recovery techniques and strategies, whilst exploring the associated physiological and psychological aspects.

(c)  Within 6 months preceding the start of the course, the instructor should have completed a pre-course assessment with an instructor holding the privilege in accordance with FCL.915(e)(1) to assess their ability to undertake the course.

(d)  The training course should comprise:

(1)  theoretical knowledge instruction on the theoretical knowledge elements presented in the advanced UPRT course and the additional elements required for an instructor to deliver effective training;

(2)  flight instruction on the exercises used in the advanced UPRT course; and

(3)  flight instruction on recovery from upsets that could result from students mis-handling the aircraft during the advanced UPRT course including spin recovery.

(e)  The content of the theoretical knowledge and flight instruction should be tailored to the competence of the applicant as demonstrated during both pre-course and continuous assessment.

(f)  Successful completion of the course requires that the instructor:

(1)  demonstrates the resilience to be able to recover from any feasible upset in the aircraft to be used for training;

(2)  demonstrates the ability to provide instruction to achieve the objectives of the advanced UPRT course to a wide range of trainees; and

(3)  manages the physiological and psychological well-being of students during training.

(g)  The instructor should be issued with a certificate following successful completion of the course.

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTRUCTING IN A TRAINING COURSE IN ACCORDANCE WITH FCL.745.A – SYLLABUS

The following tables contain theoretical knowledge (Table 1) and practical training exercises (Table 2) that should be taught in the context of the advanced UPRT course as per point FCL.745.A.

TABLE 1: THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

1.

Completion of a flight risk assessment

2.

Resilience-building strategies, managing startle and surprise

3

The limitations and type-specific characteristics of the aeroplane used for training

4

The importance of adhering to the scenarios that have been validated by the training programme developer

5.

Instructor techniques to induce and manage startle and surprise

6.

Upset recognition and recovery strategies

7.

Disorientation

8.

Distraction

9.

Immediate recognition of student pilot errors

10.

Intervention strategies

11.

Delivery of the theoretical knowledge instruction of the advanced UPRT course

TABLE 2: PRACTICAL TRAINING EXERCISES

SECTION 1 — PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATION

1.1

Correct completion of a flight risk assessment (such as weather, terrain, traffic density, student’s experience level and capabilities)

1.2

Safety briefing

SECTION 2 — FLIGHT

2.1

Selection of suitable airspace for the conduct of recovery exercises

2.2

Accurate execution of all of the manoeuvres required for the advanced UPRT course

2.3.

Recovery from upsets that could result from the student or instructor mishandling the aeroplane including:

 timely and appropriate intervention;

 accelerated stall;

 secondary stall;

 incipient spin;

 fully developed spin; and

 Spiral dive.

2.4

Delivery of all of the training exercises in the advanced UPRT course

2.5

Anticipating and immediately recognising incorrect student inputs which might exceed aeroplane limitations and acting swiftly and appropriately to maintain the necessary margins of safety

2.6

Exercises to surprise the student

2.7

Adapt the training programme to take account of the physiological and psychological state of the student

2.8

Ensure the safety of the operation during training by maintaining awareness of the operating environment

2.9

Assess the competence of the student

SECTION 3 — POST-FLIGHT

3.1

Provide effective instructor feedback to the student and plan subsequent training details

3.2

Avoid negative transfer of training

TRAINING ON SPIN AVOIDANCE AND SPIN RECOVERY

(a)  While the purpose of advanced UPRT course is to expose students to psychological and physiological effects, students’ responses and actions on controls may take any conceivable variations, including some which can initiate spin entry or, most importantly, can highly aggravate the upset or loss-of-control they are supposed to recover from.

(b)  The advanced UPRT course in accordance with point FCL.745.A is not aerobatic training and only requires training for the incipient spin as well as uncoordinated side slipped stalls which are prone to initiating spins. Full spin training or the development of spin recovery proficiency is reserved for the training course in accordance with point FCL.915(e).

(c)  Even though most flights will go exactly as planned without an unanticipated departure from controlled flight, the instructor is responsible for the safety of flight despite anomalies or unexpected student inputs.

(d)  Even in a case where an aeroplane is not certified for intentional flat or aggravated or inverted spins, it does not mean that mishandled student recovery avoids placing the aeroplane in such a situation. Some student inputs will take the aeroplane uncontrolled far beyond the normal scope of the aerobatic rating as defined in point FCL.800. Those situations might also have the potential to draw the aeroplane outside its certified flight envelope (e.g. overloads, snap-roll departures above limit speed, spin or inverted spin when not certified for, flat spins, etc.). Most importantly, those resulting situations could startle the instructor.

(e)  For the reasons specified in point (d), instructors should:

(1)  be trained to the extent of proficiency on the specific type of aircraft they use to deliver the course;

(2)  have academic understanding of the factors assisting or deterring spin recoveries (upright and inverted spins), altitude requirements for safe recovery margins, and other operational considerations;

(3)  demonstrate that they have the ability to early recognise abnormal situations, timely take action, and safely recover from all the conditions that they may encounter in the delivery of training; and

(4)  demonstrate their ability to recover from all spin types, not only from spins entered intentionally, but from spins of unannounced direction of autorotation, and from all potential spin variations, including:

(i)  normal (non-aggravated) spins;

(ii)  flat spins;

(iii)  accelerated spins; and

(iv)  transition spins (incorrect recovery resulting in reversal of rotation).

(f) In the context of points (d) and (e), it is recommended that candidates either hold an aerobatic rating for aeroplanes or have equivalent experience.

CONTENT OF THE REFRESHER TRAINING FOR UPRT INSTRUCTIONAL PRIVILEGES

(a)  The objective of the refresher training is for the instructor to maintain or to re-obtain, as applicable, the level of competence required for instructing on a training course as per point FCL.745.A.

(b)  The content of the refresher training should:

(1)  consist of elements from the initial UPRT instructor training course as per point FCL.915(e)(1)(ii); and

(2)  be determined by the ATO on a case-by-case basis, considering the needs of the individual instructor and taking into account the following factors:

(i) the experience of the instructor;

(ii) the amount of time elapsed since the instructor provided instruction on a training course as per point FCL.745.A for the last time; and

(iii) the performance of the instructor during a simulated UPRT training session comprising exercises from the advanced UPRT course as per point FCL.745.A. During this simulated training session, another instructor qualified in accordance with point FCL.915(e) should play the role of the student on the advanced UPRT course.

(c) Taking into account the factors listed in (b)(2) above, the ATO may also count the simulated training session as per point (b)(2)(iii) as refresher training without the need for further refresher training sessions, provided that the instructor demonstrates that he or she already possesses the required level of competence.

(d) The completion of the refresher training should be entered in the logbook of the instructor and should be signed by the head of training of the ATO.

FCL.920 Instructor competencies and assessment

Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

All instructors shall be trained to achieve the following competences:

      Prepare resources,

      Create a climate conducive to learning,

      Present knowledge,

      Integrate Threat and Error Management (TEM) and crew resource management,

      Manage time to achieve training objectives,

      Facilitate learning,

      Assess trainee performance,

      Monitor and review progress,

      Evaluate training sessions,

      Report outcome.

AMC1 FCL.920 Instructor competencies and assessment

ED Decision 2019/005/R

(a) Training should be both theoretical and practical. Practical elements should include the development of specific instructor skills, particularly in the area of teaching and assessing threat and error management and CRM.

(b) The training and assessment of instructors should be made against the following performance standards:

Competence

Performance

Knowledge 

Prepare resources

(a) ensures adequate facilities;

(b) prepares briefing material;

(c) manages available tools;

(d) plans training within the training envelope of the training platform, as determined by the ATO (Note: See GM1 ORA.ATO.125 point (f)).

(a) understand objectives;

(b) available tools;

(c) competency-based training methods;

(d) understands the training envelope of the training platform, as determined by the ATO (Note: See GM1 ORA.ATO.125 point (f)) and avoids training beyond the boundaries of this envelope.

Create a climate conducive to learning

(a) establishes credentials, role models appropriate behaviour;

(b) clarifies roles;

(c) states objectives;

(d) ascertains and supports student pilot’s needs.

(a) barriers to learning;

(b) learning styles.

Present knowledge

(a) communicates clearly;

(b) creates and sustains realism;

(c) looks for training opportunities.

teaching methods

Integrate TEM and CRM

(a) makes TEM and CRM links with technical training;

(b) for aeroplanes: makes upset prevention links with technical training.

(a) TEM and CRM;

(b) Causes and countermeasures against undesired aircraft states

Manage time to achieve training objectives

Allocates the appropriate time to achieve competency objective.

syllabus time allocation

Facilitate learning 

(a) encourages trainee participation;

(b) shows motivating, patient, confident and assertive manner;

(c) conducts one-to-one coaching;

(d) encourages mutual support.

(a) facilitation;

(b) how to give constructive feedback;

(c) how to encourage trainees to ask questions and seek advice.

Assesses trainee performance

(a) assesses and encourages trainee self-assessment of performance against competency standards;

(b) makes assessment decision and provides clear feedback;

(c) observes CRM behaviour.

(a) observation techniques;

(b) methods for recording observations.

Monitor and review progress

(a) compares individual outcomes to defined objectives;

(b) identifies individual differences in learning rates;

(c) applies appropriate corrective action.

(a) learning styles;

(b) strategies for training adaptation to meet individual needs.

Evaluate training sessions

(a) elicits feedback from student pilots;

(b) tracks training session processes against competence criteria;

(c) keeps appropriate records.

(a) competency unit and associated elements;

(b) performance criteria.

Report outcome

Reports accurately using only observed actions and events.

(a) phase training objectives;

(b) individual versus systemic weaknesses.

FCL.925 Additional requirements for instructors for the MPL

Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

(a) Instructors conducting training for the MPL shall:

(1) have successfully completed an MPL instructor training course at an ATO; and

(2) additionally, for the basic, intermediate and advanced phases of the MPL integrated training course:

(i) be experienced in multi-pilot operations; and

(ii) have completed initial crew resource management training with a commercial air transport operator approved in accordance with the applicable air operations requirements.

(b) MPL instructors training course

(1) The MPL instructor training course shall comprise at least 14 hours of training.

Upon completion of the training course, the applicant shall undertake an assessment of instructor competencies and of knowledge of the competency-based approach to training.

(2) The assessment shall consist of a practical demonstration of flight instruction in the appropriate phase of the MPL training course. This assessment shall be conducted by an examiner qualified in accordance with Subpart K.

(3) Upon successful completion of the MPL training course, the ATO shall issue an MPL instructor qualification certificate to the applicant.

(c) In order to maintain the privileges, the instructor shall have, within the preceding 12 months, conducted within an MPL training course:

(1) 1 simulator session of at least 3 hours; or

(2) 1 air exercise of at least 1 hour comprising at least 2 take-offs and landings.

(d) If the instructor has not fulfilled the requirements of (c), before exercising the privileges to conduct flight instruction for the MPL he/she shall:

(1) receive refresher training at an ATO to reach the level of competence necessary to pass the assessment of instructor competencies; and

(2) pass the assessment of instructor competencies as set out in (b)(2).

MPL INSTRUCTOR COURSE

(a) The objectives of the MPL instructors training course are to train applicants to deliver training in accordance with the features of a competency-based approach to training and assessment.

(b) Training should be both theoretical and practical. Practical elements should include the development of specific instructor skills, particularly in the area of teaching and assessing threat and error management and CRM in the multicrew environment.

(c) The course is intended to adapt instructors to conduct competency-based MPL training. It should cover the items specified below:

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

(d) Integration of operators and organisations providing MPL training: 

(1) reasons for development of the MPL;

(2) MPL training course objective;

(3) adoption of harmonised training and procedures;

(4) feedback process.

(e) The philosophy of a competency-based approach to training: principles of competency-based training.

(f) Regulatory framework, instructor qualifications and competencies: 

(1) source documentation; 

(2) instructor qualifications; 

(3) syllabus structure.

(g) Introduction to Instructional systems design methodologies (see ICAO PANSTRG Doc): 

(1) analysis;

(2) design and production;

(3) evaluation and revision.

(h) Introduction to the MPL training scheme: 

(1) training phases and content;

(2) training media;

(3) competency units, elements and performance criteria.

(i) Introduction to human performance limitations, including the principles of threat and error management and appropriate countermeasures developed in CRM: 

(1) definitions;

(2) appropriate behaviours categories; 

(3) assessment system.

(j) Application of the principles of threat and error management and CRM principles to training:

(1) application and practical uses;

(2) assessment methods;

(3) individual corrective actions;

(4) debriefing techniques.

(k) The purpose and conduct of assessments and evaluations: 

(1) basis for continuous assessment against a defined competency standard;

(2) individual assessment;

(3) collection and analysis of data;

(4) training system evaluation. 

PRACTICAL TRAINING

(l) Practical training may be conducted by interactive group classroom modules, or by the use of training devices. The objective is to enable instructors to:

(1) identify behaviours based on observable actions in the following areas:

(i) communications;

(ii) team working;

(iii) situation awareness;

(iv) workload management;

(v) problem solving and decision making.

(2) analyse the root causes of undesirable behaviours; 

(3) debrief students using appropriate techniques, in particular:

(i) use of facilitative techniques;

(ii) encouragement of student self-analysis.

(4) agree corrective actions with the students;

(5) determine achievement of the required competency. 

RENEWAL OF PRIVILEGES: REFRESHER TRAINING

(a) Paragraph (d) of FCL.925 determines that if the applicant has not complied with the requirements to maintain his/her privileges to conduct competency-based approach training, he or she shall receive refresher training at an ATO to reach the level of competence necessary to pass the assessment of instructor competencies. The amount of refresher training needed should be determined on a case-by-case basis by the ATO, taking into account the following factors:

(1) the experience of the applicant;

(2) the amount of time lapsed since the last time the applicant has conducted training in an MPL course. The amount of training needed to reach the desired level of competence should increase with the time lapsed. In some cases, after evaluating the instructor, and when the time lapsed is very limited, the ATO may even determine that no further refresher training is necessary.

(b) Once the ATO has determined the needs of the applicant, it should develop an individual training programme, which should be based on the MPL instructor course and focus on the aspects where the applicant has shown the greatest needs.

MPL INSTRUCTORS

The following table summarises the instructor qualifications for each phase of MPL integrated training course:

Phase of training 

Qualification

Line flying under supervision according to operational requirements

Line training captain or TRI(A)

Phase 4: Advanced base training

TRI(A)

Phase 4: Advanced skill test

TRE(A)

Phase 4: Advanced

SFI(A) or TRI(A)

Phase 3: Intermediate

SFI(A) or TRI(A)

Phase 2: Basic

(a)  FI(A) or IRI(A) and IR(A)/ME/MCC and 1500 hours multi-crew environment and IR(A) instructional privileges, or

(b)  FI(A) and MCCI(A), or

(c)  FI(A) and SFI(A), or

(d)  FI(A) and TRI(A)

 

Phase 1: Core flying skills

FI(A) and 500 hours, including 200 hours of instruction

 

Instructor qualifications and privileges should be in accordance with the training items within the phase.

 

STI for appropriate exercises conducted in an FNPT or BITD.

FCL.930 Training course

Regulation (EU) 2018/1119

(a) An applicant for an instructor certificate shall have completed a course of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction at an ATO. An applicant for an instructor certificate for sailplanes or balloons may have completed a course of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction at a DTO.

(b) In addition to the specific elements set out in this Annex (Part-FCL) for each category of instructor, the training course shall contain the elements required in point FCL.920.

FCL.935 Assessment of competence

Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

(a) Except for the multi-crew cooperation instructor (MCCI), the synthetic training instructor (STI), the mountain rating instructor (MI) and the flight test instructor (FTI), an applicant for an instructor certificate shall pass an assessment of competence in the appropriate aircraft category to demonstrate to an examiner qualified in accordance with Subpart K the ability to instruct a student pilot to the level required for the issue of the relevant licence, rating or certificate.

(b) This assessment shall include:

(1) the demonstration of the competencies described in FCL.920, during pre-flight, post-flight and theoretical knowledge instruction;

(2) oral theoretical examinations on the ground, pre-flight and post-flight briefings and in-flight demonstrations in the appropriate aircraft class, type or FSTD;

(3) exercises adequate to evaluate the instructor’s competencies.

(c) The assessment shall be performed on the same class or type of aircraft or FSTD used for the flight instruction.

(d) When an assessment of competence is required for revalidation of an instructor certificate, an applicant who fails to achieve a pass in the assessment before the expiry date of an instructor certificate shall not exercise the privileges of that certificate until the assessment has successfully been completed.

AMC1 FCL.935 Assessment of competence

ED Decision 2020/005/R

GENERAL

(a) The format and application form for the assessment of competence are determined by the competent authority.

(b) When an aircraft is used for the assessment, it should meet the requirements for training aircraft.

(c) If an aircraft is used for the test or check, the examiner acts as the PIC, except in circumstances agreed upon by the examiner when another instructor is designated as PIC for the flight.

(d) During the assessment of competence the applicant occupies the seat normally occupied by the instructor (instructors seat if in an FSTD, or pilot seat if in an aircraft), except in the case of balloons. The examiner, another instructor or, for MPA in an FFS, a real crew member under instruction, functions as the ‘student’. The applicant is required to explain the relevant exercises and to demonstrate their conduct to the ‘student’, where appropriate. Thereafter, the ‘student’ executes the same manoeuvres (if the ‘student’ is the examiner or another instructor, this can include typical mistakes of inexperienced students). The applicant is expected to correct mistakes orally or, if necessary, by intervening physically.

(e) The assessment of competence should also include additional demonstration exercises, as decided by the examiner and agreed upon with the applicant before the assessment. These additional exercises should be related to the training requirements for the applicable instructor certificate.

(f) All relevant exercises should be completed within a period of 6 months. However, all exercises should, where possible, be completed on the same day. In principle, failure in any exercise requires a retest covering all exercises, with the exception of those that may be retaken separately. The examiner may terminate the assessment at any stage if they consider that a retest is required.

AMC2 FCL.935 Assessment of competence

ED Decision 2011/016/R

MCCI, STI AND MI

In the case of the MCCI, STI and MI, the instructor competencies are assessed continuously during the training course.

AMC3 FCL.935 Assessment of competence

ED Decision 2011/016/R

CONTENT OF THE ASSESSMENT FOR THE FI

(a) In the case of the FI, the content of the assessment of competence should be the following:

SECTION 1 THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE ORAL

1.1

Air law

1.2

Aircraft general knowledge

1.3

Flight performance and planning

1.4

Human performance and limitations

1.5

Meteorology

1.6

Navigation

1.7

Operational procedures

1.8

Principles of flight

1.9

Training administration

Sections 2 and 3 selected main exercises:

SECTION 2 PRE-FLIGHT BRIEFING

2.1

Visual presentation

2.3

Technical accuracy

2.4

Clarity of explanation

2.5

Clarity of speech

2.6

Instructional technique

2.7

Use of models and aids

2.8

Student participation

SECTION 3 FLIGHT

3.1

Arrangement of demo

3.2

Synchronisation of speech with demo

3.3

Correction of faults

3.4

Aircraft handling

3.5

Instructional technique

3.6

General airmanship and safety

3.7

Positioning and use of airspace

SECTION 4 ME EXERCISES

4.1

Actions following an engine failure shortly after take-off14 These exercises are to be demonstrated at the assessment of competence for FI for ME aircraft.

4.2

SE approach and go-around1

4.3

SE approach and landing1

SECTION 5 POST-FLIGHT DE-BRIEFING

5.1

Visual presentation

5.2

Technical accuracy

5.3

Clarity of explanation

5.4

Clarity of speech

5.5

Instructional technique

5.6

Use of models and aids

5.7

Student participation

(b) Section 1, the oral theoretical knowledge examination part of the assessment of competence, is for all FI and is subdivided into two parts:

(1) The applicant is required to give a lecture under test conditions to other ‘student(s)’, one of whom will be the examiner. The test lecture is to be selected from items of section 1. The amount of time for preparation of

the test lecture is agreed upon beforehand with the examiner. Appropriate literature may be used by the applicant. The test lecture should not exceed 45 minutes;

(2) The applicant is tested orally by an examiner for knowledge of items of section 1 and the ‘core instructor competencies: teaching and learning’ content given in the instructor courses.

(c) Sections 2, 3 and 5 are for all FIs. These sections comprise exercises to demonstrate the ability to be an FI (for example instructor demonstration exercises) chosen by the examiner from the flight syllabus of the FI training courses. The applicant is required to demonstrate FI abilities, including briefing, flight instruction and de-briefing.

(d) Section 4 comprises additional instructor demonstration exercises for an FI for ME aircraft. This section, if applicable, is done in an ME aircraft, or an FFS or FNPT II simulating an ME aircraft. This section is completed in addition to sections 2, 3 and 5.

AMC4 FCL.935 Assessment of competence

ED Decision 2011/016/R

CONTENT OF THE ASSESSMENT FOR THE SFI

The assessment should consist of at least 3 hours of flight instruction related to the duties of an SFI on the applicable FFS or FTD 2/3.

AMC5 FCL.935 Assessment of competence

ED Decision 2018/009/R

REPORT FORMS FOR THE INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATES

(a) Assessment of competence form for the FI, IRI and CRI certificates:

APPLICATION AND REPORT FORM FOR THE INSTRUCTOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPETENCE

1

Applicants personal particulars:

Applicant’s last name(s):

 

First name(s):

 

Date of birth:

 

Tel (home):

Tel (work):

Address:

 

Country:

 

2

Licence details

Licence type:

 

Number:

 

Class ratings included in the licence:

 

Exp. Date:

 

Type ratings included in the licence:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Other ratings included in the licence:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

3

Pre-course flying experience

Total flying

hours

PIC 

SEP or TMG

hours

SEP preceding 6 months

Instrument flight instruction

Cross-country hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Pre-entry flight test 

I recommend .....................................for the FI course.

Name of ATO:

Date of flight test:

Name(s) of FI conducting the test (capital letters):

Licence number:

Signature:

5

Declaration by the applicant

I have received a course of training in accordance with the syllabus for the:  (tick as applicable)

FI certificate FI(A)/(H)/(As)

 

IRI certificate IRI(A)/(H)/(As)

 

CRI certificate CRI(A)

 

Applicant’s name(s):

(capital letters)

Signature:

6

Declaration by the CFI

I certify that .......................................... has satisfactorily completed an approved course of training for the

FI certificate FI(A)/(H)/(As)

 

IRI certificate IRI(A)/(H)/(As)

 

CRI certificate CRI(A)

 

in accordance with the relevant syllabus.

Flying hours during the course:

 

Aircraft or FSTDs used :

 

 

 

 

Name(s) of CFI:

Signature:

Name of ATO:

7

Flight instructor examiner’s certificate

I have tested the applicant according to to Part-FCL

A. FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR EXAMINER’S ASSESSMENT (in case of partial pass):

Theoretical oral examination:

Skill test:

Passed

Failed

Passed

Failed

 

I recommend further flight or ground training with an instructor before re-test

 

I do not consider further flight or theoretical instruction necessary before re-test  (tick as applicable)

B. FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR EXAMINER’S ASSESSMENT:

 

FI certificate

 

IRI certificate

 

CRI certificate

(tick as applicable)

Name(s) of FIE (capital letters):

 

Signature:

 

Licence number:

Date:

(b) Report form for the FI for sailplanes

APPLICATION AND REPORT FORM FOR THE FI(S) ASSESSMENT OF COMPETENCE

1

Applicants personal particulars:

Applicant’s last name(s):

 

First name(s):

 

Date of birth:

 

 

Tel (home):

Tel (work):

Address:

 

 

Country:

 

2

Licence details

Licence type:

 

Number:

 

TMG extension:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Pre-course flying experience

Total flying hours

PIC hours

Sailplane (PIC hours and take-offs)

TMG (PIC hours and take-offs)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Pre-entry flight test 

I recommend .....................................for the FI course.

Name of ATO:

Date of flight test:

Name(s) of FI conducting the test (capital letters):

Licence number:

Signature:

5

Declaration by the applicant

I have received a course of training in accordance with the syllabus for the:

FI certificate FI(S)

 

 

 

 

 

Applicant’s name(s):

(capital letters)

Signature:

6

Declaration by the chief flight instructor

I certify that .......................................... has satisfactorily completed an approved course of training for the

FI certificate FI(S)

 

 

 

 

 

in accordance with the relevant syllabus.

Flying hours during the course:

Take-offs during the course:

Sailplanes, powered sailplanes or TMGs used :

Name(s) of CFI:

Signature:

Name of DTO or ATO:

7

Flight instructor examiner’s certificate

I have tested the applicant according to Part-FCL

A. FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR EXAMINER’S ASSESSMENT (in case of partial pass):

Theoretical oral examination:

Skill test:

Passed

Failed

Passed

Failed

 

I recommend further flight or ground training with an instructor before re-test

 

I do not consider further flight or theoretical instruction necessary before re-test  (tick as applicable)

B. FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR EXAMINER’S ASSESSMENT:

 

FI certificate

 

Date:

Name(s) of FIE (capital letters):

Signature:

Licence number:

Date:

(c) Report form for the FI for balloons:

APPLICATION AND REPORT FORM FOR THE FI(B) ASSESSMENT OF COMPETENCE

1

Applicants personal particulars:

Applicant’s last name(s):

 

First name(s):

 

Date of birth:

 

Tel (home):

Tel (work):

Address:

 

Country:

 

2

Licence details

Licence type:

 

Number:

 

Class extension:

1.

Groups:

 

 

2.

Groups:

 

 

3.

Groups:

 

3

Pre-course flying experience

Total flying hours in different groups

PIC hours

Hot-air balloon

Gas balloon

Hot-air airship

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Pre-entry flight test 

I recommend .....................................for the FI course.

Name of ATO:

Date of flight test:

Name(s) of FI conducting the test (capital letters):

Licence number:

Signature:

5

Declaration by the applicant

I have received a course of training in accordance with the syllabus for the:

FI certificate FI(B)

 

 

 

 

 

Applicant’s name(s):

(capital letters)

Signature:

6

Declaration by the chief flight instructor

I certify that .......................................... has satisfactorily completed an approved course of training for the

FI certificate FI(B)

 

 

 

 

 

in accordance with the relevant syllabus.

Flying hours during the course:

Take-offs during the course:

Balloons, hot-air airships used:

Name(s) of CFI:

Signature:

Name of DTO or ATO:

7

Flight instructor examiner’s certificate

I have tested the applicant according to Part-FCL

A. FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR EXAMINER’S ASSESSMENT (in case of partial pass):

Theoretical oral examination:

Skill test:

Passed

Failed

Passed

Failed

 

I recommend further flight or ground training with an FI before re-test

 

I do not consider further flight or theoretical instruction necessary before re-test  (tick as applicable)

B. FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR EXAMINER’S ASSESSMENT:

 

FI certificate

Name(s) of FIE (capital letters):

Signature:

Licence number:

Date:

FCL.940 Validity of instructor certificates

Regulation (EU) 2019/1747

With the exception of the MI, and without prejudice to FCL.900(b)(1) and FCL.915 (e)(2), instructor certificates shall be valid for a period of 3 years.

FCL.945 Obligations for instructors

Regulation (EU) 2015/445

Upon completion of the training flight for the revalidation of an SEP or TMG class rating in accordance with FCL.740.A(b)(1) and only in the event of fulfilment of all the other revalidation criteria required by FCL.740.A(b)(1) the instructor shall endorse the applicant's licence with the new expiry date of the rating or certificate, if specifically authorised for that purpose by the competent authority responsible for the applicant's licence.