NCO.OP.100 Use of aerodromes and operating sites

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall only use aerodromes and operating sites that are adequate for the type of aircraft and operation concerned.

NCO.OP.101 Altimeter check and settings

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) The pilot-in-command shall check the proper operation of the altimeter before each departure.

(b) The pilot-in-command shall use appropriate altimeter settings for all phases of flight, taking into account any procedure prescribed by the State of the aerodrome or the State of the airspace.

PRE-FLIGHT ALTIMETER CHECK

A serviceable altimeter indicates the elevation of the point selected, plus the height of the altimeter above this point, within a tolerance of ± 60 ft.

If the altimeter does not indicate the reference elevation or height exactly but is within the specified tolerances, no adjustment of this indication should be made at any stage of a flight. Also, any error which is within tolerance on the ground should be ignored by the pilot during flight.

If no altimeter setting is available at the aerodrome or operating site of departure, the altimeter should be set using the elevation of the aerodrome or operating site, and the altimeter setting should be verified on first contact with an ATS unit.

NCO.OP.105

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

NCO.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) For instrument flight rules (IFR) flights, the pilot-in-command shall establish aerodrome operating minima for each departure, destination or alternate aerodrome that is planned to be used in order to ensure separation of the aircraft from terrain and obstacles and to mitigate the risk of loss of visual references during the visual flight segment of instrument approach operations.

(b) The aerodrome operating minima shall take the following elements into account, if relevant:

(1) the type, performance, and handling characteristics of the aircraft;

(2) the equipment available on the aircraft for the purpose of navigation, acquisition of visual references, and/or control of the flight path during take-off, approach, landing, and missed approach;

(3) any conditions or limitations stated in the aircraft flight manual (AFM);

(4) the dimensions and characteristics of the runways/final approach and take-off areas (FATOs) that may be selected for use;

(5) the adequacy and performance of the available visual and non-visual aids and infrastructure;

(6) the obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H) for the instrument approach procedures (IAPs), if established;

(7) the obstacles in the climb-out areas and clearance margins;

(8) the competence and relevant operational experience of the pilot-in-command;

(9) the IAP, if established;

(10) the aerodrome characteristics and the type of air navigation services (ANS) available, if any;

(11) any minima that may be promulgated by the State of the aerodrome;

(12) the conditions prescribed in any specific approvals for low-visibility operations (LVOs) or operations with operational credits.;

TAKE-OFF OPERATIONS

(a) General

Take-off minima should be expressed as visibility (VIS) or runway visual range (RVR) limits, taking into account all relevant factors for each runway/final approach and take-off area (FATO)/operating site planned to be used and aircraft characteristics and equipment. Where there is a specific need to see and avoid obstacles on departure and/or for a forced landing, additional conditions, e.g. ceiling, it should be specified.

(b) Visual reference

(1) The take-off minima should be selected to ensure sufficient guidance to control the aircraft in the event of both a rejected take-off in adverse circumstances and an engine failure after rotation.

(2) For night operations, sufficient lighting should be in operation to illuminate the runway/final approach and take-off area (FATO) and any relevant obstacles.

(3) For point-in-space (PinS) departures to an initial departure fix (IDF), the take-off minima should be selected to ensure sufficient guidance to see and avoid obstacles and return to the heliport if the flight cannot be continued visually to the IDF. The minimum VIS should be 800 m and the minimum ceiling should be 250 ft.

(4) For helicopters outside of a runway environment, the minimum VIS should be 800 m, and for offshore helideck operations, the minimum VIS should be 500 m.

RVR OR VIS FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS — DETERMINATION OF DH/MDH FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS — AEROPLANES

(a) The RVR (or for non-instrument runways, VIS) for straight-in instrument approach operations should not be less than the greatest of the following:

(1) the minimum RVR (or for non-instrument runways, VIS) for the type of runway used according to Table 1;

(2) the minimum RVR determined according to the MDH or DH and class of lighting facility according to Table 2;

(3) the minimum RVR according to the visual and non-visual aids and on-board equipment used according to Table 3.

(b) For Category A and B aeroplanes, if the RVR determined in accordance with (a) is greater than 1 500 m, then 1 500 m should be used.

(d) The visual aids, if available, may comprise standard runway day markings, runway edge lights, threshold lights, runway end lights and approach lights as defined in Table 6.

(e) For night operations or for any operation where credit for visual aids is required, the lights should be on and serviceable except as provided for in GM5 NCO.OP.110.

Table 1

Type of runway versus minimum RVR or VIS — aeroplanes

Type of runway

Minimum RVR or VIS (m)

Precision approach (PA) runway, category I

550

Non-precision approach (NPA) runway

750

Non-instrument runway

Visibility according to Table 1 in NCO.OP.112 (Circling minima)

Table 2

RVR versus DH/MDH

DH or MDH

Class of lighting facility

FALS

IALS

BALS

NALS

ft

RVR (m)

200

-

210

550

750

1 000

1 200

211

-

240

550

800

1 000

1 200

241

-

250

550

800

1 000

1 300

251

-

260

600

800

1 100

1 300

261

-

280

600

900

1 100

1 300

281

-

300

650

900

1 200

1 400

301

-

320

700

1 000

1 200

1 400

321

-

340

800

1 100

1 300

1 500

341

-

360

900

1 200

1 400

1 600

361

-

380

1 000

1 300

1 500

1 700

381

-

400

1 100

1 400

1 600

1 800

401

-

420

1 200

1 500

1 700

1 900

421

-

440

1 300

1 600

1 800

2 000

441

-

460

1 400

1 700

1 900

2 100

461

-

480

1 500

1 800

2 000

2 200

481

 

500

1 500

1 800

2 100

2 300

501

-

520

1 600

1 900

2 100

2 400

521

-

540

1 700

2 000

2 200

2 400

541

-

560

1 800

2 100

2 300

2 400

561

-

580

1 900

2 200

2 400

2 400

581

-

600

2 000

2 300

2 400

2 400

601

-

620

2 100

2 400

2 400

2 400

621

-

640

2 200

2 400

2 400

2 400

641

 

660

2 300

2 400

2 400

2 400

661

and above

2 400

2 400

2 400

2 400

Table 3

Visual and non-visual aids and/or on-board equipment versus minimum RVR — aeroplanes

Type of approach

Facilities

Lowest RVR (m)

PA and APV procedure

RTZL and RCLL

[no limitation]

without RTZL and RCLL but using HUDLS or equivalent system; coupled autopilot or flight director to DH

[no limitation]

No RTZL and RCLL, not using HUDLS or equivalent system or autopilot to DH.

750

NPA procedure

Final approach track offset <15 o for category A and B aeroplanes or <5 o Category C and D aeroplanes

750

Final approach track offset 15o for category A or B aeroplanes

1 000

Final approach track offset 5o for category C or D aeroplanes

1 200

DETERMINATION OF RVR FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS — HELICOPTERS

(a) For IFR operations, the RVR should not be less than the greatest of the following:

(1) the minimum RVR for the type of runway/FATO used according to Table 4; or

(2) the minimum RVR determined according to the MDH or DH and class of lighting facility according to Table 5;

(3) for PinS operations with instructions to ‘proceed visually’, the distance between the MAPt of the PinS and the FATO/approach light system.

(b) For PinS operations with instructions to ‘proceed VFR’, the VIS should be compatible with visual flight rules.

(c) The visual aids, if available, may comprise standard runway day markings, runway edge lights, threshold lights, runway, end lights and approach lights as defined in Table 6 of AMC3 NCO.OP.110.

(d) For night operations or for any operation where credit for visual aids is required, the lights should be on and serviceable.

Table 4

Type of runway/FATO versus minimum RVR — helicopters

Type of runway/FATO

Minimum RVR or VIS (m)

PA runway, category I

NPA runway

Non-instrument runway

RVR 550

Instrument FATO

FATO

RVR 550

RVR or VIS 800

Table 5

DH/MDH versus minimum RVR — helicopters

DH/MDH (ft)

Facilities versus RVR (m)*

FALS

IALS

BALS

NALS

200

550

600

700

1 000

201–249

550

650

750

1 000

250–299

600*

700*

800

1 000

300 and above

750*

800

900

1 000

* Minima on 2D approach operations should be no lower than 800 m.

APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEMS — AEROPLANES AND HELICOPTERS

Table 6

Approach lighting systems

Class of lighting facility

Length, configuration and intensity of approach lights

FALS

CAT I lighting system (HIALS ≥720 m) distance coded centre line, barrette centre line

IALS

Simple approach lighting system (HIALS 420–719 m) single source, barrette

BALS

Any other approach lighting system (HIALS, MALS or ALS 210–419 m)

NALS

Any other approach lighting system (HIALS, MALS or ALS <210 m) or no approach lights

VISUAL APPROACH

For a visual approach operation, the RVR should not be less than 800 m.

AIRCRAFT CATEGORIES

(a) Aircraft categories should be based on the indicated airspeed at threshold (VAT), which is equal to the stalling speed (VSO) multiplied by 1.3 or where published 1-g (gravity) stall speed (VS1g) multiplied by 1.23 in the landing configuration at the maximum certified landing mass. If both VSO and VS1g are available, the higher resulting VAT should be used.

(b) The aircraft categories specified in the Table 6 should be used.

Table 7: Aircraft categories corresponding to VAT values

Aircraft category

VAT

A

Less than 91 kt

B

from 91 to 120 kt

C

from 121 to 140 kt

D

from 141 to 165 kt

E

from 166 to 210 kt

(c) Helicopters are also eligible for Category H where applicable.

FLIGHTS WITH VFR AND IFR SEGMENTS

Where a flight contains VFR and IFR segments, aerodrome operating minima need be established only as far as relevant to the IFR segments. Attention is drawn to NCO.OP.160 (a) and (c), according to which, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that the VFR segments will be conducted in conditions at or above the applicable VFR operating minima. For example, for a VFR departure changing to IFR at a transition point en-route and an IFR arrival at destination, the pilot-in-command should be satisfied that VMC will exist up to the transition point, and aerodrome operating minima should be established for the destination and any alternate destinations required.

MEANS TO DETERMINE THE REQUIRED RVR BASED ON DH AND LIGHTING FACILITIES

(a) The values in Table 2 are derived from the formula below:

RVR (m) = [(DH/MDH (ft) x 0.3048)/tanα] — length of approach lights (m),

where α is the calculation angle, being a default value of 3.00° increasing in steps of 0.10° for each line in Table 2 up to 3.77° and then remaining constant. An upper RVR limit of 2 400 m has been applied to the table.

(b) The lighting system classes in Table 2 have the meaning specified in Table 6.

USE OF THIRD-PARTY INFORMATION

If a pilot-in-command uses information provided by a third party for aerodrome operating minima, the pilot-in-command verifies that the method for calculating minima is in accordance with this Regulation.

EFFECT OF TEMPORARILY FAILED OR DOWNGRADED GROUND EQUIPMENT ON LANDING MINIMA

(a) Lighting in Table 5 should be considered only if the relevant lighting is operating. For example, if components of a FALS have failed leaving only the last 250 m operating normally, the lighting facilities should be treated as BALS.

(b) Failures of standby equipment, standby power systems, middle markers and RVR assessment systems have no effect on minima.

VISUAL AND NON-VISUAL AIDS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

‘Visual and non-visual aids and infrastructure’ refers to all equipment and facilities required for the procedure to be used for the intended instrument approach operation. This includes but is not limited to, lights, markings, ground or space-based radio aids, etc.

NCO.OP.111 Aerodrome operating minima — 2D and 3D approach operations

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) The decision height (DH) to be used for a 3D approach operation or a 2D approach operation flown with the continuous descent final approach (CDFA) technique shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the obstacle clearance height (OCH) for the category of aircraft;

(2) the published approach procedure DH or minimum descent height (MDH), where applicable;

(3) the system minimum specified in Table 1;

(4) the minimum DH specified in the AFM or equivalent document, if stated.

(b) The MDH for a 2D approach operation flown without the CDFA technique shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the OCH for the category of aircraft;

(2) the published approach procedure MDH, where applicable;

(3) the system minimum specified in Table 1; or

(4) the minimum MDH specified in the AFM, if stated.

Table 1

System minima

Facility

Lowest DH/MDH (ft)

ILS/MLS/ GLS

200

GNSS/SBAS (LPV)

200

Precision approach radar (PAR)

200

GNSS/SBAS (LP)

250

GNSS (LNAV)

250

GNSS/Baro-VNAV (LNAV/VNAV)

250

Helicopter point-in-space approach

250

LOC with or without DME

250

SRA (terminating at ½ NM)

250

SRA (terminating at 1 NM)

300

SRA (terminating at 2 NM or more)

350

VOR

300

VOR/DME

250

NDB

350

NDB/DME

300

VDF

350

DETERMINATION OF DH/MDH FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS AND RUNWAY

When determining the DH/MDH in accordance with the obstacle clearance hight (OCH) for the category of aircraft and the published approach procedure DH or minimum descent height (MDH), the pilot should determine whether the obstacle limitation surface is appropriate for the type of instrument approach flown and runway as this matter may have an impact on the calculation of the OCH and DH/MDH. When this information is not available (e.g. not mentioned in the AIP, etc.), then the pilot should take into account Table 8 or 9 below, as applicable, when determining the DH/MDH:

Table 8

Runway type minima — aeroplanes

Runway type

Lowest DH/MDH (ft)

PA runway, category I

200

NPA runway

250

Non-instrument runway

Circling minima as shown in Table 1 in NCC.OP.112

Table 9

Type of runway/FATO minima — helicopters

Type of runway/FATO

Lowest DH/MDH (ft)

PA runway, category I

NPA runway

Non-instrument runway

200

Instrument FATO

FATO

200

250

Table 8 does not apply to helicopter PinS approaches with instructions to ‘proceed VFR’.

APPROACH OPERATIONS — VERTICAL PATH CONTROL FOR NPA

(a) During a 3D instrument approach operation (using both lateral and vertical navigation guidance), the displayed vertical path should be followed continuously. The approach may be continued to DA/H, at which point a missed approach must be initiated if visual reference is not acquired.

(b) During a 2D instrument approach operation (using lateral navigation guidance only) flown using the continuous descent final approach (CDFA) technique, the vertical path should be approximated continuously by:

(1) choosing an appropriate vertical speed;

(2) cross-checking level against position along the approach; and

(3) adapting the vertical speed as required.

The approach may be continued to DA/H or the missed approach point (MAPt) (whichever is reached first), at which point a missed approach must be initiated if visual reference is not acquired. There is no MDH for an NPA flown using the CDFA technique. An aircraft may descend briefly below the DH on an NPA flown using the CDFA technique, in the same way as it may on a PA or APV.

(c) During a 2D instrument approach operation (using lateral navigation guidance only) flown using the step-down (non-CDFA) technique, the vertical path consists of a sequence of one or more descents to the next published level (i.e. the MDA/H or height at the next stepdown fix). The aircraft may fly level at the MDA/H until reaching the MAPt, where a missed approach must be initiated if visual reference is not acquired.

The CDFA technique has substantially improved safety performance in commercial air transport operations with complex motor-powered aircraft. In lighter, more manoeuvrable aircraft, operated by a single pilot, which may be accustomed to shorter and steeper visual approaches, there may sometimes be advantages to a step-down technique. Due consideration should be given to the choice of vertical path control at the planning stage of flight.

DH/MDH — CALCULATION OF DA/MDA

NCO.OP.111 refers to DH and MDH because the rule compares heights with other heights (system minima, minimum DH in the AFM, etc.). Usually, the DH or MDH will be converted to DA or MDA for operational use by adding the threshold elevation.

DH/MDH — PinS APPROACHES WITH VIRTUAL DESTINATION

For PinS approaches with instructions to ‘proceed VFR’ that are not associated with a runway/FATO/operating site, DH/MDH can be established with reference to the ground below the MAPt.

NCO.OP.112 Aerodrome operating minima — circling operations with aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) The MDH for a circling approach operation with aeroplanes shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the published circling OCH for the aeroplane category;

(2) the minimum circling height derived from Table 1; or

 (3) the DH/MDH of the preceding IAP.

(b) The minimum visibility for a circling approach operation with aeroplanes shall be the highest of:

(1) the circling visibility for the aeroplane category, if published; or

(2) the minimum visibility derived from Table 1.

Table 1

MDH and minimum visibility for circling per aeroplane category aeroplane category

 

Aeroplane category

A

B

C

D

MDH (ft)

400

500

600

700

Minimum VIS (m)

1 500

1 500

2 400

3 600

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION

(a) The purpose of this Guidance Material is to provide pilots with supplemental information regarding the application of aerodrome operating minima in relation to circling approaches.

(b) Conduct of flight — general:

(1) the MDH and obstacle clearance height (OCH) included in the procedure are referenced to aerodrome elevation;

(2) the MDA is referenced to mean sea level; and

(3) for these procedures, the applicable visibility is the flight visibility.

(c) Instrument approach followed by visual manoeuvring (circling) without prescribed tracks:

(1) When the aeroplane is on the initial instrument approach, before visual reference is established, but not below MDA/H — the aeroplane should follow the corresponding instrument approach procedure (IAP) until the appropriate instrument MAPt is reached.

(2) At the beginning of the level flight phase at or above the MDA/H, the instrument approach track should be maintained until the pilot:

(i) estimates that, in all probability, visual contact with the runway of intended landing or the runway environment will be maintained during the entire circling procedure;

(ii) estimates that the aeroplane is within the circling area before commencing circling; and

(iii) is able to determine the aeroplane’s position in relation to the runway of intended landing with the aid of the appropriate visual references.

(3) When reaching the published instrument MAPt and the conditions stipulated in (c)(2) are unable to be established by the pilot, a missed approach should be carried out in accordance with that instrument approach procedure.

(4) After the aeroplane has left the track of the initial instrument approach, the flight phase outbound from the runway should be limited to an appropriate distance, which is required to align the aeroplane onto the final approach. Such manoeuvres should be conducted to enable the aeroplane:

(i) to attain a controlled and stable descent path to the intended landing runway; and

(ii) to remain within the circling area and in such a way that visual contact with the runway of intended landing or runway environment is maintained at all times.

(5) Flight manoeuvres should be carried out at an altitude/height that is not less than the circling MDA/H.

(6) Descent below MDA/H should not be initiated until the threshold of the runway to be used has been appropriately identified. The aeroplane should be in a position to continue with a normal rate of descent and land within the touchdown zone.

(d) Instrument approach followed by a visual manoeuvring (circling) with prescribed track:

(1) The aeroplane should remain on the initial instrument approach procedure until one of the following is reached:

(i) the prescribed divergence point to commence circling on the prescribed track; or

(ii) the MAPt.

(2) The aeroplane should be established on the instrument approach track determined by the radio navigation aids, RNAV, RNP, or ILS, MLS or GLS in level flight at or above the MDA/H at or by the circling manoeuvre divergence point.

(3) If the divergence point is reached before the required visual reference is acquired, a missed approach should be initiated not later than the MAPt and completed in accordance with the initial instrument approach procedure.

(4) When commencing the prescribed circling manoeuvre at the published divergence point, the subsequent manoeuvres should be conducted to comply with the published routing and published heights/altitudes.

(5) Unless otherwise specified, once the aeroplane is established on the prescribed track(s), the published visual reference does not need to be maintained unless:

(i) required by the State of the aerodrome; or

(ii) the circling MAPt (if published) is reached.

(6) If the prescribed circling manoeuvre has a published MAPt and the required visual reference has not been obtained by that point, a missed approach should be executed in accordance with (e)(2) and (e)(3).

(7) Subsequent further descent below MDA/H should only commence when the required visual reference has been obtained.

(8) Unless otherwise specified in the procedure, final descent should not be commenced from MDA/H until the threshold of the intended landing runway has been identified and the aeroplane is in a position to continue with a normal rate of descent to land within the touchdown zone.

(e) Missed approach:

(1) Missed approach during the instrument procedure prior to circling:

(i) if the missed approach is required to be flown when the aeroplane is positioned on the instrument approach track defined by radio navigation aids, RNAV, RNP or ILS, MLS or GLS and before commencing the circling manoeuvre, the published missed approach for the instrument approach should be followed; or

(ii) if the instrument approach procedure is carried out with the aid of an ILS, MLS or a stabilised approach (SAp), the MAPt associated with an ILS or MLS procedure without glide path (GP-out procedure) or the SAp, where applicable, should be used.

(2) If a prescribed missed approach is published for the circling manoeuvre, this overrides the manoeuvres prescribed below.

(3) If visual reference is lost while circling to land after the aeroplane has departed from the initial instrument approach track, the missed approach specified for that particular instrument approach should be followed. It is expected that the pilot will make an initial climbing turn toward the intended landing runway to a position overhead of the aerodrome where the pilot will establish the aeroplane in a climb on the instrument missed approach segment.

(4) The aeroplane should not leave the visual manoeuvring (circling) area, which is obstacle protected, unless:

(i) established on the appropriate missed approach procedure; or

(ii) at minimum sector altitude (MSA).

(5) All turns should be made in the same direction and the aeroplane should remain within the circling protected area while climbing either:

(i) to the altitude assigned to any published circling missed approach manoeuvre if applicable;

(ii) to the altitude assigned to the missed approach of the initial instrument approach;

(iii) to the MSA;

(iv) to the minimum holding altitude (MHA) applicable for transition to a holding facility or fix, or continue to climb to an MSA; or

(v) as directed by ATS.

When the missed approach procedure is commenced on the ‘downwind’ leg of the circling manoeuvre, an ‘S’ turn may be undertaken to align the aeroplane on the initial instrument approach missed approach path, provided the aeroplane remains within the protected circling area.

The pilot-in-command should be responsible for ensuring adequate terrain clearance during the above-stipulated manoeuvres, particularly during the execution of a missed approach initiated by ATS.

(6) Because the circling manoeuvre may be accomplished in more than one direction, different patterns will be required to establish the aeroplane on the prescribed missed approach course, depending on its position at the time visual reference is lost. In particular, all turns are to be in the prescribed direction if this is restricted, e.g. to the west/east (left or right hand) to remain within the protected circling area.

(7) If a missed approach procedure is published for a particular runway onto which the aeroplane is conducting a circling approach and the aeroplane has commenced a manoeuvre to align with the runway, the missed approach for this direction may be accomplished. The ATS unit should be informed of the intention to fly the published missed approach procedure for that particular runway.

(8) The pilot-in-command should advise ATS when any missed approach procedure has been commenced, the height/altitude the aeroplane is climbing to and the position the aeroplane is proceeding towards and/or heading the aeroplane is established on.

DH/MDH — CALCULATION OF DA/MDA

NCO.OP.112 refers to MDH because the rule compares heights with other heights (minimum circling height, OCH, etc.). Usually, the MDH will be converted to MDA for operational use by adding the aerodrome elevation.

NCO.OP.113 Aerodrome operating minima – onshore circling operations with helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 379/2014

The MDH for an onshore circling operation with helicopters shall not be lower than 250 ft and the meteorological visibility not less than 800 m.

NCO.OP.115 Departure and approach procedures – aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command shall use the departure and approach procedures established by the State of the aerodrome, if such procedures have been published for the runway or FATO to be used.

(b) The pilot-in-command may deviate from a published departure route, arrival route or approach procedure:

(1) provided obstacle clearance criteria can be observed, full account is taken of the operating conditions and any ATC clearance is adhered to; or

(2) when being radar-vectored by an ATC unit.

ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES UNDER IFR WHERE NO INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PROCEDURES ARE PUBLISHED

When arriving or departing under IFR to/from an aerodrome or operating site with no published instrument flight procedure, the pilot-in-command should ensure that sufficient obstacle clearance is available for safe operation. This may be achieved, for example, by climbing or descending visually when below a minimum altitude at which obstacle clearance is known to exist.

When operating IFR in uncontrolled airspace, separation from other aircraft remains the responsibility of the pilot-in-command. The pilot-in-command should also comply with any flight planning and communication requirements designated by the competent authority under SERA.4001(b)(3) and SERA.5025(b). Any ATC clearance required to enter controlled airspace must be obtained prior to entry.

NCO.OP.116 Performance-based navigation – aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2016/1119

The pilot-in-command shall ensure that, when PBN is required for the route or procedure to be flown:

(a) the relevant PBN navigation specification is stated in the AFM or other document that has been approved by the certifying authority as part of an airworthiness assessment or is based on such approval; and

(b) the aircraft is operated in conformance with the relevant navigation specification and limitations in the AFM or other document mentioned above.

PBN OPERATIONS

For operations where a navigation specification for performance-based navigation (PBN) has been prescribed and no specific approval is required in accordance with SPA.PBN.100, the pilot-in-command should:

(a) use operating procedures specifying:

(1) normal, abnormal and contingency procedures;

(2) electronic navigation database management; and

(3) relevant entries in the minimum equipment list (MEL), where applicable;

(b) ensure that he/she is appropriately trained for the intended operation.

MONITORING AND VERIFICATION

(a) Preflight and general considerations

(1) At navigation system initialisation, the pilot-in-command should confirm that the navigation database is current and verify that the aircraft position, if required, has been entered correctly.

(2) The active flight plan, if applicable, should be checked by comparing the charts or other applicable documents with navigation equipment and displays. This includes confirmation of the waypoint sequence, reasonableness of track angles and distances, any altitude or speed constraints, and, where possible, which waypoints are fly-by and which are fly-over. Where relevant, the RF leg arc radii should be confirmed.

(3) The pilot-in-command should check that the navigation aids critical to the operation of the intended PBN procedure are available.

(4) The pilot-in-command should confirm the navigation aids that should be excluded from the operation, if any.

(5) An arrival, approach or departure procedure should not be used if the validity of the procedure in the navigation database has expired.

(b) Departure

(1) Prior to commencing a take-off on a PBN procedure, the pilot-in-command should verify that the area navigation system is available and operating correctly and the correct aerodrome and runway data has been loaded. A positive check should be made that the indicated aircraft position is consistent with the actual aircraft position at the start of the take-off roll (aeroplanes) or lift-off (helicopters).

(2) Where GNSS is used, the signal should be acquired before the take-off roll (aeroplanes) or lift-off (helicopters) commences.

(3) Unless automatic updating of the actual departure point is provided, the pilot-in-command should ensure initialisation on the runway or FATO either by means of a manual runway threshold or intersection update, as applicable. This is to preclude any inappropriate or inadvertent position shift after take-off.

(c) Arrival and approach

(1) The pilot-in-command should verify that the navigation system is operating correctly and the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered and properly depicted.

(2) Any published altitude and speed constraints should be observed.

(3) The pilot-in-command should check approach procedures (including alternate aerodromes if needed) as extracted by the system (e.g. CDU flight plan page) or presented graphically on the moving map, in order to confirm the correct loading and the reasonableness of the procedure content.

(4) Prior to commencing the approach operation (before the IAF), the pilot-in-command should verify the correctness of the loaded procedure by comparison with the appropriate approach charts. This check should include:

(i) the waypoint sequence;

(ii) reasonableness of the tracks and distances of the approach legs and the accuracy of the inbound course; and

(iii) the vertical path angle, if applicable.

(d) Altimetry settings for RNP APCH operations using Baro VNAV

(1) Barometric settings

(i) The pilot-in-command should set and confirm the correct altimeter setting and check that the two altimeters provide altitude values that do not differ more than 100 ft at the most at or before the FAF.

(ii) The pilot-in-command should fly the procedure with:

(A) a current local altimeter setting source available — a remote or regional altimeter setting source should not be used; and

(B) the QNH/QFE, as appropriate, set on the aircraft’s altimeters.

(2) Temperature compensation

(i) For RNP APCH operations to LNAV/VNAV minima using Baro VNAV:

(A) the pilot-in-command should not commence the approach when the aerodrome temperature is outside the promulgated aerodrome temperature limits for the procedure, unless the area navigation system is equipped with approved temperature compensation for the final approach;

(B) when the temperature is within promulgated limits, the pilot-in-command should not make compensation to the altitude at the FAF; and

(C) since only the final approach segment is protected by the promulgated aerodrome temperature limits, the pilot-in-command should consider the effect of temperature on terrain and obstacle clearance in other phases of flight.

(ii) For RNP APCH operations to LNAV minima using Baro VNAV:

(A) the pilot-in-command should consider the effect of temperature on terrain and obstacle clearance in all phases of flight, in particular on any step-down fix; 

(B) if the temperature is outside promulgated limits for RNP APCH to LNAV/VNAV minima, the pilot-in-command should not use a Baro VNAV function for vertical guidance, unless the area navigation system is equipped with approved temperature compensation for the final approach.

(e) Sensor and lateral navigation accuracy selection

(1) For multi-sensor systems, the pilot-in-command should verify, during the approach, that the GNSS sensor is used for position computation.

(2) For aircraft with RNP input selection capability, the pilot-in-command should confirm that the indicated RNP value is appropriate for the PBN operation.

MANAGAMENT OF THE NAVIGATION DATABASE

(a) For RNAV 1, RNAV 2, RNP 1, RNP 2, and RNP APCH, the pilot-in-command should neither insert nor modify waypoints by manual entry into a procedure (departure, arrival or approach) that has been retrieved from the database. User-defined data may be entered and used for waypoint altitude/speed constraints on a procedure where said constraints are not included in the navigation database coding.

(b) For RNP 4 operations, the pilot-in-command should not modify waypoints that have been retrieved from the database. User-defined data (e.g. for flex-track routes) may be entered and used.

(c) The lateral and vertical definition of the flight path between the FAF and the missed approach point (MAPt) retrieved from the database should not be revised by the pilot-in-command.

DISPLAYS AND AUTOMATION

(a) For RNAV 1, RNP 1, and RNP APCH operations, the pilot-in-command should use a lateral deviation indicator, and where available, flight director and/or autopilot in lateral navigation mode.

(b) The appropriate displays should be selected so that the following information can be monitored:

(1) the computed desired path;

(2) aircraft position relative to the lateral path (cross-track deviation) for FTE monitoring; and

(3) aircraft position relative to the vertical path (for a 3D operation).

(c) The pilot-in-command of an aircraft with a lateral deviation indicator (e.g. CDI) should ensure that lateral deviation indicator scaling (full-scale deflection) is suitable for the navigation accuracy associated with the various segments of the procedure.

(d) The pilot-in-command should maintain procedure centrelines unless authorised to deviate by ATC or demanded by emergency conditions.

(e) Cross-track error/deviation (the difference between the area-navigation-system-computed path and the aircraft-computed position) should normally be limited to ± ½ time the RNAV/RNP value associated with the procedure. Brief deviations from this standard (e.g. overshoots or undershoots during and immediately after turns) up to a maximum of 1 time the RNAV/RNP value should be allowable.

(f) For a 3D approach operation, the pilot-in-command should use a vertical deviation indicator and, where required by AFM/POH limitations, a flight director or autopilot in vertical navigation mode.

(g) Deviations below the vertical path should not exceed 75 ft at any time, or half-scale deflection where angular deviation is indicated, and not more than 75 ft above the vertical profile, or half-scale deflection where angular deviation is indicated, at or below 1 000 ft above aerodrome level. The pilot-in-command should execute a missed approach if the vertical deviation exceeds this criterion, unless the pilot-in-command has in sight the visual references required to continue the approach.

VECTORING AND POSITIONING

(a) ATC tactical interventions in the terminal area may include radar headings, ‘direct to’ clearances which bypass the initial legs of an approach procedure, interceptions of an initial or intermediate segments of an approach procedure or the insertion of additional waypoints loaded from the database.

(b) In complying with ATC instructions, the pilot-in-command should be aware of the implications for the navigation system.

(c) ‘Direct to’ clearances may be accepted to the IF provided that it is clear to the pilot-in-command that the aircraft will be established on the final approach track at least 2 NM before the FAF.

(d) ‘Direct to’ clearance to the FAF should not be acceptable. Modifying the procedure to intercept the final approach track prior to the FAF should be acceptable for radar-vectored arrivals or otherwise only with ATC approval.

(e) The final approach trajectory should be intercepted no later than the FAF in order for the aircraft to be correctly established on the final approach track before starting the descent (to ensure terrain and obstacle clearance).

(f) ‘Direct to’ clearances to a fix that immediately precede an RF leg should not be permitted.

(g) For parallel offset operations en route in RNP 4 and A-RNP, transitions to and from the offset track should maintain an intercept angle of no more than 45° unless specified otherwise by ATC.

ALERTING AND ABORT

(a) Unless the pilot-in-command has sufficient visual reference to continue the approach operation to a safe landing, an RNP APCH operation should be discontinued if:

(1) navigation system failure is annunciated (e.g. warning flag);

(2) lateral or vertical deviations exceed the tolerances; and

(3) loss of the on-board monitoring and alerting system.

(b) Discontinuing the approach operation may not be necessary for a multi-sensor navigation system that includes demonstrated RNP capability without GNSS in accordance with the AFM/POH.

(c) Where vertical guidance is lost while the aircraft is still above 1 000 ft AGL, the pilot-in-command may decide to continue the approach to LNAV minima, when supported by the navigation system.

CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES

(a) The pilot-in-command should make the necessary preparation to revert to a conventional arrival procedure where appropriate. The following conditions should be considered:

(1) failure of the navigation system components including navigation sensors, and a failure effecting flight technical error (e.g. failures of the flight director or autopilot);

(2) multiple system failures affecting aircraft performance;

(3) coasting on inertial sensors beyond a specified time limit; and

(4) RAIM (or equivalent) alert or loss of integrity function.

(b) In the event of loss of PBN capability, the pilot-in-command should invoke contingency procedures and navigate using an alternative means of navigation.

(c) The pilot-in-command should notify ATC of any problem with PBN capability.

(d) In the event of communication failure, the pilot-in-command should continue with the operation in accordance with published lost communication procedures.

RNAV 10

(a) Operating procedures and routes should take account of the RNAV 10 time limit declared for the inertial system, if applicable, considering also the effect of weather conditions that could affect flight duration in RNAV 10 airspace.

(b) The operator may extend RNAV 10 inertial navigation time by position updating. The operator should calculate, using statistically-based typical wind scenarios for each planned route, points at which updates can be made, and the points at which further updates will not be possible.

DESCRIPTION

(a) For both, RNP X and RNAV X designations, the ‘X’ (where stated) refers to the lateral navigation accuracy (total system error) in NM, which is expected to be achieved at least 95 % of the flight time by the population of aircraft operating within the airspace, route or procedure. For RNP APCH and A-RNP, the lateral navigation accuracy depends on the segment.

(b) PBN may be required on notified routes, for notified procedures and in notified airspace.

RNAV 10

(c) For purposes of consistency with the PBN concept, this Regulation is using the designation ‘RNAV 10’ because this specification does not include on-board performance monitoring and alerting.

(d) However, it should be noted that many routes still use the designation ‘RNP 10’ instead of ‘RNAV 10’. ‘RNP 10’ was used as designation before the publication of the fourth edition of ICAO Doc 9613 in 2013. The terms ‘RNP 10’ and ‘RNAV 10’ should be considered equivalent.

NCO.OP.120 Noise abatement procedures – aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2018/1975

The pilot-in-command shall take into account published noise abatement procedures to minimise the effect of aircraft noise while ensuring that safety has priority over noise abatement.

NCO.OP.125 Fuel/energy and oil supply – aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

(a) The pilot-in-command shall ensure that the quantity of fuel/energy and oil that is carried on board is sufficient, taking into account the meteorological conditions, any element affecting the performance of the aircraft, any delays that are expected in flight, and any contingencies that may reasonably be expected to affect the flight.

(b) The pilot-in-command shall plan a quantity of fuel/energy to be protected as final reserve fuel/energy to ensure a safe landing. The pilot-in-command shall take into account all of the following, and in the following order of priority, to determine the quantity of the final reserve fuel/energy:

(1) the severity of the hazard to persons or property that may result from an emergency landing after fuel/energy starvation; and

(2) the likelihood of unexpected circumstances that the final reserve fuel/energy may no longer be protected.

(c) The pilot-in-command shall commence a flight only if the aircraft carries sufficient fuel/energy and oil:

(1) when no destination alternate is required, to fly to the aerodrome or operating site of intended landing, plus the final reserve fuel/energy; or

(2) when a destination alternate is required, to fly to the aerodrome or operating site of intended landing, and thereafter, to an alternate aerodrome, plus the final reserve fuel/energy.

PLANNING CRITERIA — FINAL RESERVE FUEL/ENERGY

The final reserve fuel (FRF)/energy should be no less than the required fuel/energy to fly:

(a) for aeroplanes:

(1) for 10 minutes at maximum continuous cruise power at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination under VFR by day, taking off and landing at the same aerodrome/landing site, and always remaining within sight of that aerodrome/landing site;

(2) for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination under VFR by day; and

(3) for 45 minutes at holding speed at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination or destination alternate aerodrome under VFR flights by night and IFR; and

(b) for helicopters:

(1) for 10 minutes at best-range speed under VFR by day, taking off and landing at the same aerodrome/landing site, and always remaining within 25 NM of that aerodrome/landing site, when needed for the purpose of specialised operations;

(2) for 20 minutes at best-range speed for other VFR flights; and

(3) for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination or destination alternate aerodrome under IFR.

FINAL RESERVE FUEL/ENERGY

The quantity of the FRF/energy should be planned before flight and be an easily recalled figure against which the pilot-in-command can assess the current fuel/energy state of the aircraft.

FINAL RESERVE FUEL/ENERGY PROTECTION

The planned FRF/energy should be protected as a reserve in normal operations. If the fuel/energy on board falls below the FRF/energy, the pilot-in-command should consider this to be an emergency. The FRF/energy should not be used as contingency fuel in normal operations.

When the FRF/energy can no longer be protected, then a fuel/energy emergency should be declared and any landing option explored, including deviating from rules, operational procedures, and methods in the interest of safety (as per point CAT.GEN.MPA.105(b)).

LIKELIHOOD OF UNEXPECTED CIRCUMSTANCES TO INCREASE WITH FLIGHT DURATION

The likelihood of unexpected circumstances arising after the aircraft is fuelled may increase with the duration of the planned flight (for example, during a long flight, a problem at the destination aerodrome or operating site is more likely to have occurred than during a short local flight).

PLANNING of FUEL/ENERGY QUANTITY — HOLDING

When planning the fuel/energy quantity, in case of holding, and if the aircraft documentation does not provide approved data for the holding regime, the pilot should derive the fuel/energy flow data from the long-range/best-range cruise data or, if this is not provided, from the lowest available cruise data in power setting tables.

NCO.OP.130 Passenger briefing

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall ensure that before or, where appropriate, during the flight, passengers are given a briefing on emergency equipment and procedures.

GENERAL

(a) The briefing should include the locations and use of seat belts and if applicable:

(1) emergency exits;

(2) passenger emergency briefing cards;

(3) life-jackets;

(4) oxygen dispensing equipment;

(5) life rafts; and

(6) other emergency equipment provided for individual passenger use.

(b) The briefing should also include the location and general manner of use of the principal emergency equipment carried for collective use.

NCO.OP.135 Flight preparation

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) Before commencing a flight, the pilot-in-command shall ascertain by every reasonable means available that the space-based facilities, ground and/or water facilities, including communication facilities and navigation aids available and directly required on such flight, for the safe operation of the aircraft, are adequate for the type of operation under which the flight is to be conducted.

(b) Before commencing a flight, the pilot-in-command shall be familiar with all available meteorological information appropriate to the intended flight. Preparation for a flight away from the vicinity of the place of departure, and for every flight under IFR, shall include:

(1) a study of the available current meteorological reports and forecasts; and

(2) the planning of an alternative course of action to provide for the eventuality that the flight cannot be completed as planned, because of meteorological conditions.

NCO.OP.140 Destination alternate aerodromes — aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

For IFR flights, the pilot-in-command shall specify at least one destination alternate aerodrome in the flight plan, unless the available current meteorological information for the destination indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period, a ceiling of at least 1 000ft above the DH/MDH for an available instrument approach procedure (IAP) and a visibility of at least 5 000m.

NCO.OP.141 Destination alternate aerodromes — helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

For IFR flights, the pilot-in-command shall specify at least one destination alternate aerodrome in the flight plan, unless the available current meteorological information for the destination indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period, a ceiling of at least 1 000ft above the DH/MDH for an available IAP and a visibility of at least 3 000m.

NCO.OP.142 Destination alternate aerodromes — instrument approach operations

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

The pilot-in-command shall only select an aerodrome as a destination alternate aerodrome if either:

(a) an IAP that does not rely on GNSS is available either at the destination aerodrome or at a destination alternate aerodrome, or

(b) all of the following conditions are met:

(1) the onboard GNSS equipment is SBAS-capable;

(2) the destination aerodrome, any destination alternate aerodrome, and the route between them are within SBAS service area;

(3) ABAS is predicted to be available in the event of the unexpected unavailability of SBAS;

(4) an IAP is selected (either at destination or destination alternate aerodrome) that does not rely on the availability of SBAS;

(5) an appropriate contingency action allows the flight to be completed safely in the event of unavailability of GNSS.

SBAS-CAPABLE GNSS EQUIPMENT

GNSS system which are (E)TSO-C145() or (E)TSO-C146() are SBAS-capable. Aircraft certified for RNP APCH to LPV minima (see AMC1 NCO.IDE.A/H.195(l)) are considered compliant.

USE OF RAIM FOR SBAS

Where a receiver with RAIM is used to meet the requirement for SBAS, its availability should be predicted by a pre-flight RAIM check, in accordance with AMC1 NCO.GEN.105(c).

IAPs THAT DO NOT RELY ON SBAS

This instrument approach can be an RNP APCH to LNAV minima. It can also be an RNP APCH to LNAV/VNAV minima using Baro VNAV if the aircraft is equipped with a Baro VNAV function certified for APV.

This requirement is only used for planning purposes to cover the possibility of an SBAS loss; it does not prevent the pilot from flying an approach relying on SBAS if SBAS is available.

APPROPRIATE CONTINGENCY ACTION

An appropriate contingency action is an alternative offered in NCO.OP.142(b)(5) to completion of the planned flight to a safe landing, either at the planned destination or a destination alternate, using normal procedures and using navigation equipment meeting the requirements of NCO.IDE.A/H.100, installed for redundancy or as a backup.

The contingency action should be considered before flight and take into account the information identified by flight preparation according to NCO.OP.135. It may depend on the flight and availability of navigation solutions (satellites, ground navaids, etc.) and weather conditions (IMC, VMC) along the flight.

The contingency action addresses partial loss of navigation capability, such as:

             loss of the stand-alone GNSS equipment;

             local loss of GNSS signal-in-space (e.g. local jamming at destination);

             loss of GNSS signal-in-space.

It should take into account what options remain in case of loss of GNSS signal; for instance, (non-GNSS-based) radar vectoring by ATC, non-GNSS-based navigation systems or the possibility to reach VMC.

Examples of contingency actions include:

             seeking navigational assistance from ATS, using communication and surveillance systems that remain operational, to enable safe descent to VMC;

             the emergency use of navigation equipment not meeting the requirements of NCO.IDE.A/H.100 by making use of the provisions in NCO.OP.105(e);

             descent over water or very flat terrain to levels with reduced (but reasonable) obstacle clearance; and

             unusually long periods of dead reckoning.

NCO.OP.143 Destination alternate aerodromes planning minima — aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

An aerodrome shall not be specified as a destination alternate aerodrome unless the available current meteorological information indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period:

(a) for an alternate aerodrome with an available instrument approach operation with DH less than 250 ft,

(1) a ceiling of at least 200 ft above the decision height (DH) or minimum descent height (MDH) associated with the instrument approach operation; and

(2) a visibility of at least 1 500m; or

(b) for an alternate aerodrome with an instrument approach operation with DH or MDH 250 ft or more,

(1) a ceiling of at least 400 ft above the DH or MDH associated with the instrument approach operation; and

(2) a visibility of at least 3 000m; or

(c) for an alternate aerodrome without an IAP,

(1) a ceiling of at least the higher of 2 000ft and the minimum safe IFR height; and

(2) a visibility of at least 5 000m.

MINIMUM SAFE IFR HEIGHT

For the purpose of NCO.OP.143, the minimum safe IFR height is the height above the aerodrome of the lowest level compatible with SERA.5015(b) for en-route flight at a point from which visual flight to the aerodrome could reasonably be commenced.

NCO.OP.144 Destination alternate aerodromes planning minima — helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

An aerodrome shall not be specified as a destination alternate aerodrome unless the available current meteorological information indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period,

(a) for an alternate aerodrome with an IAP:

(1) a ceiling of at least 200 ft above the DH or MDH associated with the IAP; and

(2) a visibility of at least 1 500m by day or 3 000m by night; or

(b) for an alternate aerodrome without an IAP:

(1) a ceiling of at least the higher of 2 000ft and the minimum safe IFR height; and

(2) a visibility of at least 1 500m by day or 3 000m by night.

MINIMUM SAFE IFR HEIGHT

For the purpose of NCO.OP.144, the minimum safe IFR height is the height above the aerodrome of the lowest level compatible with SERA.5015(b) for en-route flight at a point from which visual flight to the aerodrome could reasonably be commenced.

NCO.OP.145 Refuelling with passengers embarking, on board or disembarking

Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

(a) The aircraft shall not be refuelled with aviation gasoline (AVGAS) or wide-cut type fuel or a mixture of these types of fuel, when passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking.

(b) For all other types of fuel/energy, the aircraft shall not be refuelled when passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking, unless it is attended by the pilot-in-command or other qualified personnel ready to initiate and direct an evacuation of the aircraft by the most practical and expeditious means available.

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

If passengers are on board when refuelling with other than aviation gasoline (AVGAS), wide-cut type fuel or a mixture of these types of fuel, the following precautions should be taken:

(a) the pilot-in-command should remain at a location during fuelling operations with passengers on board which allows him to handle emergency procedures concerning fire protection and fire-fighting and initiate and direct an evacuation;

(b) personnel and passengers should be warned that refuelling will take place;

(c) passengers should be instructed to unfasten their seat belts and refrain from smoking; and

(d) if the presence of fuel vapour is detected inside the aircraft, or any other hazard arises during refuelling, fuelling should be stopped immediately.

NCO.OP.147 Refuelling with engine(s) and/or rotors turning – helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

Refuelling with engine(s) and/or rotors turning shall only be conducted if all those conditions are met simultaneously:

(a) if it is not practical to shut down or restart the engine;

(b) in accordance with any specific procedures and limitations in the aircraft flight manual (AFM);

(c) with JET A or JET A-1 fuel types;

(d) with no passengers or task specialists on board, embarking or disembarking;

(e) if the operator of the aerodrome or operating site allows such operations;

(f) in the presence of the appropriate rescue and firefighting (RFF) facilities or equipment; and

(g) in accordance with a checklist that shall contain:

(1) normal and contingency procedures;

(2) the required equipment;

(3) any limitations; and

(4) responsibilities and duties of the pilot-in-command and, if applicable, crew members and task specialists.

CHECKLIST — HELICOPTERS

(a) Before commencing a refuelling with rotors turning, the pilot-in-command should conduct a risk assessment, assessing the complexity of the activity in order to determine the hazards and associated risks inherent in the operation, and establish mitigating measures.

(b) Refuelling with rotors turning should be performed in accordance with a checklist. Based on the risk assessment, the pilot-in-command should establish a checklist appropriate to the activity and aircraft used, taking into account this AMC.

(c) The checklist should cover relevant elements of GM1 NCO.SPEC.105.

(d) The checklist that is relevant to the duties of the pilot-in-command, crew members, and task specialists should be readily accessible.

(e) The checklist should be regularly reviewed and updated, as appropriate.

PROCEDURES — HELICOPTERS

AMC1 SPO.OP.157 and GM1 SPO.OP.157 provide a generic framework for the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for refuelling with the rotors turning.

NCO.OP.150 Carriage of passengers

Regulation (EU) 2018/394

The pilot-in-command shall ensure that, prior to and during taxiing, take-off and landing, and whenever deemed necessary in the interest of safety, each passenger on board occupies a seat or berth and has his/her safety belt or restraint device properly secured.

NCO.OP.155 Smoking on board — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall not allow smoking on board:

(a) whenever considered necessary in the interest of safety; and

(b) during refuelling of the aircraft.

NCO.OP.160 Meteorological conditions

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) The pilot-in-command shall only commence or continue a VFR flight if the latest available meteorological information indicates that the meteorological conditions along the route and at the intended destination at the estimated time of use will be at or above the applicable VFR operating minima.

(b) The pilot-in-command shall only commence or continue an IFR flight towards the planned destination aerodrome if the latest available meteorological information indicates that, at the estimated time of arrival, the meteorological conditions at the destination or at least one destination alternate aerodrome are at or above the applicable aerodrome operating minima.

(c) If a flight contains VFR and IFR segments, the meteorological information referred to in (a) and (b) shall be applicable as far as relevant.

APPLICATION OF AERODROME FORECASTS (TAF & TREND) — AEROPLANES AND HELICOPTERS

Where a terminal area forecast (TAF) or meteorological aerodrome or aeronautical report (METAR) with landing forecast (TREND) is used as forecast, the following criteria should be used:

(a) From the start of a TAF validity period up to the time of applicability of the first subsequent 'FM...' or 'BECMG' or, if no 'FM' or ‘BECMG' is given, up to the end of the validity period of the TAF, the prevailing weather conditions forecast in the initial part of the TAF should be applied.

(b) From the time of observation of a METAR up to the time of applicability of the first subsequent 'FM...' or 'BECMG' or, if no 'FM' or ‘BECMG' is given, up to the end of the validity period of the TREND, the prevailing weather conditions forecast in the METAR should be applied.

(c) Following FM (alone) or BECMG AT, any specified change should be applied from the time of the change.

(d) Following BECMG (alone), BECMG FM, BECMG TL, BECMG FM TL:

(1) in the case of deterioration, any specified change should be applied from the start of the change; and

(2) in the case of improvement, any specified change should be applied from the end of the change.

(e) In a period indicated by TEMPO (alone), TEMPO FM, TEMPO TL, TEMPO FM TL, PROB30/40 (alone):

(1) deteriorations associated with persistent conditions in connection with e.g. haze, mist, fog, dust/sandstorm, continuous precipitation should be applied;

(2) deteriorations associated with transient/showery conditions in connection with short-lived weather phenomena, e.g. thunderstorms, showers may be ignored; and

(3) improvements should in all cases be disregarded.

(f) In a period indicated by PROB30/40 TEMPO:

(1) deteriorations may be disregarded; and

(2) improvements should be disregarded.

Note: Abbreviations used in the context of this AMC are as follows:

FM:   from

BECMG: becoming

AT:   at

TL:   till

TEMPO:  temporarily

PROB:  probability

CONTINUATION OF A FLIGHT — AEROPLANES AND HELICOPtERS

In the case of in-flight re-planning, continuation of a flight refers to the point from which a revised flight plan applies.

EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS — AEROPLANES AND HELICOPTERS

It is recommended that the pilot-in-command carefully evaluates the available meteorological information relevant to the proposed flight, such as applicable surface observations, winds, temperatures aloft, terminal and area forecasts, air meteorological information reports (AIRMETs), significant meteorological information (SIGMET) and pilot reports. The ultimate decision whether, when, and where to make the flight rests with the pilot-in-command. The pilot-in-command also should continue to re-evaluate changing weather conditions.

NCO.OP.165 Ice and other contaminants – ground procedures

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall only commence take-off if the aircraft is clear of any deposit that might adversely affect the performance or controllability of the aircraft, except as permitted in the AFM.

NCO.OP.170 Ice and other contaminants – flight procedures

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command shall only commence a flight or intentionally fly into expected or actual icing conditions if the aircraft is certified and equipped to cope with such conditions as referred to in 2.a.5 of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008.

(b) If icing exceeds the intensity of icing for which the aircraft is certified or if an aircraft not certified for flight in known icing conditions encounters icing, the pilot-in-command shall exit the icing conditions without delay, by a change of level and/or route, and if necessary by declaring an emergency to ATC.

KNOWN ICING CONDITIONS

Known icing conditions are conditions where actual ice is observed visually to be on the aircraft by the pilot or identified by on-board sensors.

NCO.OP.175 Take-off conditions — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

Before commencing take-off, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that:

(a) according to the information available, the meteorological conditions at the aerodrome or the operating site and the condition of the runway/FATO intended to be used will not prevent a safe take-off and departure; and

(b) the selected aerodrome operating minima are consistent with all of the following:

(1) the operative ground equipment;

(2) the operative aircraft systems;

(3) the aircraft performance;

(4) flight crew qualifications.

METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS FOR TAKE-OFF — AEROPLANES

(a) When the reported visibility is below that required for take-off and RVR is not reported, a take‑off should only be commenced if the pilot-in-command can determine that the visibility along the take-off runway/area is equal to or better than the required minimum.

(b) When no reported visibility or RVR is available, a take-off should only be commenced if the pilot‑in-command can determine that the RVR/VIS along the take-off runway/area is equal to or better than the required minimum.

NCO.OP.180 Simulated situations in flight

Regulation (EU) 2018/1975

(a) The pilot-in-command shall, when carrying passengers or cargo, not simulate:

(1) situations that require the application of abnormal or emergency procedures; or

(2) flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).

(b) Notwithstanding (a), when training flights are conducted by a training organisation referred to in Article 10a of Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011, such situations may be simulated with student pilots on-board.

DESIGNATION OF PERSONS AS CREW MEMBERS

(a) The operator may designate any person as a crew member (including a task specialist) provided that:

(1) the role, according to the reasonable expectation of the operator, will enhance the safety of the flight or achieve an operational objective of the flight;

(2) the person, according to the reasonable expectation of the operator, is capable of fulfilling the role;

(3) the person has been briefed on the role as a crew member and informed that they are crew, not a passenger; and

(4) the person agrees to the role as a crew member.

(b) Crew members are not considered to be passengers.

(c) Crew members may be required, by specific provisions of this Regulation and other Implementing Rules, to hold licences, ratings or other personnel certificates to fulfil certain roles such as instructor, examiner or flight engineer in certain circumstances.

NCO.OP.185 In-flight fuel/energy management

Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

(a) The pilot-in-command shall monitor the amount of usable fuel/energy remaining on board to ensure that it is protected and not less than the fuel/energy that is required to proceed to an aerodrome or operating site where a safe landing can be made.

(b) The pilot-in-command of a controlled flight shall advise air traffic control (ATC) of a ‘minimum fuel/energy’ state by declaring ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ when the pilot-in-command has:

(1) committed to land at a specific aerodrome or operating site; and

(2) calculated that any change to the existing clearance to that aerodrome or operating site, or other air traffic delays, may result in landing with less than the planned final reserve fuel/energy.

(c) The pilot-in-command of a controlled flight shall declare a situation of ‘fuel/energy emergency’ by broadcasting ‘MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL’ when the usable fuel/energy estimated to be available upon landing at the nearest aerodrome or operating site where a safe landing can be made is less than the planned final reserve fuel/energy.

‘MINIMUM FUEL’ DECLARATION

(a) The pilot-in-command may consider reporting the remaining fuel/energy endurance after a ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ or ‘MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL’ declaration.

Note: For Part-NCO operators, the FRF/energy varies; therefore, the ATC may not be aware of the amount of the remaining fuel/energy endurance.

(b) The ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ declaration informs the ATC that all planned landing options have been reduced to a specific aerodrome or operating site of intended landing, and that for helicopters, no other landing site is available. It also informs the ATC that any change to the existing clearance may result in landing with less than the planned FRF/energy. This is not an emergency situation but an indication that an emergency situation is possible, should any additional delay occur.

The pilot should not expect any form of priority handling as a result of a ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ declaration. However, the ATC should advise the flight crew of any additional expected delays, as well as coordinate with other ATC units when transferring the control of the aircraft, to ensure that the other ATC units are aware of the flight’s fuel/energy state.

(c) The requirement for declaring ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ and ‘MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL’ applies only to controlled flights; however, these declarations may also be made during uncontrolled flights if the pilot-in-command considers this advisable.

NCO.OP.190 Use of supplemental oxygen

Regulation (EU) 2016/1119

(a) The pilot-in-command shall ensure that all flight crew members engaged in performing duties essential to the safe operation of an aircraft in flight use supplemental oxygen continuously whenever he/she determines that at the altitude of the intended flight the lack of oxygen might result in impairment of the faculties of crew members, and shall ensure that supplemental oxygen is available to passengers when lack of oxygen might harmfully affect passengers.

(b) In any other case when the pilot-in-command cannot determine how the lack of oxygen might affect all occupants on board, he/she shall ensure that:

(1) all crew members engaged in performing duties essential to the safe operation of an aircraft in flight use supplemental oxygen for any period in excess of 30 minutes when the pressure altitude in the the passenger compartment will be between 10 000 ft and 13 000 ft; and

(2) all occupants use supplemental oxygen for any period that the pressure altitude in the the passenger compartment will be above 13 000 ft.

DETERMINATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN NEED

When determining the need for supplemental oxygen carriage and use, the pilot-in-command should:

(a) in the preflight phase:

(1) be aware of hypoxia conditions and associated risks;

(2) consider the following objective conditions for the intended flight:

(i) altitude;

(ii) duration of the flight; and

(iii) any other relevant operational conditions.

(3) consider individual conditions of flight crew members and passengers in relation to:

(i) altitude of the place of residence;

(ii) smoking;

(iii) experience in flights at high altitudes;

(iv) actual medical conditions and medications;

(v) age

(vi) disabilities; and

(vii) any other relevant factor that may be detected, or reported by the person; and

(4) when relevant, ensure that all flight crew members and passengers are briefed on hypoxia conditions and symptoms, as well as on the usage of supplemental oxygen equipment.

(b) during flight:

(1) monitor for early symptoms of hypoxia conditions; and

(2) if detecting early symptoms of hypoxia conditions:

(i) consider to return to a safe altitude, and

(ii) ensure that supplemental oxygen is used, if available.

GENERAL

(a) The responsibility of the pilot-in-command for safety of all persons on board, as required by NCO.GEN.105(a)(1), includes the determination of need for supplemental oxygen use.

(b) The altitudes above which NCO.OP.190(b) requires oxygen to be available and used are applicable to those cases when the pilot-in-command cannot determine the need for supplemental oxygen. However, if the pilot-in-command is able to make this determination, he/she may elect in the interest of safety to require oxygen also for operations at or below such altitudes.

(c) The pilot-in-command should be aware that flying below altitudes mentioned in NCO.OP.190(b) does not provide absolute protection against hypoxia symptoms, should individual conditions and aptitudes be prevalent.

DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN NEED — BEFORE FLIGHT

Detailed information and guidance on hypoxia conditions and symptoms, content of the briefing on hypoxia and assessment of individual conditions may be found in the EASA leaflet ‘Hypoxia’.

DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN NEED — IN FLIGHT

Several methods for monitoring hypoxia early symptoms may be used and some methods may be aided by personal equipment, such as finger-mounted pulse oximeters. Detailed information and guidance on entering hypoxia conditions, on hypoxia symptoms early detection, and on use of personal equipment such as finger-mounted pulse oximeters or equivalent may be found in the EASA leaflet ‘Hypoxia’.

NCO.OP.195 Ground proximity detection

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

When undue proximity to the ground is detected by the pilot-in-command or by a ground proximity warning system, the pilot-in-command shall take corrective action immediately in order to establish safe flight conditions.

NCO.OP.200 Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II)

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

When ACAS II is used, operational procedures and training shall be in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1332/2011.

NCO.OP.205 Approach and landing conditions — aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

Before commencing an approach to land, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that:

(a) according to the information available, the meteorological conditions at the aerodrome or the operating site, and the condition of the runway intended to be used will not prevent a safe approach, landing, or missed approach; and

(b) the selected aerodrome operating minima are consistent with all of the following:

(1) the operative ground equipment;

(2) the operative aircraft systems;

(3) the aircraft performance, and

(4) flight crew qualifications.

LANDING DISTANCE ASSESSMENT

(a) The in-flight landing distance assessment should be based on the latest available weather report and, if available, runway condition report (RCR).

(b) The assessment should be initially carried out when weather report and RCR, if available, are obtained, usually around top of descent. If the planned duration of the flight does not allow to carry out the assessment in non-critical phases of flight, the assessment should be carried out before departure.

(c) When meteorological conditions may lead to a degradation of the runway surface condition, the assessment should include consideration of how much deterioration in runway surface friction characteristics may be tolerated, so that a quick decision can be made prior to landing.

(d) Whenever the RCR is in use and the runway braking action encountered during the landing roll is not as good as reported by the aerodrome operator in the RCR, the pilot-in-command should notify the air traffic services (ATS) by means of a special air-report (AIREP) as soon as practicable.

RUNWAY CONDITION REPORT (RCR)

When the aerodrome reports the runway conditions by means of an RCR, the information contained therein includes a runway condition code (RWYCC). The determination of the RWYCC is based on the use of the runway condition assessment matrix (RCAM). The RCAM correlates the RWYCC with the contaminants present on the runway and the braking action.

A detailed description of the RCR format and content, the RWYCC and the RCAM may be found in Annex V (Part-ADR.OPS) to Regulation (EU) No 139/2014, in Regulation (EU) 2017/373 and in Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 (SERA). Further guidance may be found in the following documents:

(a) ICAO Doc 9981 ‘PANS Aerodromes’;

(b) ICAO Doc 4444 ‘PANS ATM’;

(c) ICAO Doc 10064 ‘Aeroplane Performance Manual’; and

(d) ICAO Circular 355 ‘Assessment, Measurement and Reporting of Runway Surface Conditions’.

NCO.OP.206 Approach and landing conditions — helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

Before commencing an approach to land, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that:

(a) according to the information available, the meteorological conditions at the aerodrome or the operating site and the condition of the final approach and take-off area (FATO) intended to be used will not prevent a safe approach, landing or missed approach; and

(b) the selected aerodrome operating minima are consistent with all of the following:

(1) the operative ground equipment;

(2) the operative aircraft systems;

(3) the aircraft performance;

(4) flight crew qualifications.

FATO SUITABILITY

The in-flight determination of the FATO suitability should be based on the latest available meteorological report.

NCO.OP.210 Commencement and continuation of approach — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) If the controlling RVR for the runway to be used for landing is less than 550 m (or any lower value established in accordance with an approval under SPA.LVO), then an instrument approach operation shall not be continued:

(1) past a point at which the aircraft is 1 000 ft above the aerodrome elevation; or

(2) into the final approach segment if the DH or MDH is higher than 1 000 ft.

(b) If the required visual reference is not established, a missed approach shall be executed at or before the DA/H or the MDA/H.

(c) If the required visual reference is not maintained after DA/H or MDA/H, a go-around shall be executed promptly.

VISUAL REFERENCES

(a) For a straight-in approach, at DH or MDH, at least one of the visual references specified below should be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot:

(1) elements of the approach lighting system;

(2) the threshold;

(3) the threshold markings;

(4) the threshold lights;

(5) the threshold identification lights;

(6) the visual glide path indicator;

(7) the touchdown zone (TDZ) or TDZ markings;

(8) the TDZ lights;

(9) FATO/runway edge lights;

(10) for helicopter PinS approaches, the identification beacon light and visual ground reference;

(11) for helicopter PinS approaches, the identifiable elements of the environment defined on the instrument chart; or

(12) for helicopter PinS approaches with instructions to ‘proceed VFR’, sufficient visual cues to determine that the conditions for VFR are met.

(b) For a circling approach, the required visual reference is the runway environment.

RVR MINIMA FOR CONTINUED APPROACH

(a) The controlling RVR should be the touchdown RVR.

(b) If the touchdown RVR is not reported, then the midpoint RVR should be the controlling RVR.

(c) If neither the touchdown RVR nor the midpoint RVR is reported, then NCO.OP.210(a) is not applicable.

APPLICATION OF RVR REPORTS

(a) There is no prohibition on the commencement of an approach based on reported RVR. The restriction in NCO.OP.210 applies only if the RVR is reported and applies to the continuation of the approach past a point where the aircraft is 1 000 ft above the aerodrome elevation or into the final approach segment (FAS) as applicable.

(b) If a deterioration in the RVR is reported once the aircraft is below 1 000 ft on in the FAS, as applicable, then there is no requirement for the approach to be discontinued. In this situation, the normal visual reference requirements would apply at the DA/H.

(c) Where additional RVR information is provided (e.g. midpoint and stop end), this is advisory; such information may be useful to the pilot in order to determine whether there will be sufficient visual reference to control the aircraft during roll-out and taxi.

(d) If the RVR is less than the RVR calculated in accordance with AMC3 NCO.OP.110, a go-around is likely to be necessary since visual reference may not be established at the DH, or at the MDH at a point where a stable approach to landing in the TDZ remains possible. Similarly, in the absence of an RVR report, the reported visibility may indicate that a go-around is likely. The pilot‑in‑command should consider available options, based on a thorough assessment of risk, such as diverting to an alternate, before commencing the approach.

NCO.OP.220 Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II)

Regulation (EU) 2016/1199

When ACAS II is used, pilot-in-command shall apply the appropriate operational procedures and be adequately trained.