CAT.IDE.H.100 Instruments and equipment – general

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

(a) Instruments and equipment required by this Subpart shall be approved in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requirements, except for the following items:

(1) independent portable lights;

(2) an accurate time piece;

(3) chart holder;

(4) first-aid kit;

(5) megaphones;

(6) survival and signalling equipment;

(7) sea anchors and equipment for mooring;

(8) child restraint devices.

(b) Instruments and equipment not required under this Annex (Part-CAT) as well as any other equipment which is not required under this Regulation, but carried on a flight, shall comply with the following requirements:

(1)  the information provided by those instruments, equipment or accessories shall not be used by the flight crew members to comply with Annex II to Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 or points CAT.IDE.H.330, CAT.IDE.H.335, CAT.IDE.H.340 and CAT.IDE.H.345 of this Annex;

(2) the instruments and equipment shall not affect the airworthiness of the helicopter, even in the case of failures or malfunction.

(c) If equipment is to be used by one flight crew member at his/her station during flight, it shall be readily operable from that station. When a single item of equipment is required to be operated by more than one flight crew member it shall be installed so that the equipment is readily operable from any station at which the equipment is required to be operated.

(d) Those instruments that are used by any flight crew member shall be so arranged as to permit the flight crew member to see the indications readily from his/her station, with the minimum practicable deviation from the position and line of vision that he/she normally assumes when looking forward along the flight path.

(e) All required emergency equipment shall be easily accessible for immediate use.

REQUIRED INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) NO 748/2012

The functionality of non-installed instruments and equipment required by this Subpart and that do not need an equipment approval, as listed in CAT.IDE.H.100(a), should be checked against recognised industry standards appropriate to the intended purpose. The operator is responsible for ensuring the maintenance of these instruments and equipment.

NOT REQUIRED INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) NO 748/2012, BUT ARE CARRIED ON A FLIGHT

(a) The provision of this paragraph does not exempt any installed instrument or item of equipment from complying with Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012. In this case, the installation should be approved as required in Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 and should comply with the applicable Certification Specifications as required under that Regulation.

(b) The failure of additional non-installed instruments or equipment not required by this Part or the Certification Specifications as required under Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 or any applicable airspace requirements should not adversely affect the airworthiness and/or the safe operation of the aircraft. Examples may be the following:

(1) portable electronic flight bag (EFB);

(2) portable electronic devices carried by flight crew or cabin crew; and

(3) non-installed passenger entertainment equipment.

POSITIONING OF INSTRUMENTS

This requirement implies that whenever a single instrument is required to be installed in a helicopter operated in a multi-crew environment, the instrument needs to be visible from each flight crew station.

CAT.IDE.H.105 Minimum equipment for flight

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the helicopter’s instruments, items of equipment or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing, unless:

(a) the helicopter is operated in accordance with the operator’s MEL; or

(b) the operator is approved by the competent authority to operate the helicopter within the constraints of the MMEL in accordance with point ORO.MLR.105(j) of Annex III.

MANAGEMENT OF THE STATUS OF CERTAIN INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT OR FUNCTIONS

The operator should control and retain the status of the instruments, equipment or functions required for the intended operation, that are not controlled for the purpose of continuing airworthiness management.

MANAGEMENT OF THE STATUS OF CERTAIN INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT OR FUNCTIONS

(a) The operator should define responsibilities and procedures to retain and control the status of instruments, equipment or functions required for the intended operation, that are not controlled for the purpose of continuing airworthiness management.

(b) Examples of such instruments, equipment or functions may be, but are not limited to, equipment related to navigation approvals as FM immunity or certain software versions.

CAT.IDE.H.115 Operating lights

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) Helicopters operated under VFR by day shall be equipped with an anti-collision light system.

(b) Helicopters operated at night or under IFR shall, in addition to (a), be equipped with:

(1) lighting supplied from the helicopter’s electrical system to provide adequate illumination for all instruments and equipment essential to the safe operation of the helicopter;

(2) lighting supplied from the helicopter’s electrical system to provide illumination in all passenger compartments;

(3) an independent portable light for each required crew member readily accessible to crew members when seated at their designated stations;

(4) navigation/position lights;

(5) two landing lights of which at least one is adjustable in flight so as to illuminate the ground in front of and below the helicopter and the ground on either side of the helicopter; and

(6) lights to conform with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea if the helicopter is amphibious.

CAT.IDE.H.125 Operations under VFR by day – flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

(a) Helicopters operated under VFR by day shall be equipped with the following equipment, available at the pilot’s station:

(1) A means of measuring and displaying:

(i) Magnetic heading;

(ii) Time in hours, minutes, and seconds;

(iii) Barometric altitude;

(iv) Indicated airspeed;

(v) Vertical speed;

(vi) Slip; and

(vii) Outside air temperature.

(2) A means of indicating when the supply of power to the required flight instruments is not adequate.

(b) Whenever two pilots are required for the operation, an additional separate means of displaying the following shall be available for the second pilot:

(1) Barometric altitude;

(2) Indicated airspeed;

(3) Vertical speed; and

(4) Slip.

(c) Helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg or any helicopter operating over water when out of sight of land or when the visibility is less than 1 500 m, shall be equipped with a means of measuring and displaying:

(1) Attitude; and

(2) Heading.

(d) A means for preventing malfunction of the airspeed indicating systems due to condensation or icing shall be available for helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg or an MOPSC of more than nine.

INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS

(a) Individual equipment requirements may be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight systems or by a combination of parameters on electronic displays, provided that the information so available to each required pilot is not less than the required in the applicable operational requirements, and the equivalent safety of the installation has been shown during type certification approval of the helicopter for the intended type of operation.

(b) The means of measuring and indicating slip, helicopter attitude and stabilised helicopter heading may be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight director systems, provided that the safeguards against total failure, inherent in the three separate instruments, are retained.

MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING MAGNETIC HEADING

The means of measuring and displaying magnetic direction should be a magnetic compass or equivalent.

MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING THE TIME

An acceptable means of compliance is a clock displaying hours, minutes and seconds, with a sweep-second pointer or digital presentation.

CALIBRATION OF THE MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING PRESSURE ALTITUDE

The instrument measuring and displaying pressure altitude should be of a sensitive type calibrated in feet (ft), with a sub-scale setting, calibrated in hectopascals/millibars, adjustable for any barometric pressure likely to be set during flight.

CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT INDICATING AIRSPEED

The instrument indicating airspeed should be calibrated in knots (kt).

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE

(a) The means of displaying outside air temperature should be calibrated in degrees Celsius.

(b) The means of displaying outside air temperature may be an air temperature indicator that provides indications that are convertible to outside air temperature.

MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS — DUPLICATE INSTRUMENTS

Duplicate instruments should include separate displays for each pilot and separate selectors or other associated equipment where appropriate.

MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS

(a) Two pilots are required for the operation if required by the one of the following:

(1) the AFM;

(2) point ORO.FC.200.

MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS ON A VOLUNTARY BASIS — HELICOPTERS OPERATED UNDER VFR BY DAY

(b) If the AFM permits single-pilot operations, and the operator decides that the crew composition is more than one pilot, then point CAT.IDE.H.125(b) does not apply. However, additional means to display instruments referred to in CAT.IDE.H.125(b) may be required by point CAT.IDE.H.100(d).

STABILISED HEADING

Stabilised heading should be achieved for VFR flights by a gyroscopic heading indicator, whereas for IFR flights, this should be achieved through a magnetic gyroscopic heading indicator.

MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO CONDENSATION OR ICING

The means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing of the airspeed indicating system should be a heated pitot tube or equivalent.

SUMMARY TABLE

Table 1

Flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

SERIAL

FLIGHTS UNDER VFR

FLIGHTS UNDER IFR OR AT NIGHT

INSTRUMENT

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

1

Magnetic direction

1

1

1

1

2

time

1

1

1

1

3

Pressure altitude

1

2

2

Note (1)

2

4

Indicated airspeed

1

2

1

2

5

Vertical speed

1

2

1

2

6

Slip

1

2

1

2

7

Attitude

1

Note (2)

2

Note(2)

1

2

8

Stabilised direction

1

Note (2)

2

Note(2)

1

2

9

Outside air temperature

1

1

1

1

10

Airspeed icing protection

1

Note (3)

2

Note (3)

1

2

11

Airspeed icing protection failure indicating

 

 

1

Note (4)

2

Note (4)

12

Static pressure source

 

 

2

2

13

Standby attitude

 

 

1

Note (5)

1

Note (5)

14

Chart holder

 

 

1

Note (6)

1

Note (6)

Note (1)  For single-pilot night operation under VFR, one means of measuring and displaying pressure altitude may be substituted by a means of measuring and displaying radio altitude.

Note (2)  Applicable only to helicopters with a maximum certified take-off mass (MCTOM) of more than 3 175 kg; or helicopters operated over water when out of sight of land or when the visibility is less than 1 500 m.

Note (3)  Applicable only to helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg, or with an MOPSC of more than 9.

Note (4)  The pitot heater failure annunciation applies to any helicopter issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 August 1999. It also applies before that date when: the helicopter has a MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg and an MOPSC of more than 9.

Note (5)  For helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg, CS 29.1303(g) may require either a gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator combined with a slip-skid indicator (turn and bank indicator) or a standby attitude indicator satisfying the requirements. In any case, the original type certification standard should be referred to determine the exact requirement.

Note (6)  Applicable only to helicopters operating under IFR.

CAT.IDE.H.130 Operations under IFR or at night – flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

Helicopters operated under VFR at night or under IFR shall be equipped with the following equipment, available at the pilot’s station:

(a) A means of measuring and displaying:

(1) Magnetic heading;

(2) Time in hours, minutes and seconds;

(3) Indicated airspeed;

(4) Vertical speed;

(5) Slip;

(6) Attitude;

(7) Stabilised heading; and

(8) Outside air temperature.

(b) Two means of measuring and displaying barometric altitude. For single-pilot operations under VFR at night one pressure altimeter may be substituted by a radio altimeter.

(c) A means of indicating when the supply of power to the required flight instruments is not adequate.

(d) A means of preventing malfunction of the airspeed indicating systems required in (a)(3) and (h)(2) due to either condensation or icing.

(e) A means of annunciating to the flight crew the failure of the means required in (d) for helicopters:

(1) issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 August 1999; or

(2) issued with an individual CofA before 1 August 1999 with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg, and with an MOPSC of more than nine.

(f) A standby means of measuring and displaying attitude that:

(1) is powered continuously during normal operation and, in the event of a total failure of the normal electrical generating system, is powered from a source independent of the normal electrical generating system;

(2) operates independently of any other means of measuring and displaying attitude;

(3) is capable of being used from either pilot’s station;

(4) is operative automatically after total failure of the normal electrical generating system;

(5) provides reliable operation for a minimum of 30 minutes or the time required to fly to a suitable alternate landing site when operating over hostile terrain or offshore, whichever is greater, after total failure of the normal electrical generating system, taking into account other loads on the emergency power supply and operational procedures;

(6) is appropriately illuminated during all phases of operation; and

(7) is associated with a means to alert the flight crew when operating under its dedicated power supply, including when operated by emergency power.

(g) An alternate source of static pressure for the means of measuring altitude, airspeed and vertical speed.

(h) Whenever two pilots are required for the operation, a separate means for displaying for the second pilot:

(1) Barometric altitude;

(2) Indicated airspeed;

(3) Vertical speed;

(4) Slip;

(5) Attitude; and

(6) Stabilised heading.

(i) For IFR operations, a chart holder in an easily readable position that can be illuminated for night operations.

 ALTIMETERS

Altimeters with counter drum-pointer or equivalent presentation are considered to be less susceptible to misinterpretation for helicopters operating above 10 000 ft.

MEANS OF INDICATING FAILURE OF THE AIRSPEED INDICATING SYSTEM’S MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO EITHER CONDENSATION OR ICING

A combined means of indicating failure of the airspeed indicating system’s means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing is acceptable provided that it is visible from each flight crew station and that there it is a means to identify the failed heater in systems with two or more sensors.

ILLUMINATION OF STANDBY MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING ATTITUDE

The standby means of measuring and displaying attitude should be illuminated so as to be clearly visible under all conditions of daylight and artificial lighting.

MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS

Two pilots are required for the operation if required by the one of the following:

(a) the AFM;

(b) the operations manual.

CHART HOLDER

An acceptable means of compliance with the chart holder requirement is to display a pre-composed chart on an electronic flight bag (EFB).

SUMMARY TABLE

Table 1

Flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

SERIAL

FLIGHTS UNDER VFR

FLIGHTS UNDER IFR OR AT NIGHT

INSTRUMENT

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

1

Magnetic direction

1

1

1

1

2

time

1

1

1

1

3

Pressure altitude

1

2

2

Note (1)

2

4

Indicated airspeed

1

2

1

2

5

Vertical speed

1

2

1

2

6

Slip

1

2

1

2

7

Attitude

1

Note (2)

2

Note(2)

1

2

8

Stabilised direction

1

Note (2)

2

Note(2)

1

2

9

Outside air temperature

1

1

1

1

10

Airspeed icing protection

1

Note (3)

2

Note (3)

1

2

11

Airspeed icing protection failure indicating

 

 

1

Note (4)

2

Note (4)

12

Static pressure source

 

 

2

2

13

Standby attitude

 

 

1

Note (5)

1

Note (5)

14

Chart holder

 

 

1

Note (6)

1

Note (6)

Note (1)  For single-pilot night operation under VFR, one means of measuring and displaying pressure altitude may be substituted by a means of measuring and displaying radio altitude.

Note (2)  Applicable only to helicopters with a maximum certified take-off mass (MCTOM) of more than 3 175 kg; or helicopters operated over water when out of sight of land or when the visibility is less than 1 500 m.

Note (3)  Applicable only to helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg, or with an MOPSC of more than 9.

Note (4)  The pitot heater failure annunciation applies to any helicopter issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 August 1999. It also applies before that date when: the helicopter has a MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg and an MOPSC of more than 9.

Note (5)  For helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg, CS 29.1303(g) may require either a gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator combined with a slip-skid indicator (turn and bank indicator) or a standby attitude indicator satisfying the requirements. In any case, the original type certification standard should be referred to determine the exact requirement.

Note (6)  Applicable only to helicopters operating under IFR.

CAT.IDE.H.135 Additional equipment for single-pilot operation under IFR

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Helicopters operated under IFR with a single-pilot shall be equipped with an autopilot with at least altitude hold and heading mode.

CAT.IDE.H.145 Radio altimeters

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) Helicopters on flights over water shall be equipped with a radio altimeter capable of emitting an audio warning below a pre-set height and a visual warning at a height selectable by the pilot, when operating:

(1) out of sight of the land;

(2) in a visibility of less than 1 500 m;

(3) at night; or

(4) at a distance from land corresponding to more than three minutes at normal cruising speed.

AUDIO WARNING DEVICE

(a) The audio warning should be a voice warning.

(b) The audio warning may be provided by a helicopter terrain awareness and warning system (HTAWS).

RADIO ALTIMETER DISPLAY

The radio altimeter should be of an analogue type display presentation that requires minimal interpretation for both an instantaneous impression of absolute height and rate of change of height.

AUDIO-VOICE-ALERTING DEVICE

(a) To be effective, the voice warning alert should be distinguishable from other warnings and should contain a clear and concise voice message.

(b) The warning format should meet the following conditions:

(1) the warning should be unique (i.e. voice);

(2) it should not be inhibited by any other audio warnings, except by higher priority alerts such as helicopter terrain awareness and warning system (HTAWS); and

(3) the urgency of the warning should be adequate to draw attention but not such as to cause undue annoyance during deliberate descents through the datum height.

(c) The criteria above can be satisfactorily met if the warning format incorporates all of the following features:

(1) a unique tone should precede the voice message; a further tone after the voice may enhance uniqueness and attract more attention without causing undue annoyance;

(2) the perceived tone and voice should be moderately urgent;

(3) the message should be compact as opposed to lengthy provided that the meaning is not compromised, e.g. ‘One fifty feet’ as opposed to ‘One hundred and fifty feet’;

(4) an information message is preferable (e.g. ‘One hundred feet’); messages such as ‘Low height’ do not convey the correct impression during deliberate descents through the datum height;

(5) command messages (e.g. ‘Pull up, pull up’) should not be used unless they relate specifically to height monitoring (e.g. ‘Check height’); and

(6) the volume of the warning should be adequate and not variable below an acceptable minimum value.

(d) Every effort should be made to prevent spurious warnings.

(e) The height at which the audio warning is triggered by the radio altimeter should be such as to provide adequate warning for the pilot to take corrective action. It is envisaged that most installations will adopt a height in the range of 100–160 ft. The datum should not be adjustable in flight.

(f) The preset datum height should not be set in a way that it coincides with commonly used instrument approach minima (i.e. 200 ft). Once triggered, the message should sound within 0.5 sec.

(g) The voice warning should be triggered only whilst descending through the preset datum height and be inhibited whilst ascending.

RADIO ALTIMETER DISPLAY

An analogue type display presentation may be, for example, a representation of a dial, ribbon or bar, but not a display that provides numbers only. An analogue type display may be embedded into an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS).

CAT.IDE.H.160 Airborne weather detecting equipment

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Helicopters with an MOPSC of more than nine and operated under IFR or at night shall be equipped with airborne weather detecting equipment when current weather reports indicate that thunderstorms or other potentially hazardous weather conditions, regarded as detectable with airborne weather detecting equipment, may be expected to exist along the route to be flown.

GENERAL

The airborne weather detecting equipment should be an airborne weather radar.

CAT.IDE.H.165 Additional equipment for operations in icing conditions at night

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) Helicopters operated in expected or actual icing conditions at night shall be equipped with a means to illuminate or detect the formation of ice.

(b) The means to illuminate the formation of ice shall not cause glare or reflection that would handicap crew members in the performance of their duties.

CAT.IDE.H.170 Flight crew interphone system

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Helicopters operated by more than one flight crew member shall be equipped with a flight crew interphone system, including headsets and microphones for use by all flight crew members.

TYPE OF FLIGHT CREW INTERPHONE

The flight crew interphone system should not be of a handheld type.

CAT.IDE.H.175 Crew member interphone system

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Helicopters shall be equipped with a crew member interphone system when carrying a crew member other than a flight crew member.

SPECIFICATIONS

The crew member interphone system should:

(a) operate independently of the public address system except for handsets, headsets, microphones, selector switches and signalling devices;

(b) in the case of helicopters where at least one cabin crew member is required, be readily accessible for use at required cabin crew stations close to each separate or pair of floor level emergency exits;

(c) in the case of helicopters where at least one cabin crew member is required, have an alerting system incorporating aural or visual signals for use by flight and cabin crew;

(d) have a means for the recipient of a call to determine whether it is a normal call or an emergency call that uses one or a combination of the following:

(1) lights of different colours;

(2) codes defined by the operator (e.g. different number of rings for normal and emergency calls); or

(3) any other indicating signal specified in the operations manual;

(e) provide a means of two-way communication between the flight crew compartment and each crew member station; and

(f) be readily accessible for use from each required flight crew station in the flight crew compartment.

CAT.IDE.H.180 Public address system

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) Helicopters with an MOPSC of more than nine shall be equipped with a public address system, with the exception of (b).

(b) Notwithstanding (a) helicopters with an MOPSC of more than nine and less than 20 are exempted from having a public address system, if:

(1) the helicopter is designed without a bulkhead between pilot and passengers; and

(2) the operator is able to demonstrate that when in flight, the pilot’s voice is audible and intelligible at all passengers’ seats.

SPECIFICATIONS

The public address system should:

(a) operate independently of the interphone systems except for handsets, headsets, microphones, selector switches and signalling devices;

(b) be readily accessible for immediate use from each required flight crew station;

(c) have, for each floor level passenger emergency exit that has an adjacent cabin crew seat, a microphone operable by the seated cabin crew member, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of exits allows unassisted verbal communication between seated cabin crew members;

(d) be operable within ten seconds by a cabin crew member at each of those stations;

(e) be audible at all passenger seats, lavatories, cabin crew seats and work stations and any other location or compartment that may be occupied by persons; and

(f) following a total failure of the normal electrical generating system, provide reliable operation for a minimum of ten minutes.

CAT.IDE.H.185 Cockpit voice recorder

Regulation (EU) 2015/2338

(a) The following helicopter types shall be equipped with a cockpit voice recorder (CVR):

(1) all helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 7 000 kg; and

(2) helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 1987.

(b) The CVR shall be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least:

(1) the preceding two hours for helicopters referred to in (a)(1) and (a)(2), when first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 2016;

(2) the preceding one hour for helicopters referred to in (a)(1), when first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 August 1999 and before 1 January 2016;

(3) the preceding 30 minutes for helicopters referred to in (a)(1), when first issued with an individual CofA before 1 August 1999; or

(4) the preceding 30 minutes for helicopters referred to in (a)(2), when first issued with an individual CofA before 1 January 2016.

(c) By 1 January 2019 at the latest, the CVR shall record on means other than magnetic tape or magnetic wire.

(d) The CVR shall record with reference to a timescale:

(1) voice communications transmitted from or received in the flight crew compartment by radio;

(2) flight crew members' voice communications using the interphone system and the public address system, if installed;

(3) the aural environment of the flight crew compartment, including without interruption:

(i) for helicopters first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 August 1999, the audio signals received from each crew microphone;

(ii) for helicopters first issued with an individual CofA before 1 August 1999, the audio signals received from each crew microphone, where practicable;

(4) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced into a headset or speaker.

(e) The CVR shall start to record prior to the helicopter moving under its own power and shall continue to record until the termination of the flight when the helicopter is no longer capable of moving under its own power.

(f) In addition to (e), for helicopters referred to in (a)(2) issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 August 1999:

(1) the CVR shall start automatically to record prior to the helicopter moving under its own power and continue to record until the termination of the flight when the helicopter is no longer capable of moving under its own power; and

(2) depending on the availability of electrical power, the CVR shall start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight.

(g) If the CVR is not deployable, it shall have a device to assist in locating it under water. By 1 January 2020 at the latest, this device shall have a minimum underwater transmission time of 90 days. If the CVR is deployable, it shall have an automatic emergency locator transmitter.

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

(a) For helicopters first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 2016, the operational performance requirements for cockpit voice recorders (CVRs) should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems dated March 2003, including Amendments No 1 and No 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE; and

(b) the operational performance requirements for equipment dedicated to the CVR should be those laid down in the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) Document ED-56A (Minimum Operational Performance Requirements For Cockpit Voice Recorder Systems) dated December 1993, or EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including Amendments No°1 and No°2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

CAT.IDE.H.190 Flight data recorder

Regulation (EU) 2015/2338

(a) The following helicopters shall be equipped with an FDR that uses a digital method of recording and storing data and for which a method of readily retrieving that data from the storage medium is available:

(1) helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 3 175 kg and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 August 1999;

(2) helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 7 000 kg, or an MOPSC of more than nine, and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 1989 but before 1 August 1999.

(b) The FDR shall record the parameters required to determine accurately the:

(1) flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, operation and configuration and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding 10 hours, for helicopters referred to in (a)(1) and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 2016;

(2) flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and operation and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding eight hours, for helicopters referred to in (a)(1) and first issued with an individual CofA before 1 January 2016;

(3) flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and operation and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding five hours, for helicopters referred to in (a)(2).

(c) Data shall be obtained from helicopter sources that enable accurate correlation with information displayed to the flight crew.

(d) The FDR shall automatically start to record the data prior to the helicopter being capable of moving under its own power and shall stop automatically after the helicopter is incapable of moving under its own power.

(e) If the FDR is not deployable, it shall have a device to assist in locating it under water. By 1 January 2020 at the latest, this device shall have a minimum underwater transmission time of 90 days. If the FDR is deployable, it shall have an automatic emergency locator transmitter.

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR HELICOPTERS HAVING AN MCTOM OF MORE THAN 3 175 KG AND FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL CofA ON OR AFTER 1 JANUARY 2016 AND BEFORE 1 JANUARY 2023

(a) The operational performance requirements for flight data recorders (FDRs) should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including amendments No 1 and No 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(b) The FDR should, with reference to a timescale, record:

(1) the parameters listed in Table 1 below;

(2) the additional parameters listed in Table 2 below, when the information data source for the parameter is used by helicopter systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight crew to operate the helicopter; and

(3) any dedicated parameters related to novel or unique design or operational characteristics of the helicopter as determined by the Agency.

(c) The FDR parameters should meet, as far as practicable, the performance specifications (range, sampling intervals, accuracy limits and minimum resolution in read-out) defined in the operational performance requirements and specifications of EUROCAE Document 112, including amendments No 1 and No 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(d) FDR systems for which some recorded parameters do not meet the performance specifications of EUROCAE Document ED-112 may be acceptable to the Agency.

Table 1

FDR — all helicopters

No*

Parameter

1

Time or relative time count

2

Pressure altitude

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

4

Heading

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude

7

Roll attitude

8

Manual radio transmission keying CVR/FDR synchronisation reference

9

9a

9b

9c

9d

9e

Power on each engine

Free power turbine speed (NF)

Engine torque

Engine gas generator speed (NG)

Flight crew compartment power control position

Other parameters to enable engine power to be determined

10

10a

10b

Rotor:

Main rotor speed

Rotor brake (if installed)

11

11a

11b

11c

11d

11e

11f

Primary flight controls — Pilot input and/or control output position (if applicable)

Collective pitch

Longitudinal cyclic pitch

Lateral cyclic pitch

Tail rotor pedal

Controllable stabiliser (if applicable)

Hydraulic selection

12

Hydraulics low pressure (each system should be recorded)

13

Outside air temperature

18

Yaw rate or yaw acceleration

20

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

21

Lateral acceleration

25

Marker beacon passage

26

Warnings — a discrete should be recorded for the master warning, gearbox low oil pressure and stability augmentation system failure. Other ‘red’ warnings should be recorded where the warning condition cannot be determined from other parameters or from the cockpit voice recorder.

27

Each navigation receiver frequency selection

37

Engine control modes

* The number in the left hand column reflects the serial numbers depicted in EUROCAE Document ED-112

Table 2

Helicopters for which the data source for the parameter is either used by helicopter systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight crew to operate the helicopter

No*

Parameter

14

AFCS mode and engagement status

15

Stability augmentation system engagement (each system should be recorded)

16

Main gear box oil pressure

17

17a

17b

17c

Gear box oil temperature

Main gear box oil temperature

Intermediate gear box oil temperature

Tail rotor gear box oil temperature

19

Indicated sling load force (if signals readily available)

22

Radio altitude

23

23a

23b

23c

Vertical deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded.

ILS glide path

MLS elevation

GNSS approach path

24

24a

24b

24c

Horizontal deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded.

ILS localiser

MLS azimuth

GNSS approach path

28

DME 1 & 2 distances

29

29a

29b

29c

29d

29e

29f

Navigation data

Drift angle

Wind speed

Wind direction

Latitude

Longitude

Ground speed

30

Landing gear or gear selector position

31

Engine exhaust gas temperature (T4)

32

Turbine inlet temperature (TIT/ITT)

33

Fuel contents

34

Altitude rate (vertical speed) — only necessary when available from cockpit instruments

35

Ice detection

36

36a

36b

36c

36d

36e

Helicopter health and usage monitor system (HUMS)

Engine data

Chip detector

Track timing

Exceedance discretes

Broadband average engine vibration

38
 

38a

38b

Selected barometric setting — to be recorded for helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

Pilot

Co-pilot

39

Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

40

Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

41

Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

42

Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

43

Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

44

Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

45

Selected decision height (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

46

EFIS display format

47

Multi-function/engine/alerts display format

48

Event marker

* The number in the left hand column reflects the serial numbers depicted in EUROCAE Document ED-112

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR HELICOPTERS HAVING AN MCTOM OF MORE THAN 3 175 KG AND FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL CofA ON OR AFTER 1 JANUARY 2023

(a) The operational performance requirements for FDRs should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document 112A (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated September 2013, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(b) The FDR should, with reference to a timescale, record:

(1) the list of parameters in Table 1 below;

(2) the additional parameters listed in Table 2 below, when the information data source for the parameter is used by helicopter systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight crew to operate the helicopter; and

(3) any dedicated parameters related to novel or unique design or operational characteristics of the helicopter as determined by the Agency.

(c) The parameters to be recorded should meet the performance specifications (range, sampling intervals, accuracy limits and resolution in read-out) as defined in the relevant tables of EUROCAE Document 112A, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

Table 1: FDR — All helicopters

No*

Parameter

1

Time or relative time count

2

Pressure altitude

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

4

Heading

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude

7

Roll attitude

8

Manual radio transmission keying CVR/FDR synchronisation reference

9

9a

9b

9c

9d

9e

Power on each engine:

Free power turbine speed (NF)

Engine torque

Engine gas generator speed (NG)

Flight crew compartment power control position

Other parameters to enable engine power to be determined

10

10a

10b

Rotor:

Main rotor speed

Rotor brake (if installed)

11

 

11a

11b

11c

11d

11e

11f

Primary flight controls — pilot input or control output position if it is possible to derive either the control input or the control movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes. Otherwise, pilot input and control output position:

Collective pitch

Longitudinal cyclic pitch

Lateral cyclic pitch

Tail rotor pedal

Controllable stabilator (if applicable)

Hydraulic selection

12

Hydraulics low pressure (each system should be recorded)

13

Outside air temperature

18

Yaw rate or yaw acceleration

20

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

21

Lateral acceleration

25

Marker beacon passage

26

Warnings — including master warning, gearbox low oil pressure and stability augmentation system failure, and other ‘red’ warnings where the warning condition cannot be determined from other parameters or from the cockpit voice recorder

27

Each navigation receiver frequency selection

37

Engine control modes

* The number in the left-hand column reflects the serial numbers depicted in EUROCAE Document 112A.

Table 2: FDR - Helicopters for which the data source for the parameter is either used by the helicopter systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight crew to operate the helicopter

No*

Parameter

14

AFCS mode and engagement status (showing which systems are engaged and which primary modes are controlling the flight path)

15

Stability augmentation system engagement (each system should be recorded)

16

Main gear box oil pressure

17

17a

17b

17c

Gear box oil temperature:

Main gear box oil temperature

Intermediate gear box oil temperature

Tail rotor gear box oil temperature

19

Indicated sling load force (if signals are readily available)

22

Radio altitude

23

23a

23b

23c

Vertical deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded:

ILS glide path

MLS elevation

GNSS approach path

24

24a

24b

24c

Horizontal deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded:

ILS localiser

MLS azimuth

GNSS approach path

28

DME 1 & 2 distances

29

29a

29b

29c

29d

29e

29f

Navigation data:

Drift angle

Wind speed

Wind direction

Latitude

Longitude

Ground speed

30

Landing gear or gear selector position

31

Engine exhaust gas temperature (T4)

32

Turbine inlet temperature (TIT)/interstage turbine temperature ITT)

33

Fuel contents

34

Altitude rate (vertical speed) — only necessary when available from cockpit instruments

35

Ice detection

36

36a

36b

36c

36d

36e

Helicopter health and usage monitor system (HUMS):

Engine data

Chip detector

Track timing

Exceedance discretes

Broadband average engine vibration

38
 

38a

38b

Selected barometric setting — to be recorded for helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically:

Pilot

Co-pilot

39

Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

40

Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

41

Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

42

Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

43

Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

44

Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

45

Selected decision height (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically

46

46a

46b

EFIS display format (showing the display system status):

Pilot

First officer

47

Multi-function/engine/alerts display format (showing the display system status)

48

Event marker

49
 

49a
 

49b

 

49c

Status of ground proximity warning system (GPWS)/terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)/ground collision avoidance system (GCAS):

Selection of terrain display mode including pop-up display status — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Terrain alerts, both cautions and warnings, and advisories — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

On/off switch position – for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

50

50a
 

50b


50c


50d


50e

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)/airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS):

Combined control — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Vertical control — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Up advisory — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Down advisory — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Sensitivity level — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

51

51a

 

51b

 

51c

 

51d

Primary flight controls — pilot input forces:

Collective pitch — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Longitudinal cyclic pitch — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Lateral cyclic pitch — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Tail rotor pedal — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

52

Computed centre of gravity — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

53

Helicopter computed weight — for helicopters type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

* The number in the left-hand column reflects the serial numbers depicted in EUROCAE Document 112A.

LIST OF PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDED FOR HELICOPTERS HAVING AN MCTOM OF MORE THAN 3 175 KG AND FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL COFA ON OR AFTER 1 AUGUST 1999 AND BEFORE 1 JANUARY 2016 AND HELICOPTERS HAVING AN MCTOM OF MORE THAN 7 000 KG OR AN MOPSC OF MORE THAN 9 AND FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL COFA ON OR AFTER 1 JANUARY 1989 AND BEFORE 1 AUGUST 1999

(a) The FDR should, with reference to a timescale, record:

(1) for helicopters with an MCTOM between 3 175 kg and 7 000 kg the parameters listed in Table 1 below;

(2) for helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 7 000 kg the parameters listed in Table 2 below;

(3) for helicopters equipped with electronic display systems, the additional parameters listed in Table 3 below; and

(4) any dedicated parameters relating to novel or unique design or operational characteristics of the helicopter.

(b) The FDR of helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 7 000 kg does not need to record parameter 19 of Table 2 below, if any of the following conditions are met:

(1) the sensor is not readily available; or

(2) a change is required in the equipment that generates the data.

(c) Individual parameters that can be derived by calculation from the other recorded parameters need not to be recorded, if agreed by the competent authority.

(d) The parameters should meet, as far as practicable, the performance specifications (range, sampling intervals, accuracy limits and resolution in read-out) defined in AMC3 CAT.IDE.H.190.

(e) If recording capacity is available, as many of the additional parameters as possible specified in table II-A.2 of EUROCAE Document ED 112 dated March 2003 should be recorded.

(f) For the purpose of this AMC, a sensor is considered ‘readily available’ when it is already available or can be easily incorporated.

Table 1

Helicopters with an MCTOM of 7 000 kg or less

No

Parameter

1

Time or relative time count

2

Pressure altitude

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

4

Heading

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude

7

Roll attitude

8

Manual radio transmission keying

9

Power on each engine (free power turbine speed and engine torque)/cockpit power control position (if applicable)

10a

10b

Main rotor speed

Rotor brake (if installed)

11

11a

11b

11c

11d

11e

11f

Primary flight controls — pilot input and control output position (if applicable)

Collective pitch

Longitudinal cyclic pitch

Lateral cyclic pitch

Tail rotor pedal

Controllable stabiliser

Hydraulic selection

13

Outside air temperature

14

Autopilot engagement status

15

Stability augmentation system engagement

26

Warnings

Table 2

Helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 7 000 kg

No

Parameter

1

Time or relative time count

2

Pressure altitude

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

4

Heading

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude

7

Roll attitude

8

Manual radio transmission keying

9

Power on each engine (free power turbine speed and engine torque)/cockpit power control position (if applicable)

10a

10b

Main rotor speed

Rotor brake (if installed)

11

11a

11b

11c

11d

11e

11f

Primary flight controls — pilot input and control output position (if applicable)

Collective pitch

Longitudinal cyclic pitch

Lateral cyclic pitch

Tail rotor pedal

Controllable stabiliser

Hydraulic selection

12

Hydraulics low pressure

13

Outside air temperature

14

AFCS mode and engagement status

15

Stability augmentation system engagement

16

Main gear box oil pressure

17

Main gear box oil temperature

18

Yaw rate or yaw acceleration

19

Indicated sling load force (if installed)

20

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

21

Lateral acceleration

22

Radio altitude

23

Vertical beam deviation (ILS glide path or MLS elevation)

24

Horizontal beam deviation (ILS localiser or MLS azimuth)

25

Marker beacon passage

26

Warnings

27

Reserved (navigation receiver frequency selection is recommended)

28

Reserved (DME distance is recommended)

29

Reserved (navigation data are recommended)

30

Landing gear or gear selector position

Table 3

Helicopters equipped with electronic display systems

No

Parameter

38

Selected barometric setting (each pilot station)

39

Selected altitude

40

Selected speed

41

Selected Mach

42

Selected vertical speed

43

Selected heading

44

Selected flight path

45

Selected decision height

46

EFIS display format

47

Multi-function/engine/alerts display format

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDED FOR HELICOPTERS HAVING AN MCTOM OF MORE THAN 3 175 KG AND FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL COFA ON OR AFTER 1 AUGUST 1999 AND BEFORE 1 JANUARY 2016 AND HELICOPTERS HAVING AN MCTOM OF MORE THAN 7 000 KG OR AN MOPSC OF MORE THAN 9 AND FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL COFA ON OR AFTER 1 JANUARY 1989 AND BEFORE 1 AUGUST 1999

Table 1

Helicopters with an MCTOM of 7 000 kg or less

No

Parameter

Range

Sampling interval in seconds

Accuracy Limits (sensor input compared to FDR read out)

Minimum Resolution in read out

Remarks

1

Time or relative time count

 

 

 

 

 

1a

 or

Time

24 hours

4

 

± 0.125 % per hour

1 second

(a) UTC time preferred where available.

1b

Relative Time Count

0 to 4 095

4

± 0.125 % per hour

 

(b) Counter increments every 4 seconds of system operation.

2

Pressure altitude

-1 000 ft to 20 000 ft

1

±100 ft to ±700 ft

Refer to table II.A-2 of EUROCAE Document ED-112

25 ft

 

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

As the installed measuring system

1

± 5 % or ± 10 kt, whichever is greater

1 kt

 

4

Heading

360 °

1

± 5°

 

5

Normal acceleration

- 3 g to + 6 g

0.125

± 0.2 g in addition to a maximum offset of ± 0.3 g

0.01 g

The resolution may be rounded from 0.01 g to 0.05 g, provided that one sample is recorded at full resolution at least every 4 seconds.

6

Pitch attitude

100 % of usable range

0.5

± 2 degrees

0.8 degree

 

7

Roll attitude

± 60 ° or 100 % of usable range from installed system if greater

0.5

± 2 degrees

0.8 degree

.

8

Manual radio transmission keying

Discrete(s)

1

-

-

Preferably each crew member but one discrete acceptable for all transmissions.

9

Power on each engine

Full range

Each engine each second

± 5 %

1 % of full range

Sufficient parameters, e.g. Power Turbine Speed and Engine Torque should be recorded to enable engine power to be determined. A margin for possible overspeed should be provided. Data may be obtained from cockpit indicators used for aircraft certification.

Parameter 9c is required for helicopters with non-mechanically linked cockpit-engine controls

9a

Power turbine speed

Maximum range

9b

Engine torque

Maximum range

9c

Cockpit power control position

Full range or each discrete position

Each control each second

±2 % or sufficient to determine any gated position

2 % of full range

10

Rotor

 

 

 

 

 

10a

Main rotor speed

Maximum range

1

± 5 %

1 % of full range

 

10b

Rotor brake

Discrete

1

-

 

Where available

11

Primary flight controls - Pilot input and/or* control output position

 

 

 

 

* For helicopters that can demonstrate the capability of deriving either the control input or control movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the ‘or’ applies. For helicopters with non-mechanical control systems the ‘and’ applies.

Where the input controls for each pilot can be operated independently, both inputs will need to be recorded.

11a

Collective pitch

Full range

0.5

± 3 %

1 % of full range

11b

Longitudinal cyclic pitch

0.5

11c

Lateral cyclic pitch

0.5

11d

Tail rotor pedal

0.5

11e

Controllable stabiliser

0.5

11f

Hydraulic selection

Discretes

1

-

-

12

Outside air temperature

Available range from installed system

2

± 2 °C

0.3°C

 

13

Autopilot engagement status

Discrete(s)

1

 

 

Where practicable, discretes should show which primary modes are controlling the flight path of the helicopter

14

Stability augmentation system engagement

Discrete(s)

1

 

 

 

15

Warnings

Discrete(s)

1

-

-

A discrete should be recorded for the master warning, low hydraulic pressure (each system) gearbox low oil pressure and SAS fault status.

Other ‘red’ warnings should be recorded where the warning condition cannot be determined from other parameters or from the cockpit voice recorder.

Table 2

Helicopters with an MCTOM of more than 7 000 kg

Parameter

Range

Sampling interval in seconds

Accuracy Limits (sensor input compared to FDR read out)

Minimum Resolution in read out

Remarks

1

Time or relative time count

 

 

 

 

 

1a

 or

Time

24 hours

4

± 0.125 % per hour

1 second

(a) UTC time preferred where available.

1b

Relative time count

0 to 4095

4

± 0.125 % per hour

 

(b) Counter increments every 4 seconds of system operation.

2

Pressure altitude

-1 000 ft to maximum certificated altitude of aircraft +5 000 ft

1

± 100 ft to ± 700 ft

Refer to table II-A.3 EUROCAE Document ED-112

5 ft

Should be obtained from the air data computer when installed.

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

As the installed measuring system

1

± 3 %

1 kt

Should be obtained from the air data computer when installed.

4

Heading

360 degrees

1

± 2 degrees

0.5 degree

 

5

Normal acceleration

-3 g to +6 g

0.125

1 % of range excluding a datum error of 5 %

0.004 g

The recording resolution may be rounded from 0.004 g to 0.01 g provided that one sample is recorded at full resolution at least every 4 seconds.

6

Pitch attitude

± 75 degrees

0.5

± 2 degrees

0.5 degree

 

7

Roll attitude

± 180 degrees

0.5

± 2 degrees

0.5 degree

.

8

Manual radio transmission Keying and CVR/FDR synchronisation reference

Discrete(s)

1

-

-

Preferably each crew member but one discrete acceptable for all transmissions provided that the replay of a recording made by any required recorder can be synchronised in time with any other required recording to within 1 second.

9

Power on each engine

Full range

Each engine each second

± 2 %

0.2 % of full range

Sufficient parameters e.g. Power Turbine Speed and engine torque should be recorded to enable engine power to be determined. A margin for possible overspeed should be provided.

9a

Free power turbine speed (NF)

0-130 %

9b

Engine torque

Full range

9c

Cockpit power control position

Full range or each discrete position

Each control each second

± 2 % or sufficient to determine any gated position

2 % of full range

Parameter 9c is required for helicopters with non-mechanically linked cockpit-engine controls

10

10a

Rotor

Main rotor speed

 

50 to 130 %

 

0.5

 

2 %

0.3 % of full range

 

.

10b

Rotor brake

Discrete

1

 

 

Where available

11

Primary flight controls - Pilot input and/or* control output position

 

 

 

 

* For helicopters that can demonstrate the capability of deriving either the control input or control movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the ‘or’ applies. For helicopters with non-mechanical control systems, the ‘and’ applies.

Where the input controls for each pilot can be operated independently, both inputs will need to be recorded.

11a

Collective pitch

Full range

0.5

± 3 % unless higher accuracy is uniquely required

0.5 % of operating range

11b

Longitudinal cyclic pitch

0.5

11c

Lateral cyclic pitch

0.5

11d

Tail rotor pedal

0.5

11e

Controllable stabiliser

0.5

11f

Hydraulic selection

Discrete(s)

1

-

-

12

Hydraulics low pressure

Discrete(s)

1

-

-

Each essential system should be recorded.

13

Outside air temperature

-50° to +90°C or available sensor range

2

± 2°C

0.3°C

 

14

AFCS mode and engagement status

A suitable combination of discretes

1

-

-

Discretes should show which systems are engaged and which primary modes are controlling the flight path of the helicopter.

15

Stability augmentation system engagement

Discrete

1

-

-

 

16

Main gearbox oil pressure

As installed

1

As installed

6.895 kN/m²  (1 psi)

 

17

Main gearbox oil temperature

As installed

2

As installed

1°C

 

18

Yaw rate

± 400 degrees/second

0.25

± 1 %

2 degrees per second

An equivalent yaw acceleration is an acceptable alternative.

19

Indicated sling load force

0 to 200 % of maximum certified load

0.5

± 3 % of maximum certified load

0.5 % for maximum certified load

With reasonable practicability if sling load indicator is installed.

20

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

± 1 g

0.25

±1.5 % of range excluding a datum error of ±5 %

0.004 g

See comment to parameter 5.

21

Lateral acceleration

± 1 g

0.25

±1.5 % of range excluding a datum error of ±5 %

0.004 g

See comment to parameter 5.

22

Radio altitude

-20 ft to +2 500 ft

1

As installed.

± 2 ft or ± 3 % whichever is greater below 500 ft and ± 5 % above 500 ft recommended

1 ft below 500 ft,

1 ft + 0.5 % of full range above 500 ft

 

23

Vertical beam deviation

 

1

As installed
± 3 % recommended

0.3 % of full range

Data from both the ILS and MLS systems need not to be recorded at the same time. The approach aid in use should be recorded.

23a

ILS glide path

± 0.22 DDM or available sensor range as installed

 

 

 

 

23b

MLS elevation

+0.9 to +30 degrees

 

 

 

 

24

Horizontal beam deviation

 

1

As installed.
± 3 % recommended

0.3 % of full range

See comment to parameter 23

24a

ILS localiser

± 0.22 DDM or available sensor range as installed

 

 

 

 

24b

MLS azimuth

± 62 degrees

 

 

 

 

25

Marker beacon passage

Discrete

1

-

-

One discrete is acceptable for all markers.

26

Warnings

Discretes

1

-

-

A discrete should be recorded for the master warning, gearbox low oil pressure and SAS failure. Other ‘red’ warnings should be recorded where the warning condition cannot be determined from other parameters or from the cockpit voice recorder.

27

Reserved

 

 

 

 

 

28

Reserved

 

 

 

 

 

29

Reserved

 

 

 

 

 

30

Landing gear or gear selector position

Discrete(s)

4

-

-

Where installed.

Table 3

Helicopters equipped with electronic display systems

Parameter

Range

Sampling interval in seconds

Accuracy Limits (sensor input compared to FDR read out)

Minimum Resolution in read out

Remarks

38

Selected barometric setting (each pilot station)

As installed

64

As installed

1 mb

Where practicable, a sampling interval of 4 seconds is recommended.

38a

Pilot

 

 

 

 

 

38b

Co-pilot

 

 

 

 

 

39

Selected altitude

As installed

1

As installed

100 ft

Where capacity is limited, a sampling interval of 64 seconds is permissible.

39a

Manual

 

 

 

 

 

39b

Automatic

 

 

 

 

 

40

Selected speed

As installed

1

As installed

1 kt

Where capacity is limited, a sampling interval of 64 seconds is permissible.

40a

Manual

 

 

 

 

 

40b

Automatic

 

 

 

 

 

41

Selected Mach

As installed

1

As installed

0.01

Where capacity is limited, a sampling interval of 64 seconds is permissible.

41a

Manual

 

 

 

 

 

41b

Automatic

 

 

 

 

 

42

Selected vertical speed

As installed

1

As installed

100 ft/min

Where capacity is limited, a sampling interval of 64 seconds is permissible.

42a

Manual

 

 

 

 

 

42b

Automatic

 

 

 

 

 

43

Selected heading

360 degrees

1

As installed

100 ft /min

Where capacity is limited, a sampling interval of 64 seconds is permissible.

44

Selected flight path

 

1

As installed

 

 

44a

Course/DSTRK

 

 

 

1 degree

 

44b

Path angle

 

 

 

0.1 degree

 

45

Selected decision height

0-500 ft

64

As installed

1ft

 

46

EFIS display format

Discrete(s)

4