CAT.IDE.A.100 Instruments and equipment – general

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

(a) Instruments and equipment required by this Subpart shall be approved in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requirements except for the following items:

(1) Spare fuses;

(2) Independent portable lights;

(3) An accurate time piece;

(4) Chart holder;

(5) First-aid kits;

(6) Emergency medical kit;

(7) Megaphones;

(8) Survival and signalling equipment;

(9) Sea anchors and equipment for mooring; and

(10) Child restraint devices.

(b) Instruments and equipment not required under this Annex (Part-CAT) as well as any other equipment which is not required under this Regulation, but carried on a flight, shall comply with the following requirements:

(1)  the information provided by those instruments, equipment or accessories shall not be used by the flight crew members to comply with Annex II to Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 or points CAT.IDE.A.330, CAT.IDE.A.335, CAT.IDE.A.340 and CAT.IDE.A.345 of this Annex;

(2)  the instruments and equipment shall not affect the airworthiness of the aeroplane, even in the case of failures or malfunction.

(c) If equipment is to be used by one flight crew member at his/her station during flight, it shall be readily operable from that station. When a single item of equipment is required to be operated by more than one flight crew member it shall be installed so that the equipment is readily operable from any station at which the equipment is required to be operated.

(d) Those instruments that are used by any flight crew member shall be so arranged as to permit the flight crew member to see the indications readily from his/her station, with the minimum practicable deviation from the position and line of vision that he/she normally assumes when looking forward along the flight path.

(e) All required emergency equipment shall be easily accessible for immediate use.

REQUIRED INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) NO 748/2012

The functionality of non-installed instruments and equipment required by this Subpart and that do not need an equipment approval, as listed in CAT.IDE.A.100(a), should be checked against recognised industry standards appropriate to the intended purpose. The operator is responsible for ensuring the maintenance of these instruments and equipment.

NOT REQUIRED INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) NO 748/2012, BUT ARE CARRIED ON A FLIGHT

(a) The provision of this paragraph does not exempt any installed instrument or item of equipment from complying with Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/201276 Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 of 3 August 2012 laying down implementing rules for the airworthiness and environmental certification of aircraft and related products, parts and appliances, as well as for the certification of design and production organisations (OJ L 224, 21.8.2012, p. 1). In this case, the installation should be approved as required in Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 and should comply with the applicable Certification Specifications as required under the same Regulation.

(b) The failure of additional non-installed instruments or equipment not required by this Part or by Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 or any applicable airspace requirements should not adversely affect the airworthiness and/or the safe operation of the aeroplane. Examples may be the following:

(1) portable electronic flight bag (EFB);

(2) portable electronic devices carried by flight crew or cabin crew; and

(3) non-installed passenger entertainment equipment.

POSITIONING OF INSTRUMENTS

This requirement implies that whenever a single instrument is required to be installed in an aeroplane operated in a multi-crew environment, the instrument needs to be visible from each flight crew station.

CAT.IDE.A.105 Minimum equipment for flight

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the aeroplane’s instruments, items of equipment or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing, unless:

(a) the aeroplane is operated in accordance with the operator’s MEL; or

(b) the operator is approved by the competent authority to operate the aeroplane within the constraints of the master minimum equipment list (MMEL) in accordance with point ORO.MLR.105(j) of Annex III.

MANAGEMENT OF THE STATUS OF CERTAIN INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT OR FUNCTIONS

The operator should control and retain the status of the instruments, equipment or functions required for the intended operation, that are not controlled for the purpose of continuing airworthiness management.

MANAGEMENT OF THE STATUS OF CERTAIN INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT OR FUNCTIONS

(a) The operator should define responsibilities and procedures to retain and control the status of instruments, equipment or functions required for the intended operation, that are not controlled for the purpose of continuing airworthiness management.

(b) Examples of such instruments, equipment or functions may be, but are not limited to, equipment related to navigation approvals as FM immunity or certain software versions.

CAT.IDE.A.110 Spare electrical fuses

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) Aeroplanes shall be equipped with spare electrical fuses, of the ratings required for complete circuit protection, for replacement of those fuses that are allowed to be replaced in flight.

(b) The number of spare fuses that are required to be carried shall be the higher of:

(1) 10 % of the number of fuses of each rating; or

(2) three fuses for each rating.

FUSES

A ‘spare electrical fuse’ means a replaceable fuse in the flight crew compartment, not an automatic circuit breaker, or circuit breakers in the electric compartments.

CAT.IDE.A.115 Operating lights

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) Aeroplanes operated by day shall be equipped with:

(1) an anti-collision light system;

(2) lighting supplied from the aeroplane’s electrical system to provide adequate illumination for all instruments and equipment essential to the safe operation of the aeroplane;

(3) lighting supplied from the aeroplane’s electrical system to provide illumination in all passenger compartments; and

(4) an independent portable light for each required crew member readily accessible to crew members when seated at their designated stations.

(b) Aeroplanes operated at night shall in addition be equipped with:

(1) navigation/position lights;

(2) two landing lights or a single light having two separately energised filaments; and

(3) lights to conform with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea if the aeroplane is operated as a seaplane.

CAT.IDE.A.120 Equipment to clear windshield

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg shall be equipped at each pilot station with a means to maintain a clear portion of the windshield during precipitation.

MEANS TO MAINTAIN A CLEAR PORTION OF THE WINDSHIELD DURING PRECIPITATION

The means used to maintain a clear portion of the windshield during precipitation should be windshield wipers or an equivalent.

CAT.IDE.A.125 Operations under VFR by day – flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

(a) Aeroplanes operated under VFR by day shall be equipped with the following equipment, available at the pilot’s station:

(1) A means of measuring and displaying:

(i) Magnetic heading;

(ii) Time in hours, minutes, and seconds;

(iii) Barometric altitude;

(iv) Indicated airspeed;

(v) Vertical speed;

(vi) Turn and slip;

(vii) Attitude;

(viii) Heading;

(ix) Outside air temperature; and

(x) Mach number whenever speed limitations are expressed in terms of Mach number.

(2) A means of indicating when the supply of power to the required flight instruments is not adequate.

(b) Whenever two pilots are required for the operation, an additional separate means of displaying the following shall be available for the second pilot:

(1) Barometric altitude;

(2) Indicated airspeed;

(3) Vertical speed;

(4) Turn and slip;

(5) Attitude; and

(6) Heading.

(c) A means for preventing malfunction of the airspeed indicating systems due to condensation or icing shall be available for:

(1) aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg or an MOPSC of more than nine; and

(2) aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1999.

(d) Single engine aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA before 22 May 1995 are exempted from the requirements of (a)(1)(vi), (a)(1)(vii), (a)(1)(viii) and (a)(1)(ix) if the compliance would require retrofitting.

INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS

(a) Individual equipment requirements may be met by combinations of instruments, by integrated flight systems or by a combination of parameters on electronic displays, provided that the information so available to each required pilot is not less than that required in the applicable operational requirements, and the equivalent safety of the installation has been shown during type certification approval of the aeroplane for the intended type of operation.

(b) The means of measuring and indicating turn and slip, aeroplane attitude and stabilised aeroplane heading may be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight director systems, provided that the safeguards against total failure, inherent in the three separate instruments, are retained.

LOCAL FLIGHTS

For flights that do not exceed 60 minutes’ duration, that take off and land at the same aerodrome and that remain within 50 NM of that aerodrome, an equivalent means of complying with CAT.IDE.A.125 (a)(1)(vi) may be:

(a) a turn and slip indicator;

(b) a turn coordinator; or

(c) both an attitude indicator and a slip indicator.

MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING MAGNETIC HEADING

The means of measuring and displaying magnetic direction should be a magnetic compass or equivalent.

MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING THE TIME

An acceptable means of compliance is a clock displaying hours, minutes and seconds, with a sweep-second pointer or digital presentation.

CALIBRATION OF THE MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING PRESSURE ALTITUDE

The instrument measuring and displaying barometric altitude should be of a sensitive type calibrated in feet (ft), with a sub-scale setting, calibrated in hectopascals/millibars, adjustable for any barometric pressure likely to be set during flight.

CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT INDICATING AIRSPEED

The instrument indicating airspeed should be calibrated in knots (kt).

MEANS OF DISPLAYING OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE

(a) The means of displaying outside air temperature should be calibrated in degrees Celsius.

(b) The means of displaying outside air temperature may be an air temperature indicator that provides indications that are convertible to outside air temperature.

MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS — DUPLICATE INSTRUMENTS

Duplicate instruments should include separate displays for each pilot and separate selectors or other associated equipment where appropriate.

MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO CONDENSATION OR ICING

The means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing of the airspeed indicating system should be a heated pitot tube or equivalent.

SUMMARY TABLE

Table 1

Flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

SERIAL

FLIGHTS UNDER VFR

FLIGHTS UNDER IFROR AT NIGHT

INSTRUMENT

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

1

Magnetic direction

1

1

1

1

2

Time

1

1

1

1

3

Pressure altitude

1

2

2

Note (5)

2

Note (5)

4

Indicated airspeed

1

2

1

2

5

Vertical speed

1

2

1

2

6

Turn and slip or turn coordinator

1

Note (1)

2

Note (1)

& Note (2)

1

Note (4)

2

Note (4)

7

Attitude

1

Note (1)

 

2

Note (1)

& Note (2)

1

2

8

Stabilised direction

1

Note (1)

 

2

Note (1)

& Note (2)

1

2

9

Outside air temperature

1

1

1

1

10

Mach number indicator

See Note (3)

11

Airspeed icing protection

1

Note (6)

2

Note (6)

1

2

12

Airspeed icing protection failure indicating

 

 

1

Note (7)

2

Note (7)

13

Static pressure source

 

 

2

2

14

Standby attitude indicator

 

 

1

Note (8)

1

Note (8)

15

Chart holder

 

 

1

Note (6)

1

Note (6)

Note (1)  For local flights (A to A, 50 NM radius, not more than 60 minutes’ duration), the instruments at serials (a)(6) and (a)(8) may be replaced by either a turn and slip indicator, or a turn coordinator, or both an attitude indicator and a slip indicator.

Note (2)  The substitute instruments permitted by Note (1) above should be provided at each pilot's station.

Note (3)  A Mach number indicator is required for each pilot whenever compressibility limitations are not otherwise indicated by airspeed indicators.

Note (4)  For IFR or at night, a turn and slip indicator, or a slip indicator and a third (standby) attitude indicator certified according to CS 25.1303 (b)(4) or equivalent, is required.

Note (5)  Except for unpressurised aeroplanes operating below 10 000 ft, neither three pointers, nor drum-pointer altimeters satisfy the requirement.

Note (6)  Applicable only to aeroplanes with a maximum certified take-off mass (MCTOM) of more than 5 700 kg, or with an MOPSC of more than 9. It also applies to all aeroplanes first issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness (CofA) on or after 1 April 1999.

Note (7)  The pitot heater failure annunciation applies to any aeroplane issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998. It also applies before that date when: the aeroplane has an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg and an MOPSC greater than 9.

Note (8)  Applicable only to aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg, or with an MOPSC of more than 9.

CAT.IDE.A.130 Operations under IFR or at night – flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

Regulation (EU) 2019/1384

Aeroplanes operated under VFR at night or under IFR shall be equipped with the following equipment, available at the pilot’s station:

(a) A means of measuring and displaying:

(1) Magnetic heading;

(2) Time in hours, minutes and seconds;

(3) Indicated airspeed;

(4) Vertical speed;

(5) Turn and slip, or in the case of aeroplanes equipped with a standby means of measuring and displaying attitude, slip;

(6) Attitude;

(7) Stabilised heading;

(8) Outside air temperature; and

(9) Mach number whenever speed limitations are expressed in terms of Mach number.

(b) Two means of measuring and displaying barometric altitude.

(c) A means of indicating when the supply of power to the required flight instruments is not adequate.

(d) A means for preventing malfunction of the airspeed indicating systems required in (a)(3) and (h)(2) due to condensation or icing.

(e) A means of annunciating to the flight crew the failure of the means required in (d) for aeroplanes:

(1) issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998; or

(2) issued with an individual CofA before 1 April 1998 with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg, and with an MOPSC of more than nine.

(f) Except for propeller-driven aeroplanes with an MCTOM of 5 700 kg or less, two independent static pressure systems.

(g) One static pressure system and one alternate source of static pressure for propeller-driven aeroplanes with an MCTOM of 5 700 kg or less.

(h) Whenever two pilots are required for the operation, a separate means of displaying for the second pilot:

(1) Barometric altitude;

(2) Indicated airspeed;

(3) Vertical speed;

(4) Turn and slip;

(5) Attitude; and

(6) Stabilised heading.

(i) A standby means of measuring and displaying attitude capable of being used from either pilot’s station for aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg or an MOPSC of more than nine that:

(1) is powered continuously during normal operation and, after a total failure of the normal electrical generating system, is powered from a source independent from the normal electrical generating system;

(2) provides reliable operation for a minimum of 30 minutes after total failure of the normal electrical generating system, taking into account other loads on the emergency power supply and operational procedures;

(3) operates independently of any other means of measuring and displaying attitude;

(4) is operative automatically after total failure of the normal electrical generating system;

(5) is appropriately illuminated during all phases of operation, except for aeroplanes with an MCTOM of 5 700 kg or less, already registered in a Member State on 1 April 1995 and equipped with a standby attitude indicator in the left-hand instrument panel;

(6) is clearly evident to the flight crew when the standby attitude indicator is being operated by emergency power; and

(7) where the standby attitude indicator has its own dedicated power supply, has an associated indication, either on the instrument or on the instrument panel, when this supply is in use.

(j) A chart holder in an easily readable position that can be illuminated for night operations.

INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS

(a) Individual equipment requirements may be met by combinations of instruments, by integrated flight systems or by a combination of parameters on electronic displays, provided that the information so available to each required pilot is not less than that required in the applicable operational requirements, and the equivalent safety of the installation has been shown during type certification approval of the aeroplane for the intended type of operation.

(b) The means of measuring and indicating turn and slip, aeroplane attitude and stabilised aeroplane heading may be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight director systems, provided that the safeguards against total failure, inherent in the three separate instruments, are retained.

MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING MAGNETIC HEADING

The means of measuring and displaying magnetic direction should be a magnetic compass or equivalent.

MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING THE TIME

An acceptable means of compliance is a clock displaying hours, minutes and seconds, with a sweep-second pointer or digital presentation.

CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT INDICATING AIRSPEED

The instrument indicating airspeed should be calibrated in knots (kt).

SLIP INDICATOR

If only slip indication is provided, the means of measuring and displaying standby attitude should be certified according to CS 25.1303(b)(4) or equivalent.

MEANS OF DISPLAYING OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE

(a) The means of displaying outside air temperature should be calibrated in degrees Celsius.

(b) The means of displaying outside air temperature may be an air temperature indicator that provides indications that are convertible to outside air temperature.

CALIBRATION OF THE MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING PRESSURE ALTITUDE

The instrument measuring and displaying barometric altitude should be of a sensitive type calibrated in feet (ft), with a sub-scale setting, calibrated in hectopascals/millibars, adjustable for any barometric pressure likely to be set during flight.

ALTIMETERS — IFR OR NIGHT OPERATIONS

Except for unpressurised aeroplanes operating below 10 000 ft, the altimeters of aeroplanes operating under IFR or at night should have counter drum-pointer or equivalent presentation.

MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO CONDENSATION OR ICING

The means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing of the airspeed indicating system should be a heated pitot tube or equivalent.

MEANS OF INDICATING FAILURE OF THE AIRSPEED INDICATING SYSTEM’S MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO EITHER CONDENSATION OR ICING

A combined means of indicating failure of the airspeed indicating system’s means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing is acceptable provided that it is visible from each flight crew station and that there is a means to identify the failed heater in systems with two or more sensors.

MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS — DUPLICATE INSTRUMENTS

Duplicate instruments should include separate displays for each pilot and separate selectors or other associated equipment where appropriate.

ILLUMINATION OF STANDBY MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING ATTITUDE

The standby means of measuring and displaying attitude should be illuminated so as to be clearly visible under all conditions of daylight and artificial lighting.

CHART HOLDER

An acceptable means of compliance with the chart holder requirement is to display a pre-composed chart on an electronic flight bag (EFB).

SUMMARY TABLE

Table 1

Flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment

SERIAL

FLIGHTS UNDER VFR

FLIGHTS UNDER IFROR AT NIGHT

INSTRUMENT

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

SINGLE-PILOT

TWO PILOTS REQUIRED

1

Magnetic direction

1

1

1

1

2

Time

1

1

1

1

3

Pressure altitude

1

2

2

Note (5)

2

Note (5)

4

Indicated airspeed

1

2

1

2

5

Vertical speed

1

2

1

2

6

Turn and slip or turn coordinator

1

Note (1)

2

Note (1)

& Note (2)

1

Note (4)

2

Note (4)

7

Attitude

1

Note (1)

 

2

Note (1)

& Note (2)

1

2

8

Stabilised direction

1

Note (1)

 

2

Note (1)

& Note (2)

1

2

9

Outside air temperature

1

1

1

1

10

Mach number indicator

See Note (3)

11

Airspeed icing protection

1

Note (6)

2

Note (6)

1

2

12

Airspeed icing protection failure indicating

 

 

1

Note (7)

2

Note (7)

13

Static pressure source

 

 

2

2

14

Standby attitude indicator

 

 

1

Note (8)

1

Note (8)

15

Chart holder

 

 

1

Note (6)

1

Note (6)

Note (1)  For local flights (A to A, 50 NM radius, not more than 60 minutes’ duration), the instruments at serials (a)(6) and (a)(8) may be replaced by either a turn and slip indicator, or a turn coordinator, or both an attitude indicator and a slip indicator.

Note (2)  The substitute instruments permitted by Note (1) above should be provided at each pilot's station.

Note (3)  A Mach number indicator is required for each pilot whenever compressibility limitations are not otherwise indicated by airspeed indicators.

Note (4)  For IFR or at night, a turn and slip indicator, or a slip indicator and a third (standby) attitude indicator certified according to CS 25.1303 (b)(4) or equivalent, is required.

Note (5)  Except for unpressurised aeroplanes operating below 10 000 ft, neither three pointers, nor drum-pointer altimeters satisfy the requirement.

Note (6)  Applicable only to aeroplanes with a maximum certified take-off mass (MCTOM) of more than 5 700 kg, or with an MOPSC of more than 9. It also applies to all aeroplanes first issued with an individual certificate of airworthiness (CofA) on or after 1 April 1999.

Note (7)  The pitot heater failure annunciation applies to any aeroplane issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998. It also applies before that date when: the aeroplane has an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg and an MOPSC greater than 9.

Note (8)  Applicable only to aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg, or with an MOPSC of more than 9.

CAT.IDE.A.135 Additional equipment for single-pilot operation under IFR

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Aeroplanes operated under IFR with a single-pilot shall be equipped with an autopilot with at least altitude hold and heading mode.

CAT.IDE.A.140 Altitude alerting system

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) The following aeroplanes shall be equipped with an altitude alerting system:

(1) turbine propeller powered aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg or having an MOPSC of more than nine; and

(2) aeroplanes powered by turbo-jet engines.

(b) The altitude alerting system shall be capable of:

(1) alerting the flight crew when approaching a preselected altitude; and

(2) alerting the flight crew by at least an aural signal, when deviating from a preselected altitude.

(c) Notwithstanding (a), aeroplanes with an MCTOM of 5 700 kg or less, having an MOPSC of more than nine, first issued with an individual CofA before 1 April 1972 and already registered in a Member State on 1 April 1995 are exempted from being equipped with an altitude alerting system.

CAT.IDE.A.150 Terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)

Regulation (EU) 2018/1042

(a) Turbine-powered aeroplanes having an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg or an MOPSC of more than nine shall be equipped with a TAWS that meets the requirements for Class A equipment as specified in an acceptable standard.

(b) Reciprocating-engine-powered aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg or an MOPSC of more than nine shall be equipped with a TAWS that meets the requirement for Class B equipment as specified in an acceptable standard.

(c) Turbine-powered aeroplanes for which the individual certificate of airworthiness (CofA) was first issued after 1 January 2019 and having an MCTOM of 5 700 kg or less and an MOPSC of six to nine shall be equipped with a TAWS that meets the requirements for Class B equipment, as specified in an acceptable standard.

EXCESSIVE DOWNWARDS GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION WARNING FOR CLASS A TAWS

The requirement for a Class A TAWS to provide a warning to the flight crew for excessive downwards glide slope deviation should apply to all final approach glide slopes with angular vertical navigation (VNAV) guidance, whether provided by the instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing system (MLS), satellite based augmentation system approach procedure with vertical guidance (SBAS APV (localiser performance with vertical guidance approach LPV)), ground-based augmentation system (GBAS (GPS landing system, GLS) or any other systems providing similar guidance. The same requirement should not apply to systems providing vertical guidance based on barometric VNAV.

ACCEPTABLE STANDARD FOR TAWS

An acceptable standard for Class A and Class B TAWS may be the applicable European technical standards order (ETSO) issued by the Agency or equivalent.

CAT.IDE.A.155 Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS)

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Unless otherwise provided for by Regulation (EU) No 1332/2011, turbine-powered aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg or an MOPSC of more than 19 shall be equipped with ACAS II.

CAT.IDE.A.160 Airborne weather detecting equipment

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

The following shall be equipped with airborne weather detecting equipment when operated at night or in IMC in areas where thunderstorms or other potentially hazardous weather conditions, regarded as detectable with airborne weather detecting equipment, may be expected to exist along the route:

(a) pressurised aeroplanes;

(b) non-pressurised aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg; and

(c) non-pressurised aeroplanes with an MOPSC of more than nine.

GENERAL

The airborne weather detecting equipment should be an airborne weather radar, except for propeller-driven pressurised aeroplanes with an MCTOM not more than 5 700 kg and an MOPSC of not more than 9, for which other equipment capable of detecting thunderstorms and other potentially hazardous weather conditions, regarded as detectable with airborne weather radar equipment, are also acceptable.

CAT.IDE.A.165 Additional equipment for operations in icing conditions at night

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) Aeroplanes operated in expected or actual icing conditions at night shall be equipped with a means to illuminate or detect the formation of ice.

(b) The means to illuminate the formation of ice shall not cause glare or reflection that would handicap crew members in the performance of their duties.

CAT.IDE.A.170 Flight crew interphone system

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Aeroplanes operated by more than one flight crew member shall be equipped with a flight crew interphone system, including headsets and microphones for use by all flight crew members.

TYPE OF FLIGHT CREW INTERPHONE

The flight crew interphone system should not be of a handheld type.

CAT.IDE.A.175 Crew member interphone system

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 15 000 kg, or with an MOPSC of more than 19 shall be equipped with a crew member interphone system, except for aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA before 1 April 1965 and already registered in a Member State on 1 April 1995.

SPECIFICATIONS

The crew member interphone system should:

(a) operate independently of the public address system except for handsets, headsets, microphones, selector switches and signalling devices;

(b) in the case of aeroplanes where at least one cabin crew member is required, be readily accessible for use at required cabin crew member stations close to each separate or pair of floor level emergency exits;

(c) in the case of aeroplanes where at least one cabin crew member is required, have an alerting system incorporating aural or visual signals for use by flight and cabin crew;

(d) have a means for the recipient of a call to determine whether it is a normal call or an emergency call that uses one or a combination of the following:

(1) lights of different colours;

(2) codes defined by the operator (e.g. different number of rings for normal and emergency calls); or

(3) any other indicating signal specified in the operations manual;

(e) provide two-way communication between:

(1) the flight crew compartment and each passenger compartment, in the case of aeroplanes where at least one cabin crew member is required;

(2) the flight crew compartment and each galley located other than on a passenger deck level, in the case of aeroplanes where at least one cabin crew member is required;

(3) the flight crew compartment and each remote crew compartment and crew member station that is not on the passenger deck and is not accessible from a passenger compartment; and

(4) ground personnel and at least two flight crew members. This interphone system for use by the ground personnel should be, where practicable, so located that the personnel using the system may avoid detection from within the aeroplane; and

(f) be readily accessible for use from each required flight crew station in the flight crew compartment.

CAT.IDE.A.180 Public address system

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

Aeroplanes with an MOPSC of more than 19 shall be equipped with a public address system.

SPECIFICATIONS

The public address system should:

(a) operate independently of the interphone systems except for handsets, headsets, microphones, selector switches and signalling devices;

(b) be readily accessible for immediate use from each required flight crew station;

(c) have, for each floor level passenger emergency exit that has an adjacent cabin crew seat, a microphone operable by the seated cabin crew member, except that one microphone may serve more than one exit, provided the proximity of exits allows unassisted verbal communication between seated cabin crew members;

(d) be operable within 10 seconds by a cabin crew member at each of those stations; and

(e) be audible at all passenger seats, lavatories, galleys, cabin crew seats and work stations, and other crew remote areas.

CAT.IDE.A.185 Cockpit voice recorder

Regulation (EU) 2020/2036

(a) The following aeroplanes shall be equipped with a cockpit voice recorder (CVR):

(1) aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg; and

(2) multi-engined turbine-powered aeroplanes with an MCTOM of 5 700 kg or less, with an MOPSC of more than nine and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 1990.

(b) Until 31 December 2018, the CVR shall be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least:

(1) the preceding 2 hours in the case of aeroplanes referred to in (a)(1) when the individual CofA has been issued on or after 1 April 1998;

(2) the preceding 30 minutes for aeroplanes referred to in (a)(1) when the individual CofA has been issued before 1 April 1998; or

(3) the preceding 30 minutes, in the case of aeroplanes referred to in (a)(2).

(c) By 1 January 2019 at the latest, the CVR shall be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least:

(1)  the preceding 25 hours for aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 27 000 kg and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 2022; or

 (2) the preceding 2 hours in all other cases.

(d) By 1 January 2019 at the latest, the CVR shall record on means other than magnetic tape or magnetic wire.

(e) The CVR shall record with reference to a timescale:

(1) voice communications transmitted from or received in the flight crew compartment by radio;

(2) flight crew members' voice communications using the interphone system and the public address system, if installed;

(3) the aural environment of the flight crew compartment, including without interruption:

(i) for aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998, the audio signals received from each boom and mask microphone in use;

(ii) for aeroplanes referred to in (a)(2) and first issued with an individual CofA before 1 April 1998, the audio signals received from each boom and mask microphone, where practicable;

(4) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced into a headset or speaker.

(f) The CVR shall start to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and shall continue to record until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving under its own power. In addition, in the case of aeroplanes issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998, the CVR shall start automatically to record prior to the aeroplane moving under its own power and continue to record until the termination of the flight when the aeroplane is no longer capable of moving under its own power.

(g) In addition to (f), depending on the availability of electrical power, the CVR shall start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight, in the case of:

(1) aeroplanes referred to in (a)(1) and issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998; or

(2) aeroplanes referred to in (a)(2).

(h) If the CVR is not deployable, it shall have a device to assist in locating it under water. By 16 June 2018 at the latest, this device shall have a minimum underwater transmission time of 90 days. If the CVR is deployable, it shall have an automatic emergency locator transmitter.

(i) Aeroplanes with an MCTOM of over 27 000 kg and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 5 September 2022 shall be equipped with an alternate power source to which the CVR and the cockpit-mounted area microphone are switched automatically in the event that all other power to the CVR is interrupted.

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

(a) For aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998 and before 1 January 2016, the operational performance requirements for cockpit voice recorders (CVRs) and their dedicated equipment should be those laid down in the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) Document ED-56A (Minimum Operational Performance Requirements For Cockpit Voice Recorder Systems) dated December 1993, or EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including Amendments No 1 and No 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(b) For aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 2016:

(1) the operational performance requirements for CVRs should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including Amendments No 1 and No 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE; and

(2) the operational performance requirements for equipment dedicated to the CVR should be those laid down in the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) Document ED-56A (Minimum Operational Performance Requirements For Cockpit Voice Recorder Systems) dated December 1993, or EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including Amendments n°1 and n°2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(c) If required to be installed, the alternate power source should provide electrical power to operate both the CVR and the cockpit-mounted area microphone for at least 10 minutes, with a tolerance of 1 minute.

TERMINOLOGY

The terms used in CAT.IDE.A.185 should be understood as follows:

(a) ‘Alternate power source’ means a power source that is different from the source(s) that normally provides (provide) power to the cockpit voice recorder function.

(b) ‘Cockpit-mounted area microphone' means a microphone located in the flight crew compartment for the purpose of recording voice communications originating at the first and second pilot stations and voice communications of other crew members in the flight crew compartment when directed to those stations.

CAT.IDE.A.190 Flight data recorder

Regulation (EU) 2015/2338

(a) The following aeroplanes shall be equipped with a flight data recorder (FDR) that uses a digital method of recording and storing data and for which a method of readily retrieving that data from the storage medium is available:

(1) aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 June 1990;

(2) turbine-engined aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg and first issued with an individual CofA before 1 June 1990; and

(3) multi-engined turbine-powered aeroplanes with an MCTOM of 5 700 kg or less, with an MOPSC of more than nine and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998.

(b) The FDR shall record:

(1) time, altitude, airspeed, normal acceleration and heading and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding 25 hours for aeroplanes referred to in (a)(2) with an MCTOM of less than 27 000 kg;

(2) the parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and configuration of lift and drag devices and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding 25 hours, for aeroplanes referred to in (a)(1) with an MCTOM of less than 27 000 kg and first issued with an individual CofA before 1 January 2016;

(3) the parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding 25 hours, for aeroplanes referred to in (a)(1) and (a)(2) with an MCTOM of over 27 000 kg and first issued with an individual CofA before 1 January 2016;

(4) the parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and configuration of lift and drag devices and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding 10 hours, in the case of aeroplanes referred to in (a)(3) and first issued with an individual CofA before 1 January 2016; or

(5) the parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation and be capable of retaining the data recorded during at least the preceding 25 hours, for aeroplanes referred to in (a)(1) and (a)(3) and first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 January 2016.

(c) Data shall be obtained from aeroplane sources that enable accurate correlation with information displayed to the flight crew.

(d) The FDR shall start to record the data prior to the aeroplane being capable of moving under its own power and shall stop after the aeroplane is incapable of moving under its own power. In addition, in the case of aeroplanes issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998, the FDR shall start automatically to record the data prior to the aeroplane being capable of moving under its own power and shall stop automatically after the aeroplane is incapable of moving under its own power.

(e) If the FDR is not deployable, it shall have a device to assist in locating it under water. By 16 June 2018 at the latest, this device shall have a minimum underwater transmission time of 90 days. If the FDR is deployable, it shall have an automatic emergency locator transmitter.

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR AEROPLANES FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL CofA ON OR AFTER 1 JANUARY 2016 AND BEFORE 1 JANUARY 2023

(a) The operational performance requirements for flight data recorders (FDRs) should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including amendments No 1 and No 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(b) The FDR should record with reference to a timescale the list of parameters in Table 1 and Table 2, as applicable.

(c) The parameters to be recorded should meet the performance specifications (range, sampling intervals, accuracy limits and resolution in read-out) as defined in the relevant tables of EUROCAE Document ED-112, including amendments No 1 and No 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

Table 1

FDR — all aeroplanes

No*

Parameter

1a

1b

1c

Time; or

Relative time count

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) time synchronisation

2

Pressure altitude

3a

Indicated airspeed; or Calibrated airspeed

4

Heading (primary flight crew reference) — when true or magnetic heading can be selected, the primary heading reference, a discrete indicating selection, should be recorded

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude

7

Roll attitude

8

Manual radio transmission keying and CVR/FDR synchronisation reference

9

9a

9b

Engine thrust/power

Parameters required to determine propulsive thrust/power on each engine

Flight crew compartment thrust/power lever position for aeroplanes with non-mechanically linked flight crew compartment — engine control

14

Total or outside air temperature

16

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

17

Lateral acceleration

18


 

 

 

 

18a

18b

18c

Primary flight control surface and/or primary flight control pilot input (for aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control surface will back drive the pilot’s control, ‘or’ applies. For aeroplanes with control systems in which movement of a control surface will not back drive the pilot’s control, ‘and’ applies. For multiple or split surfaces, a suitable combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu of recording each surface separately. For aeroplanes that have a flight control break-away capability that allows either pilot to operate the controls independently, record both inputs):

Pitch axis

Roll axis

Yaw axis

19

Pitch trim surface position

23

Marker beacon passage

24

Warnings — in addition to the master warning, each ‘red’ warning (including smoke warnings from other compartments) should be recorded when the warning condition cannot be determined from other parameters or from the CVR

25

Each navigation receiver frequency selection

27

Air—ground status. Air—ground status and a sensor of each landing gear if installed

* The number in the left hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE ED-112.

Table 2

FDR — Aeroplanes for which the data source for the parameter is either used by aeroplane systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight crew to operate the aeroplane

No*

Parameter

10

10a

10b

Flaps

Trailing edge flap position

Flight crew compartment control selection

11

11a

11b

Slats

Leading edge flap (slat) position

Flight crew compartment control selection

12

Thrust reverse status

13

13a

13b

13c

13d

Ground spoiler and speed brake

Ground spoiler position

Ground spoiler selection

Speed brake position

Speed brake selection

15

Autopilot, autothrottle and automatic flight control system (AFCS) mode and engagement status

20

Radio altitude. For auto-land/Category III operations, each radio altimeter should be recorded.

21
 

21a

21b

21c

Vertical deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded. For auto-land/Category III operations, each system should be recorded.

ILS/GPS/GLS glide path

MLS elevation

Integrated approach navigation (IAN)/integrated area navigation (IRNAV), vertical deviation

22
 

22a

22b

22c

Horizontal deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded. For auto land/Category III operations, each system should be recorded.

ILS/GPS/GLS localiser

MLS azimuth

GNSS approach path/IRNAV lateral deviation

26

26a

26b

Distance measuring equipment (DME) 1 and 2 distances

Distance to runway threshold (GLS)

Distance to missed approach point (IRNAV/IAN)

28
 

28a

28b

28c

Ground proximity warning system (GPWS)/terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)/ground collision avoidance system (GCAS) status:

Selection of terrain display mode, including pop-up display status

Terrain alerts, including cautions and warnings and advisories

On/off switch position

29

Angle of attack

30

30a

30b

Low pressure warning (each system ):

Hydraulic pressure

Pneumatic pressure

31

Ground speed

32

32a

32b

Landing gear:

Landing gear position

Gear selector position

33

33a

33b

33c

33d

33e

33f

Navigation data:

Drift angle

Wind speed

Wind direction

Latitude

Longitude

GNSS augmentation in use

34

34a

34b

Brakes:

Left and right brake pressure

Left and right brake pedal position

35
 

35a

35b

35c

35d

35e

35f

35g

35h

Additional engine parameters (if not already recorded in parameter 9 of Table 1 of AMC1 CAT.IDE.190.A, and if the aeroplane is equipped with a suitable data source):

Engine pressure ratio (EPR)

N1

Indicated vibration level

N2

Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)

Fuel flow

Fuel cut-off lever position

N3

36
 

36a

36b

36c

36d

36e

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)/airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) — a suitable combination of discretes should be recorded to determine the status of the system:

Combined control

Vertical control

Up advisory

Down advisory

Sensitivity level

37

Wind shear warning

38

38a

38b

Selected barometric setting

Pilot selected barometric setting

Co-pilot selected barometric setting

39

Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

40

Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

41

Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

42

Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

43

Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

44
 

44a

44b

44c

Selected flight path (All pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

Course/desired track (DSTRK)

Path angle

Coordinates of final approach path (IRNAV/IAN)

45

Selected decision height — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

46

46a

46b

Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) display format:

Pilot

Co-pilot

47

Multi-function/engine/alerts display format

48

Alternating current (AC) electrical bus status — each bus

49

Direct current (DC) electrical bus status — each bus

50

Engine bleed valve position

51

Auxiliary power unit (APU) bleed valve position

52

Computer failure — (all critical flight and engine control systems)

53

Engine thrust command

54

Engine thrust target

55

Computed centre of gravity (CG)

56

Fuel quantity in CG trim tank

57

Head up display in use

58

Para visual display on

59

Operational stall protection, stick shaker and pusher activation

60

60a

60b

60c

60d

60e

60f

Primary navigation system reference:

GNSS

Inertial navigational system (INS)

VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR)/distance measuring equipment (DME)

MLS

Loran C

ILS

61

Ice detection

62

Engine warning — each engine vibration

63

Engine warning — each engine over temperature

64

Engine warning — each engine oil pressure low

65

Engine warning — each engine over speed

66

Yaw trim surface position

67

Roll trim surface position

68

Yaw or sideslip angle

69

De-icing and/or anti-icing systems selection

70

Hydraulic pressure — each system

71

Loss of cabin pressure

72

Trim control input position in the flight crew compartment, pitch — when mechanical means for control inputs are not available, displayed trim position or trim command should be recorded.

73

Trim control input position in the flight crew compartment, roll — when mechanical means for control inputs are not available, displayed trim position or trim command should be recorded.

74

Trim control input position in the flight crew compartment, yaw — when mechanical means for control inputs are not available, displayed trim position or trim command should be recorded.

75

 

75a

75b

75c

All flight control input forces (for fly-by-wire flight control systems, where control surface position is a function of the displacement of the control input device only, it is not necessary to record this parameter):

Control wheel

Control column

Rudder pedal

76

Event marker

77

Date

78

Actual navigation performance (ANP) or estimate of position error (EPE) or estimate of position uncertainty (EPU)

* The number in the left hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE Document ED-112.

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR AEROPLANES FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL CofA ON OR AFTER 1 JANUARY 2023

(a) The operational performance requirements for FDRs should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document 112A (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated September 2013, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(b) The FDR should, with reference to a timescale, record:

(1) the list of parameters in Table 1 below;

(2) the additional parameters listed in Table 2 below, when the information data source for the parameter is used by aeroplane systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight crew to operate the aeroplane; and

(3) any dedicated parameters related to novel or unique design or operational characteristics of the aeroplane as determined by the Agency.

(c) The parameters to be recorded should meet the performance specifications (range, sampling intervals, accuracy limits and resolution in read-out) as defined in the relevant tables of EUROCAE Document 112A, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

Table 1: FDR — All aeroplanes

No*

Parameter

1a

1b

1c

Time; or

Relative time count

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) time synchronisation

2

Pressure altitude (including altitude values displayed on each flight crew member’s primary flight display, unless the aeroplane is type certified before 1 January 2023 and recording the values displayed at the captain position or the first officer position would require extensive modification)

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed (including values of indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed displayed on each flight crew member’s primary flight display, unless the aeroplane is type certified before 1 January 2023 and recording the values displayed at the captain position or the first officer position would require extensive modification)

4

Heading (primary flight crew reference) — when true or magnetic heading can be selected as the primary heading reference, a discrete indicating selection should be recorded.

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude — pitch attitude values displayed on each flight crew member’s primary flight display should be recorded, unless the aeroplane is type certified before 1 January 2023 and recording the values displayed at the captain position or the first officer position would require extensive modification.

7

Roll attitude — roll attitude values displayed on each flight crew member’s primary flight display should be recorded, unless the aeroplane is type certified before 1 January 2023 and recording the values displayed at the captain position or the first officer position would require extensive modification.

8

Manual radio transmission keying and CVR/FDR synchronisation reference

9

9a
 

9b

Engine thrust/power:

Parameters required to determine propulsive thrust/power on each engine, in both normal and reverse thrust

Flight crew compartment thrust/power lever position (for aeroplanes with non-mechanically linked engine controls in the flight crew compartment)

14

Total or outside air temperature

16

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

17

Lateral acceleration

18

 

 

 

 

 

18a

18b

18c

Primary flight control surface and/or primary flight control pilot input (For aeroplanes with control systems in which the movement of a control surface will back drive the pilot’s control, ‘or’ applies. For aeroplanes with control systems in which the movement of a control surface will not back drive the pilot’s control, ‘and’ applies. For multiple or split surfaces, a suitable combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu of recording each surface separately. For aeroplanes that have a flight control break-away capability that allows either pilot to operate the controls independently, record both inputs):

Pitch axis

Roll axis

Yaw axis

19

Pitch trim surface position

23

Marker beacon passage

24

Warnings — In addition to the master warning, each ‘red’ warning that cannot be determined from other parameters or from the CVR and each smoke warning from other compartments should be recorded.

25

Each navigation receiver frequency selection

27

Air–ground status. Air–ground status and a sensor of each landing gear if installed

* The number in the left-hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE Document 112A.

Table 2: FDR — Aeroplanes for which the data source for the parameter is either used by the aeroplane systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight crew to operate the aeroplane

No*

Parameter

10

10a

10b

Flaps:

Trailing edge flap position

Flight crew compartment control selection

11

11a

11b

Slats:

Leading edge flap (slat) position

Flight crew compartment control selection

12

Thrust reverse status

13

13a

13b

13c

13d

Ground spoiler and speed brake:

Ground spoiler position

Ground spoiler selection

Speed brake position

Speed brake selection

15

Autopilot, autothrottle and automatic flight control system (AFCS): mode and engagement status (showing which systems are engaged and which primary modes are controlling the flight path and speed of the aircraft)

20

Radio altitude. For auto-land/category III operations, each radio altimeter should be recorded.

21
 

21a

21b

21c

Vertical deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded. For auto-land/category III operations, each system should be recorded:

ILS/GPS/GLS glide path

MLS elevation

Integrated approach navigation (IAN) /Integrated Area Navigation (IRNAV), vertical deviation

22
 

22a

22b

22c

Horizontal deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded. For auto-land/category III operations, each system should be recorded:

ILS/GPS/GLS localiser

MLS azimuth

GNSS approach path/IRNAV lateral deviation

26

26a

26b

Distance measuring equipment (DME) 1 and 2 distances:

Distance to runway threshold (GLS)

Distance to missed approach point (IRNAV/IAN)

28
 

 

28a

28b

28c

Ground proximity warning system (GPWS)/terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)/ground collision avoidance system (GCAS) status — a suitable combination of discretes unless recorder capacity is limited in which case a single discrete for all modes is acceptable:

Selection of terrain display mode, including pop-up display status

Terrain alerts, including cautions and warnings and advisories

On/off switch position

29

Angle of attack

30

30a

30b

Low pressure warning (each system ):

Hydraulic pressure

Pneumatic pressure

31

Ground speed

32

32a

32b

Landing gear:

Landing gear position

Gear selector position

33

33a

33b

33c

33d

33e

33f

Navigation data:

Drift angle

Wind speed

Wind direction

Latitude

Longitude

GNSS augmentation in use

34

34a

34b

Brakes:

Left and right brake pressure

Left and right brake pedal position

35
 

35a

35b

35c

35d

35e

35f

35g

35h

35i

Additional engine parameters (if not already recorded in parameter 9 of Table 1, and if the aeroplane is equipped with a suitable data source):

Engine pressure ratio (EPR)

N1

Indicated vibration level

N2

Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)

Fuel flow

Fuel cut-off lever position

N3

Engine fuel metering valve position (or equivalent parameter from the system that directly controls the flow of fuel into the engine) – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification.

36
 

36a

36b

36c

36d

36e

Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)/airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) — a suitable combination of discretes should be recorded to determine the status of the system:

Combined control

Vertical control

Up advisory

Down advisory

Sensitivity level

37

Wind shear warning

38
 

38a

38b

Selected barometric setting — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically:

Pilot selected barometric setting

Co-pilot selected barometric setting

39

Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

40

Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

41

Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

42

Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

43

Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

44
 

44a

44b

44c

Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically:

Course/desired track (DSTRK)

Path angle

Coordinates of final approach path (IRNAV/IAN)

45

Selected decision height — to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically

46

46a

46b

Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) display format, showing the display system status:

Pilot

Co-pilot

47

Multi-function/engine/alerts display format, showing the display system status

48

Alternating current (AC) electrical bus status — each bus

49

Direct current (DC) electrical bus status — each bus

50

Engine bleed valve(s) position

51

Auxiliary power unit (APU) bleed valve(s) position

52

Computer failure — all critical flight and engine control systems

53

Engine thrust command

54

Engine thrust target

55

Computed centre of gravity (CG)

56

Fuel quantity in CG trim tank

57

Head-up display in use

58

Paravisual display on

59

Operational stall protection, stick shaker and pusher activation

60

60a

60b

60c

60d

60e

60f

Primary navigation system reference:

GNSS

Inertial navigational system (INS)

VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR)/distance measuring equipment (DME)

MLS

Loran C

ILS

61

Ice detection

62

Engine warning — each engine vibration

63

Engine warning — each engine over temperature

64

Engine warning — each engine oil pressure low

65

Engine warning — each engine overspeed

66

Yaw trim surface position

67

Roll trim surface position

68

Yaw or sideslip angle

69

De-icing and/or anti-icing systems selection

70

Hydraulic pressure — each system

71

Loss of cabin pressure

72

Trim control input position in the flight crew compartment, pitch — when mechanical means for control inputs are not available, displayed trim position or trim command should be recorded.

73

Trim control input position in the flight crew compartment, roll — when mechanical means for control inputs are not available, displayed trim position or trim command should be recorded.

74

Trim control input position in the flight crew compartment, yaw — when mechanical means for control inputs are not available, displayed trim position or trim command should be recorded.

75

 

75a

75b

75c

All flight control input forces (for fly-by-wire flight control systems, where control surface position is a function of the displacement of the control input device only, it is not necessary to record this parameter):

Control wheel input forces

Control column input forces

Rudder pedal input forces

76

Event marker

77

Date

78

Actual navigation performance (ANP) or estimate of position error (EPE) or estimate of position uncertainty (EPU)

79

Cabin pressure altitude – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

80

Aeroplane computed weight – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

81

81a
 

81b
 

81c
 

81d

Flight director command:

Left flight director pitch command – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Left flight director roll command – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Right flight director pitch command – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

Right flight director roll command – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

82

Vertical speed – for aeroplanes type certified before 1 January 2023, to be recorded only if this does not require extensive modification

* The number in the left-hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE Document 112A.

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR AEROPLANES FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL CofA ON OR AFTER 1 APRIL 1998 AND BEFORE 1 JANUARY 2016

(a) The operational performance requirements for FDRs should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-55 (Minimum Operational Performance Requirements For Flight Data Recorder Systems) dated May 1990, or EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including amendments No 1 and No°2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.

(b) The FDR should record, with reference to a timescale:

(1) the parameters listed in Table 1a or Table 1b below, as applicable;

(2) the additional parameters listed in Table 2 below, for those aeroplanes with an MCTOM exceeding 27 000 kg;

(3) any dedicated parameters relating to novel or unique design or operational characteristics of the aeroplane as determined by the competent authority; and

(4) the additional parameters listed in Table 3 below, for those aeroplanes equipped with electronic display systems.

(c) The FDR of aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA before 20 August 2002 and equipped with an electronic display system does not need to record those parameters listed in Table 3 for which:

(1) the sensor is not available;

(2) the aeroplane system or equipment generating the data needs to be modified; or

(3) the signals are incompatible with the recording system;

(d) The FDR of aeroplanes first issued with an individual CofA on or after 1 April 1998 but not later than 1 April 2001 is not required to comply with (b) above if:

(1) compliance with (a) cannot be achieved without extensive modification to the aeroplane system and equipment other than the flight recording system; and

(2) the FDR of the aeroplane can comply with AMC4 CAT.IDE.A.190(a) except that parameter 15b in Table 1 of AMC4 CAT.IDE.A.190 need not be recorded.

(e) The parameters to be recorded should meet, as far as practicable, the performance specifications (ranges, sampling intervals, accuracy limits, and resolution in read-out) defined in Table 1 of AMC3 CAT.IDE.A.190.

(f) For aeroplanes with novel or unique design or operational characteristics, the additional parameters should be those required in accordance with applicable Certification Specifications during type or supplemental certification or validation.

(g) If recording capacity is available, as many as possible of the additional parameters specified in table II-A.1 of EUROCAE Document ED 112 dated March 2003 should be recorded.

Table 1a

FDR — Aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 5 700 kg

No

Parameter

1

Time or relative time count

2

Pressure altitude

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

4

Heading

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude

7

Roll attitude

8

Manual radio transmission keying

9

Propulsive thrust/power on each engine and flight crew compartment thrust/power lever position if applicable

10

Trailing edge flap or flight crew compartment control selection

11

Leading edge flap or flight crew compartment control selection

12

Thrust reverse status

13

Ground spoiler position and/or speed brake selection

14

Total or outside air temperature

15

Autopilot, autothrottle and AFCS mode and engagement status

16

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

17

Lateral acceleration

Table 1b

FDR — Aeroplanes with an MCTOM 5 700 kg or below

No

Parameter

1

Time or relative time count

2

Pressure altitude

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

4

Heading

5

Normal acceleration

6

Pitch attitude

7

Roll attitude

8

Manual radio transmission keying

9

Propulsive thrust/power on each engine and flight crew compartment thrust/power lever position if applicable

10

Trailing edge flap or flight crew compartment control selection

11

Leading edge flap or flight crew compartment control selection

12

Thrust reverse status

13

Ground spoiler position and/or speed brake selection

14

Total or outside air temperature

15

Autopilot/autothrottle engagement status

16

Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)

17

Angle of attack (if a suitable sensor is available)

Table 2

FDR — Additional parameters for aeroplanes with an MCTOM of more than 27 000 kg

No

Parameter

18

Primary flight controls — control surface position and/or pilot input (pitch, roll, yaw)

19

Pitch trim position

20

Radio altitude

21

Vertical beam deviation (ILS or GLS glide path or MLS elevation)

22

Horizontal beam deviation (ILS localiser or GLS lateral deviation or MLS azimuth)

23

Marker beacon passage

24

Warnings

25

Reserved (navigation receiver frequency selection or GLS channel is recommended)

26

Reserved (DME or GLS distance is recommended)

27

Landing gear squat switch status or air/ground status

28

Ground proximity warning system

29

Angle of attack

30

Low pressure warning (hydraulic and pneumatic power)

31

Groundspeed

32

Landing gear or gear selector position

Table 3

FDR — Aeroplanes equipped with electronic display systems

No

Parameter

33

Selected barometric setting (each pilot station)

34

Selected altitude

35

Selected speed

36

Selected Mach

37

Selected vertical speed

38

Selected heading

39

Selected flight path

40

Selected decision height

41

EFIS display format

42

Multi-function/engine/alerts display format

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE PARAMETERS TO BE RECORDED FOR AEROPLANES FIRST ISSUED WITH AN INDIVIDUAL CofA ON OR AFTER 1 APRIL 1998 AND BEFORE 1 JANUARY 2016

Table 1: FDR

No

Parameter

Range

Sampling interval in seconds

Accuracy limits (sensor input compared to FDR readout)

Recommended resolution in readout

Remarks

1a

or

Time

24 hours

4

± 0.125 % per hour

1 second

(a) UTC time preferred where available.

1b

Relative time count

0 to 4 095

4

± 0.125 % per hour

(b) Counter increments every 4 seconds of system operation.

2

Pressure altitude

-1 000 ft to maximum certificated altitude of aircraft +5 000 ft

1

±100 ft to ±700 ft

Refer to Table II-A.3 of EUROCAE Document ED-112

5 ft

Should be obtained from air data computer when installed.

3

Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed

50 kt or minimum value installed pitot static system to Max VS0

Max VS0 to 1.2 VD

1

±5 %

±3 %

1 kt (0.5 kt recommended)

Should be obtained from air data computer when installed.

VS0: stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration VD design diving speed

4

Heading

360 degrees

1

±2 degrees

0.5 degrees

 

5

Normal acceleration

-3 g to +6 g

0.125

1 % of maximum range excluding a datum error of 5 %

0.004 g

The recording resolution may be rounded from 0.004 g to 0.01 g provided that one sample is recorded at full resolution at least every 4 seconds.

6

Pitch attitude

±75 degrees

0.25

±2 degrees

0.5 degrees

 

7

Roll attitude

±180 degrees

0.5

±2 degrees

0.5 degrees

 

8

Manual radio transmission keying

Discrete

1

-

-

Preferably each crew member but one discrete acceptable for all transmissions provided that the replay of a recording made by any required recorder can be synchronised in time with any other required recording to within 1 second.

9a

Propulsive thrust/power on each engine

Full range

Each engine each second

±2 %

0.2 % of full range

Sufficient parameters, e.g. EPR/N, or Torque/NP as appropriate to the particular engine must be recorded to determine power in both normal and reverse thrust. A margin for possible overspeed should be provided.

9b

Flight crew compartment thrust/power lever position

Full range

Each lever each second

±2 % or sufficient to determine any gated position

2 % of full range

Parameter 9b must be recorded for aeroplanes with non-mechanically linked cockpit-engine controls, otherwise recommended.

10

Trailing edge flap or flight crew compartment control selection

Full range or each discrete position

2

±3° or as pilot’s indicator and sufficient to determine each discrete position

0.5 % of full range

Flap position and cockpit control may be sampled at 4-second intervals so as to give a data point each 2 seconds.

11

Leading edge flap or flight crew compartment control selection

Full range or each discrete position

1

±3° or as pilot’s indicator and sufficient to determine each discrete position

0.5 % of full range

Left and right sides, or flap position and cockpit control may be sampled at 2-second intervals so as to give a data point each second.

12

Thrust reverser status

Turbo-jet: stowed, in transit and reverse

Turbo-prop: reverse

Each reverser each second

-

-

Turbo-jet: 2 discretes enable the 3 states to be determined

Turbo-prop: 1 discrete

13

Ground spoiler and/or speed brake selection

Full range or each discrete position

0.5

±2º unless higher accuracy uniquely required

0.2 % of full range

Sufficient to determine use of the cockpit selector and the activation and positions of the surfaces

14

Outside air temperatures or total air temperature

-50°C to +90°C or available sensor range

2

±2ºC

0.3ºC

 

15

 

Autopilot/Autothrottle/AFCS mode and engagement status

A suitable combination of discretes

1

-

-

 

Discretes should show which systems are engaged and which primary modes are controlling the flight path and speed of the aircraft.

16

Longitudinal acceleration (Body axis)

± 1 g

0.25

±1.5 % of maximum range excluding a datum error of ±5 %

0.004 g

The recording resolution may be rounded from 0.004 g to 0.01 g provided that one sample is recorded at full resolution at least every 4 seconds.

17

Lateral acceleration

±1 g

0.25

±1.5 % of maximum range excluding a datum error of ±5 %

0.004 g

The recording resolution may be rounded from 0.004 g to 0.01 g provided that one sample is recorded at full resolution at least every 4 seconds.

18

Primary flight controls, control surface positions and/or* pilot input

Full range

1

±2º unless higher accuracy uniquely required

0.2 % of full range

*For aeroplanes that can demonstrate the capability of deriving either the control input or control movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the ‘or’ applies. For aeroplanes with non-mechanical control systems, the ‘and’ applies.

 

Where the input controls for each pilot can be operated independently, both inputs will need to be recorded.

For multiple or split surfaces, a suitable combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu of recording each surface separately.

18a

Pitch axis

 

0.25

 

 

18b

Roll axis

 

0.25

 

 

18c

Yaw axis

 

0.5

 

 

19

Pitch trim position

Full range

1

±3 % unless higher accuracy uniquely required

0.3 % of full range

Where dual surfaces are provided it is permissible to record each surface alternately.

20

Radio altitude

-20 ft to +2 500 ft

1

As installed

±2 ft or ±3 % whichever is greater below 500 ft and ±5 % above 500 ft recommended.

1 ft below 500 ft, 1 ft +0.5 % of full range above 500 ft

For auto-land/category III operations, each radio altimeter should be recorded, but arranged so that at least one is recorded each second.

21

Vertical beam deviation

 

1

As installed

±3 % recommended

0.3 % of full range

Data from all of the ILS, GLS and MLS systems need not to be recorded at the same time. The approach aid in use should be recorded.

For auto-land/ category III operations, each radio altimeter should be recorded, but arranged so that at least one is recorded each second.

21a

ILS or GLS glide path

±0.22 DDM or available sensor range as installed

 

 

 

21b

MLS elevation

0.9° to 30°

 

 

 

22

Horizontal beam deviation

Signal range

1

As installed

±3 % recommended

0.3 % of full range

See parameter 21 remarks.

22a

ILS localiser or GLS lateral deviation

±0.22 DDM or available sensor range as installed

 

 

 

 

22b

MLS azimuth

±62°

 

 

 

 

23

Marker beacon passage

Discrete

1

A single discrete is acceptable for all markers.

24

Warnings

Discretes

1

A discrete must be recorded for the master warning. Each ‘red’ warning (including lavatory smoke) should be recorded when the warning condition cannot be determined from other parameters or from the cockpit voice recorder.

25

Reserved

 

26

Reserved

 

27

Landing gear squat switch status

Discrete(s)

1 (0.25 recommended for main gears)

Discretes should be recorded for the nose and main landing gears.

28

Ground proximity warning system (GPWS)

Discrete

1

A suitable combination of discretes unless recorder capacity is limited in which case a single discrete for all modes is acceptable.

29

Angle of attack

As installed

0.5

As installed

0.3 % of full range

If left and right sensors are available, each may be recorded at 1-second intervals so as to give a data point each half second.

30

Low pressure warning

Discrete(s) or available sensor range

2

-

0.5 % of full range

Each essential system to be recorded.

 

30a

Hydraulic power

30b

Pneumatic power

31

Groundspeed

As installed

1

Data should be obtained from the most accurate system

1 kt

 

32

Landing gear or gear selector position

Discrete(s)

4

-

A suitable combination of discretes should be recorded.

33

Selected barometric setting (each pilot station)

As installed

64

As installed

1 mb

Where practicable, a sampling interval of 4 seconds is recommended

33a

Pilot

33b

Co-pilot

34

Selected altitude

As installed

1

As installed

100 ft

Where capacity is limited, a sampling interval of 64 seconds is permissible.

34a

Manual

34b

Automatic

35

Selected speed

As installed

1

As installed

1 kt

Where capacity is limited, a sampling interval of 64 seconds is permissible.

35a

Manual

35b

Automatic

36

Selected Mach

As installed

1

As installed

0.01