Annex I Definitions for terms used in Annexes II to VIII

Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

For the purpose of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) ‘accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA)’ means the length of the take-off run available plus the length of stopway, if such stopway is declared available by the State of the aerodrome and is capable of bearing the mass of the aeroplane under the prevailing operating conditions;

(2) ‘acceptable means of compliance (AMC)’ means non-binding standards adopted by the Agency to illustrate means to establish compliance with Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its Implementing Rules;

(3) ‘acceptance checklist’ means a document used to assist in carrying out a check on the external appearance of packages of dangerous goods and their associated documents to determine that all appropriate requirements have been met with;

(4) ‘adequate aerodrome’ means an aerodrome on which the aircraft can be operated, taking account of the applicable performance requirements and runway characteristics;

(5) For the purpose of passenger classification:

(a) ‘adult’ means a person of an age of 12 years and above;

(b) ‘child/children’ means persons who are of an age of two years and above but who are less than 12 years of age;

(c) ‘infant’ means a person under the age of two years;

(6) [deleted with Reg. (EU) 2018/1975]

(6) ‘aerodrome operating minima’ means the limits of usability of an aerodrome for:

(a) take-off, expressed in terms of runway visual range (RVR) and/or visibility and, if necessary, ceiling;

(b) landing in 2D instrument approach operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or RVR, minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) and, if necessary, ceiling;

(c) landing in 3D instrument approach operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or RVR and decision altitude/height (DA/H) as appropriate to the type and/or category of the operation;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(7) ‘aided night vision imaging system (NVIS) flight’ means, in the case of NVIS operations, that portion of a visual flight rules (VFR) flight performed at night when a crew member is using night vision goggles (NVG);

(8) ‘aircraft’ means a machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface;

(8a) ‘aircraft tracking’ means a ground based process that maintains and updates, at standardised intervals, a record of the four dimensional position of individual aircraft in flight;

(8b) ‘aircraft tracking system’ means a system that relies on aircraft tracking in order to identify abnormal flight behaviour and provide alert;

(8c) ‘alternate aerodrome’ means an adequate aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or land at the aerodrome of intended landing, where the necessary services and facilities are available, where aircraft performance requirements can be met, and which is operational at the expected time of use; ‘alternate aerodrome’ includes the following:

(a) ‘take-off alternate aerodrome’: an alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land if it becomes necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure;

(b) ‘en route alternate (ERA) aerodrome’: an alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land if a diversion becomes necessary while en route;

(c) ‘fuel/energy en route alternate (fuel/energy ERA) aerodrome’ means an ERA aerodrome that is required at the planning stage for use in the calculation of fuel/energy;

(d) ‘destination alternate aerodrome’: an alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land if it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

(9) ‘alternative means of compliance’ means those means that propose an alternative to an existing acceptable means of compliance or those that propose new means to establish compliance with Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its Implementing Rules for which no associated AMC have been adopted by the Agency;

(10) ‘anti-icing’, in the case of ground procedures, means a procedure that provides protection against the formation of frost or ice and accumulation of snow on treated surfaces of the aircraft for a limited period of time (hold-over time);

(11) ‘approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV) operation’ means an instrument approach which utilises lateral and vertical guidance, but does not meet the requirements established for precision approach and landing operations, with a decision height (DH) not lower than 250 ft and a runway visual range (RVR) of not less than 600 m;

[point (11) applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(11a) [deleted with Reg. (EU) 2018/1975]

(12) ‘cabin crew member’ means an appropriately qualified crew member, other than a flight crew or technical crew member, who is assigned by an operator to perform duties related to the safety of passengers and flight during operations;

(13) ‘category I (CAT I) approach operation’ means a precision instrument approach and landing using an instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing system (MLS), GLS (ground-based augmented global navigation satellite system (GNSS/GBAS) landing system), precision approach radar (PAR) or GNSS using a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) with a decision height (DH) not lower than 200 ft and with a runway visual range (RVR) not less than 550 m for aeroplanes and 500 m for helicopters;

(14) ‘category II (CAT II) operation’ means a precision instrument approach and landing operation using ILS or MLS with:

(a) DH below 200 ft but not lower than 100 ft; and

(b) RVR of not less than 300 m;

(15) ‘category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation’ means a precision instrument approach and landing operation using ILS or MLS with:

(a) DH lower than 100 ft; and

(b) RVR not less than 200 m;

(16) ‘category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation’ means a precision instrument approach and landing operation using ILS or MLS with:

(a) DH lower than 100 ft, or no DH; and

(b) RVR lower than 200 m but not less than 75 m;

[points (13) to (16) applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(17) ‘category A with respect to helicopters’ means a multi-engined helicopter designed with engine and system isolation features specified in the applicable certification specification and capable of operations using take-off and landing data scheduled under a critical engine failure concept that assures adequate designated surface area and adequate performance capability for continued safe flight or safe rejected take-off in the event of engine failure;

(18) ‘category B with respect to helicopters’ means a single-engined or multi-engined helicopter that does not meet category A standards. Category B helicopters have no guaranteed capability to continue safe flight in the event of an engine failure, and unscheduled landing is assumed;

(18a) ‘ceiling’ means the height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6 000 m (20 000 ft) covering more than half the sky;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(19) ‘certification specifications’ (CS) means technical standards adopted by the Agency indicating means to show compliance with Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its Implementing Rules and which can be used by an organisation for the purpose of certification;

(20) ‘circling’ means the visual phase of an instrument approach to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway/FATO that is not suitably located for a straight-in approach;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(20) ‘circling’ means the visual phase of a circling approach operation;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(20a) ‘circling approach operation’ means a Type A instrument approach operation to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway/final approach and take-off area (FATO) that is not suitably located for a straight-in approach;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(21) ‘clearway’ means a defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height;

(22) ‘cloud base’ means the height of the base of the lowest observed or forecast cloud element in the vicinity of an aerodrome or operating site or within a specified area of operations, normally measured above aerodrome elevation or, in the case of offshore operations, above mean sea level;

(22a) ‘cockpit voice recorder (CVR)’ means a crash-protected flight recorder that uses a combination of microphones and other audio and digital inputs to collect and record the aural environment of the flight crew compartment and communications to, from and between the flight crew members;

(23) ‘code share’ means an arrangement under which an operator places its designator code on a flight operated by another operator, and sells and issues tickets for that flight;

(23a) ‘competency’ means a dimension of human performance that is used to reliably predict successful performance on the job and which is manifested and observed through behaviours that mobilise the relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes to carry out activities or tasks under specified conditions;

(23b) ‘competency-based training’ means assessment and training programmes that are characterised by a performance orientation, emphasis on standards of performance and their measurement and the development of training to the specified performance standards;

(23c) ‘competency framework’ means a complete set of identified competencies that are developed, trained and assessed in the operator’s evidence-based training programme utilising scenarios that are relevant to operations and which is wide enough to prepare the pilot for both foreseen and unforeseen threats and errors;

(24) ‘congested area’ means in relation to a city, town or settlement, any area which is substantially used for residential, commercial or recreational purposes;

(25) ‘contaminated runway’ means a runway of which a significant portion of its surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the length and width being used is covered by one or more of the substances listed under the runway surface condition descriptors;

(26) ‘contingency fuel’ means the fuel required to compensate for unforeseen factors that could have an influence on the fuel consumption to the destination aerodrome;

[applicable until 29 October 2022]

(26) ‘contingency fuel/energy’ means the fuel/energy required to compensate for unforeseen factors that could have an influence on the fuel/energy consumption to the destination aerodrome;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

(27) ‘continuous descent final approach (CDFA)’ means a technique, consistent with stabilised approach procedures, for flying the final-approach segment of a non-precision instrument approach procedure as a continuous descent, without level-off, from an altitude/height at or above the final approach fix altitude/height to a point approximately 15 m (50 ft) above the landing runway threshold or the point where the flare manoeuvre shall begin for the type of aircraft flown;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(27) ‘continuous descent final approach (CDFA)’ means a technique, consistent with stabilised approach procedures, for flying the final approach segment (FAS) of an instrument nonprecision approach (NPA) procedure as a continuous descent, without level-off, from an altitude/height at or above the final approach fix altitude/height:

(a) for straight-in approach operations, to a point approximately 15 m (50 ft) above the landing runway threshold or the point where the flare manoeuvre begins; or

(b) for circling approach operations, until MDA/H or visual flight manoeuvre altitude/height is reached;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(28) ‘converted meteorological visibility (CMV)’ means a value, equivalent to an RVR, which is derived from the reported meteorological visibility;

(29) ‘crew member’ means a person assigned by an operator to perform duties on board an aircraft;

(30) ‘critical phases of flight’ in the case of aeroplanes means the take-off run, the take-off flight path, the final approach, the missed approach, the landing, including the landing roll, and any other phases of flight as determined by the pilot-in-command or commander;

(31) ‘critical phases of flight’ in the case of helicopters means taxiing, hovering, take-off, final approach, missed approach, the landing and any other phases of flight as determined by the pilot-in-command or commander;

(31a) ‘current fuel/energy scheme’ means the approved fuel/energy scheme that is currently used by the operator;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

(32) [deleted with Reg.(EU) 2019/1387]

(33) ‘dangerous goods (DG)’ means articles or substances which are capable of posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment and which are shown in the list of dangerous goods in the technical instructions or which are classified according to those instructions;

(34) ‘dangerous goods accident’ means an occurrence associated with and related to the transport of dangerous goods by air which results in fatal or serious injury to a person or major property damage;

(35) ‘dangerous goods incident’ means:

(a) an occurrence other than a dangerous goods accident associated with and related to the transport of dangerous goods by air, not necessarily occurring on board an aircraft, which results in injury to a person, property damage, fire, breakage, spillage, leakage of fluid or radiation or other evidence that the integrity of the packaging has not been maintained;

(b) any occurrence relating to the transport of dangerous goods which seriously jeopardises an aircraft or its occupants;

(35a) ‘decision altitude (DA) or decision height (DH)’ means a specified altitude or height in a 3D instrument approach operation at which a missed approach procedure must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(36) ‘de-icing’, in the case of ground procedures, means a procedure by which frost, ice, snow or slush is removed from an aircraft in order to provide uncontaminated surfaces;

(37) ‘defined point after take-off (DPATO)’ means the point, within the take-off and initial climb phase, before which the helicopter’s ability to continue the flight safely, with the critical engine inoperative, is not assured and a forced landing may be required;

(38) ‘defined point before landing (DPBL)’ means the point within the approach and landing phase, after which the helicopter’s ability to continue the flight safely, with the critical engine inoperative, is not assured and a forced landing may be required;

(39) ‘distance DR’ means the horizontal distance that the helicopter has travelled from the end of the take-off distance available;

(40) ‘dry lease agreement’ means an agreement between undertakings pursuant to which the aircraft is operated under the air operator certificate (AOC) of the lessee or, in the case of commercial operations other than CAT, under the responsibility of the lessee;

(41) ‘dry operating mass’ means the total mass of the aircraft ready for a specific type of operation, excluding usable fuel and traffic load;

(42) ‘dry runway’ means a runway whose surface is free of visible moisture and not contaminated within the area intended to be used;

(42a) ‘EFB application’ means a software application installed on an EFB host platform that provides one or more specific operational functions which support flight operations;

(42b) ‘EFB host platform’ means the hardware equipment in which the computing capabilities and basic software reside, including the operating system and the input/output software;

(42c) ‘EFB system’ means the hardware equipment (including any battery, connectivity provisions, input/output components) and software (including databases and the operating system) needed to support the intended EFB application(s);

(42d) ‘EBT module’ means a combination of sessions in a qualified flight simulation training device as part of the 3-year period of recurrent assessment and training;

(43) ‘ELA1 aircraft’ means the following manned European Light Aircraft:

(a) an aeroplane with a Maximum Take-off Mass (MTOM) of 1 200 kg or less that is not classified as complex motor-powered aircraft;

(b) a sailplane or powered sailplane of 1 200 kg MTOM or less;

(c) a balloon with a maximum design lifting gas or hot air volume of not more than 3400 m3 for hot air balloons, 1 050 m3 for gas balloons, 300 m3 for tethered gas balloons;

(44) ‘ELA2 aircraft’ means the following manned European Light Aircraft:

(a) an aeroplane with a Maximum Take-off Mass (MTOM) of 2 000 kg or less that is not classified as complex motor-powered aircraft;

(b) a sailplane or powered sailplane of 2 000 kg MTOM or less;

(c) a balloon;

(d) a Very Light Rotorcraft with a MTOM not exceeding 600 kg which is of a simple design, designed to carry not more than two occupants, not powered by turbine and/or rocket engines; restricted to VFR day operations;

(44a) ‘electronic flight bag (EFB)’ means an electronic information system, comprised of equipment and applications for flight crew, which allows for the storing, updating, displaying and processing of EFB functions to support flight operations or duties;

(45) ‘elevated final approach and take-off area (elevated FATO)’ means a FATO that is at least 3 m above the surrounding surface;

(45a) ‘emergency exit’ means an installed exit-type egress point from the aircraft that allows maximum opportunity for cabin and flight crew compartment evacuation within an appropriate time period and includes floor level door, window exit or any other type of exit, for instance hatch in the flight crew compartment and tail cone exit;

(46) ‘en-route alternate (ERA) aerodrome’ means an adequate aerodrome along the route, which may be required at the planning stage;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(46) ‘enhanced flight vision system (EFVS)’ is an electronic means to provide the flight crew with a real-time sensor-derived or enhanced display of the external scene topography (the natural or man-made features of a place or region especially in a way to show their relative positions and elevation) through the use of imaging sensors; an EFVS is integrated with a flight guidance system and is implemented on a head-up display or an equivalent display system; if an EFVS is certified according to the applicable airworthiness requirements and an operator holds the necessary specific approval (when required), then it may be used for EFVS operations and may allow operations with operational credits;

(46a) ‘EFVS operation’ means an operation in which visibility conditions require an EFVS to be used instead of natural vision in order to perform an approach or landing, identify the required visual references or conduct a roll-out;

(46b) ‘EFVS 200 operation’ means an operation with an operational credit in which visibility conditions require an EFVS to be used down to 200 ft above the FATO or runway threshold. From that point to land, natural vision is used. The RVR shall not be less than 550 m;

[points (46), (46a), and (46b) applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(47) ‘enhanced vision system (EVS)’ means a system to display electronic real-time images of the external scene achieved through the use of imaging sensors;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(47) ‘enhanced vision system (EVS)’ is an electronic means to provide the flight crew with a real-time image of the actual external scene topography (the natural or man-made features of a place or region especially in a way to show their relative positions and elevation) through the use of imaging sensors;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(47a) ‘enrolment’ means the administrative action carried out by the operator where a pilot participates in the operator’s EBT programme;

(47b) ‘enrolled pilot’ means the pilot that participates in the EBT recurrent training programme;

(47c) ‘equivalency of approaches means all the approaches that place an additional demand on a proficient crew regardless of whether they are used or not in the EBT modules;

(47d) ‘equivalency of malfunctions’ means all the malfunctions that put a significant demand on a proficient crew regardless of whether they are used or not in the EBT modules;

(47e) ‘evaluation phase’ means one of the phases of an EBT module which is a line-orientated flight scenario, representative of the operator’s environment during which there are one or more occurrences to evaluate key elements of the defined competency framework;

(47f) ‘evidence-based training (EBT)’ means assessment and training based on operational data that is characterised by developing and assessing the overall capability of a pilot across a range of competencies (competency framework) rather than by measuring the performance in individual events or manoeuvres;

(48) ‘final approach and take-off area (FATO)’ means a defined area for helicopter operations, over which the final phase of the approach manoeuvre to hover or land is completed, and from which the take-off manoeuvre is commenced. In the case of helicopters operating in performance class 1, the defined area includes the rejected take-off area available;

(48a) ‘flight crew member’ means a licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight duty period;

(48b) ‘final approach segment (FAS)’ means that segment of an instrument approach procedure (IAP) in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(49) ‘flight data monitoring (FDM)’ means the proactive and non-punitive use of digital flight data from routine operations to improve aviation safety;

(49a) ‘flight operations officer’ or ‘flight dispatcher’ means a person designated by the operator to engage in the control and supervision of flight operations, who is suitably qualified, who supports, briefs or assists, or both, the pilot-in-command in the safe conduct of the flight;

(49b) ‘flight data recorder (FDR)’ means a crash-protected flight recorder that uses a combination of data sources to collect and record parameters that reflect the state and performance of the aircraft;

(49c) ‘flight recorder’ means any type of recorder that is installed on the aircraft for the purpose of facilitating accident or incident safety investigations;

(49d) ‘flight following’ means the recording in real time of departure and arrival messages by operational personnel to ensure that a flight is operating and has arrived at the destination aerodrome or an alternate aerodrome;

(49e) ‘flight monitoring’ means, in addition to the requirements defined for flight following:

(a) operational monitoring of flights by suitably qualified operational-control personnel from departure throughout all phases of the flight;

(b) communication of all available and relevant safety information between the operationalcontrol personnel on the ground and the flight crew; and

(c) critical assistance to the flight crew in the event of an in-flight emergency or security issue, or at the request of the flight crew;

[points (49d) and (49e) applicable from 30 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

(50) ‘flight simulation training device (FSTD)’ means a training device which is:

(a) in the case of aeroplanes, a full flight simulator (FFS), a flight training device (FTD), a flight and navigation procedures trainer (FNPT), or a basic instrument training device (BITD);

(b) in the case of helicopters, a full flight simulator (FFS), a flight training device (FTD) or a flight and navigation procedures trainer (FNPT);

(50a) ‘flight time’ means:

(a) for aeroplanes, the total time from the moment an aeroplane first moves for the purpose of taking off until the moment the aeroplane finally comes to rest at the end of the flight;

(b) for helicopters, the total time between the moment a helicopter’s rotor blades start turning for the purpose of taking off until the moment the helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the rotor blades are stopped;

(50b) ‘flight watch’ means, in addition to all elements defined for ‘flight monitoring’, the active tracking of a flight by suitably qualified operational-control personnel throughout all phases of the flight to ensure that the flight is following its prescribed route without unplanned deviations, diversions or delays;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

(51) ‘fuel ERA aerodrome’ means an ERA aerodrome selected for the purpose of reducing contingency fuel;

[applicable until 29 October 2022]

(52) ‘GBAS landing system (GLS)’ means an approach landing system using ground based augmented global navigation satellite system (GNSS/GBAS) information to provide guidance to the aircraft based on its lateral and vertical GNSS position. It uses geometric altitude reference for its final approach slope;

(52a) ‘go-around’ means a transition from an approach operation to a stabilised climb. This includes manoeuvres conducted at or above the MDA/H or DA/H, or below the DA/H (balked landings);

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(53) ‘ground emergency service personnel’ means any ground emergency service personnel (such as policemen, firemen, etc.) involved with helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) and whose tasks are to any extent pertinent to helicopter operations;

(54) ‘grounding’ means the formal prohibition of an aircraft to take-off and the taking of such steps as are necessary to detain it;

(55) ‘head-up display (HUD)’ means a display system which presents flight information to the pilot’s forward external field of view and which does not significantly restrict the external view;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(55) ‘head-up display landing system (HUDLS)’ means the total airborne system which provides head-up guidance to the pilot to enable the pilot to either control the aircraft or to monitor the autopilot during take-off (if applicable), approach and landing (and roll-out if applicable), or goaround. It includes all the sensors, computers, power supplies, indications and controls;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(56) ‘head-up guidance landing system (HUDLS)’ means the total airborne system that provides head-up guidance to the pilot during the approach and landing and/or missed approach procedure. It includes all sensors, computers, power supplies, indications and controls;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(57) [deleted with Reg. (EU) 2018/1975]

(58) ‘helicopter hoist operation (HHO) crew member’ means a technical crew member who performs assigned duties relating to the operation of a hoist;

(59) ‘helideck’ means a FATO located on a floating or fixed offshore structure;

(60) ‘HEMS crew member’ means a technical crew member who is assigned to a HEMS flight for the purpose of attending to any person in need of medical assistance carried in the helicopter and assisting the pilot during the mission;

(61) ‘HEMS flight’ means a flight by a helicopter operating under a HEMS approval, the purpose of which is to facilitate emergency medical assistance, where immediate and rapid transportation is essential, by carrying:

(a) medical personnel;

(b) medical supplies (equipment, blood, organs, drugs); or

(c) ill or injured persons and other persons directly involved;

(62) ‘HEMS operating base’ means an aerodrome at which the HEMS crew members and the HEMS helicopter may be on stand-by for HEMS operations;

(63) ‘HEMS operating site’ means a site selected by the commander during a HEMS flight for helicopter hoist operations, landing and take-off;

(64) ‘HHO flight’ means a flight by a helicopter operating under an HHO approval, the purpose of which is to facilitate the transfer of persons and/or cargo by means of a helicopter hoist;

(65) ‘HHO offshore’ means a flight by a helicopter operating under an HHO approval, the purpose of which is to facilitate the transfer of persons and/or cargo by means of a helicopter hoist from or to a vessel or structure in a sea area or to the sea itself;

(66) ‘HHO passenger’ means a person who is to be transferred by means of a helicopter hoist;

(67) ‘HHO site’ means a specified area at which a helicopter performs a hoist transfer;

(68) ‘hold-over time (HoT)’ means the estimated time the anti-icing fluid will prevent the formation of ice and frost and the accumulation of snow on the protected (treated) surfaces of an aeroplane;

(69) ‘hostile environment’ means:

(a) an area in which:

(i) a safe forced landing cannot be accomplished because the surface is inadequate; or

(ii) the helicopter occupants cannot be adequately protected from the elements; or

(iii) search and rescue response/capability are not provided consistent with anticipated exposure; or

(iv) there is an unacceptable risk of endangering persons or property on the ground;

(b) in any case, the following areas:

(i) for overwater operations, the open sea area north of 45 N and south of 45 S, unless any part is designated as non-hostile by the responsible authority of the State in which the operations take place; and

(ii) those parts of a congested area without adequate safe forced landing areas;

(69a) ‘human–machine interface (HMI)’ means a component of certain devices that is capable of handling human–machine interactions. The interface consists of hardware and software that allow user inputs to be interpreted and processed by machines or systems that, in turn, provide the required results to the user;

(69b) ‘in-seat instruction’ means a technique used in the manoeuvres training phase or the scenario-based training phase, where the instructors can:

 (a) provide simple instructions to one pilot; or

 (b) perform predetermined exercises acting, in a pilot seat, as pilot flying (PF) or pilot monitoring (PM) for:

(1) the demonstration of techniques; and/or

(2) triggering the other pilot to intervene or interact;

(69c) ‘instructor concordance’ means the consistency or stability of scores between different EBT instructors which gives a score (or scores) of how much homogeneity, or consensus, there is in the ratings given by instructors (raters);

(69d) ‘instrument approach operation’ means an approach and landing using instruments for navigation guidance based on an instrument approach procedure (IAP). There are two methods for executing instrument approach operations:

(a) a two-dimensional (2D) instrument approach operation, using lateral navigation guidance only; and

(b) a three-dimensional (3D) instrument approach operation, using both lateral and vertical navigation guidance;

(69e) ‘instrument approach procedure (IAP)’ means a series of predetermined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix or, where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance criteria apply. IAPs are classified as follows:

(a) non-precision approach (NPA) procedure, which means an IAP designed for 2D instrument approach operations Type A;

(b) approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV) means a performance-based navigation (PBN) IAP designed for 3D instrument approach operations Type A;

(c) precision approach (PA) procedure means an IAP based on navigation systems designed for 3D instrument approach operations Type A or B;

[points (69d) and (69e) applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(70) ‘landing decision point (LDP)’ means the point used in determining landing performance from which, an engine failure having been recognised at this point, the landing may be safely continued or a balked landing initiated;

(70a) ‘landing distance at time of arrival (LDTA)’ means a landing distance that is achievable in normal operations based on landing performance data and associated procedures determined for the prevailing conditions at the time of landing;

(71) ‘landing distance available (LDA)’ means the length of the runway which is declared available by the State of the aerodrome and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing;

(72) ‘landplane’ means a fixed wing aircraft which is designed for taking off and landing on land and includes amphibians operated as landplanes;

(72a) ‘line-orientated flight scenario’ means the assessment and training involving a realistic, ‘real-time’, full mission simulation of scenarios that are representative of line operations;

(72b) ‘line check’ means a check conducted by the operator and completed by the pilot or the technical crew member to demonstrate competence in carrying out normal line operations described in the operations manual;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(73) ‘local helicopter operation’ means a commercial air transport operation of helicopters with a maximum certified take-off mass (MCTOM) over 3 175 kg and a maximum operational passenger seating configuration (MOPSC) of nine or less, by day, over routes navigated by reference to visual landmarks, conducted within a local and defined geographical area specified in the operations manual;

[applicable until 29 October 2022]

(73) ‘local helicopter operation (LHO)’ means a commercial air transport operation of helicopters with a maximum certified take-off mass (MCTOM) over 3 175 kg and a maximum operational passenger seating configuration (MOPSC) of nine or less, by day, over routes navigated by reference to visual landmarks, conducted within a local and defined geographical area specified in the operations manual;

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

(74) ‘low visibility procedures (LVP)’ means procedures applied at an aerodrome for the purpose of ensuring safe operations during lower than standard category I, other than standard category II, category II and III approaches and low visibility take-offs;

(75) ‘low visibility take-off (LVTO)’ means a take-off with an RVR lower than 400 m but not less than 75 m;

[points (74) and (75) applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(74) ‘low-visibility operations (LVOs)’ means approach or take-off operations on a runway with a runway visual range less than 550 m or with a decision height less than 200 ft;

(75) ‘low-visibility take-off (LVTO)’ means a take-off with an RVR less than 550 m;

[points (74) and (75) applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(76) ‘lower than standard category I (LTS CAT I) operation’ means a category I instrument approach and landing operation using category I DH, with an RVR lower than would normally be associated with the applicable DH but not lower than 400 m;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(76a) ‘maintenance check flight (‘MCF’)’ means a flight of an aircraft with an airworthiness certificate or with a permit to fly which is carried out for troubleshooting purposes or to check the functioning of one or more systems, parts or appliances after maintenance, if the functioning of the systems, parts or appliances cannot be established during ground checks and which is carried out in any of the following situations:

(a) as required by the aircraft maintenance manual (‘AMM’) or any other maintenance data issued by a design approval holder being responsible for the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft;

(b) after maintenance, as required by the operator or proposed by the organisation responsible for the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft;

(c) as requested by the maintenance organisation for verification of a successful defect rectification;

(d) to assist with fault isolation or troubleshooting;

(76b) ‘manoeuvres training phase’ means a phase of an EBT module during which, according to aircraft generation, crews have time to practise and improve performance in largely psychomotor skill-based exercises by achieving a prescribed flight path or performing a prescribed event to a prescribed outcome;

(76c) ‘mixed EBT programme’ means an operator’s recurrent training and checking programme as per ORO.FC.230, a portion of which is dedicated to the application of EBT but which does not replace proficiency checks as per Appendix 9 to Annex I (Part-FCL) to Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011;

(77) ‘maximum operational passenger seating configuration (MOPSC)’ means the maximum passenger seating capacity of an individual aircraft, excluding crew seats, established for operational purposes and specified in the operations manual. Taking as a baseline the maximum passenger seating configuration established during the certification process conducted for the type certificate (TC), supplemental type certificate (STC) or change to the TC or STC as relevant to the individual aircraft, the MOPSC may establish an equal or lower number of seats, depending on the operational constraints;

(78) ‘medical passenger’ means a medical person carried in a helicopter during a HEMS flight, including but not limited to doctors, nurses and paramedics;

(78a) ‘minor failure condition’ means a failure condition that would not significantly reduce aircraft safety, and which involves flight crew actions that are well within their capabilities;

(78b) ‘misuse of substances’ means the use of one or more psychoactive substances by flight crew, cabin crew members and other safety-sensitive personnel in a way that:

(a) constitutes a direct hazard to the user or endangers the lives, health or welfare of others, and/or

(b) causes or worsens an occupational, social, mental or physical problem or disorder;

(78c) ‘minimum descent altitude (MDA) or minimum descent height (MDH)’ means a specified altitude or height in a 2D instrument approach operation or circling approach operation below which descent must not be made without the required visual reference;’

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(79) ‘night’ means the period between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority, as defined by the Member State;

(80) ‘night vision goggles (NVG)’ means a head-mounted, binocular, light intensification appliance that enhances the ability to maintain visual surface references at night;

(81) ‘night vision imaging system (NVIS)’ means the integration of all elements required to successfully and safely use NVGs while operating a helicopter. The system includes as a minimum: NVGs, NVIS lighting, helicopter components, training and continuing airworthiness;

(82) ‘non-hostile environment’ means an environment in which:

(a) a safe forced landing can be accomplished;

(b) the helicopter occupants can be protected from the elements; and

(c) search and rescue response/capability is provided consistent with the anticipated exposure.

In any case, those parts of a congested area with adequate safe forced landing areas shall be considered non-hostile;

(83) ‘non-precision approach (NPA) operation’ means an instrument approach with a minimum descent height (MDH), or DH when flying a CDFA technique, not lower than 250 ft and an RVR/CMV of not less than 750 m for aeroplanes and 600 m for helicopters;

[point (83) applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(84) ‘NVIS crew member’ means a technical crew member assigned to an NVIS flight;

(85) ‘NVIS flight’ means a flight under night visual meteorological conditions (VMC) with the flight crew using NVGs in a helicopter operating under an NVIS approval;

(85a) ‘obstacle clearance altitude (OCA) or obstacle clearance height (OCH)’ means the lowest altitude or the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the aerodrome elevation, as applicable, used in establishing compliance with the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(86) ‘offshore operation’ means a helicopter operation that has a substantial proportion of any flight conducted over open sea areas to or from an offshore location;

(86a) ‘offshore location’ means a facility intended to be used for helicopter operations on a fixed or floating offshore structure or a vessel;

(86b) ‘open sea area’ means the area of water to seaward of the coastline;

(87) ‘operating site’ means a site, other than an aerodrome, selected by the operator or pilot-in-command or commander for landing, take-off and/or external load operations;

(88) ‘operation in performance class 1’ means an operation that, in the event of failure of the critical engine, the helicopter is able to land within the rejected take-off distance available or safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area, depending on when the failure occurs;

(89) ‘operation in performance class 2’ means an operation that, in the event of failure of the critical engine, performance is available to enable the helicopter to safely continue the flight, except when the failure occurs early during the take-off manoeuvre or late in the landing manoeuvre, in which cases a forced landing may be required;

(90) ‘operation in performance class 3’ means an operation that, in the event of an engine failure at any time during the flight, a forced landing may be required in a multi-engined helicopter and will be required in a single-engined helicopter;

(91) ‘operational control’ means the responsibility for the initiation, continuation, termination or diversion of a flight in the interest of safety;

(91a) ‘operational credit’ means a credit for operations with an advanced aircraft enabling lower aerodrome operating minima than would normally be established by the operator for a basic aircraft, based upon the performance of advanced aircraft systems utilising the available external infrastructure. Lower operating minima may include a lower decision height/altitude or minimum descent height/altitude, reduced visibility requirements or reduced ground facilities or a combination of these;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(92) ‘other than standard category II (OTS CAT II) operation’ means a precision instrument approach and landing operation using ILS or MLS where some or all of the elements of the precision approach category II light system are not available, and with:

(a) DH below 200 ft but not lower than 100 ft; and

(b) RVR of not less than 350 m;

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(92) ‘operator proficiency check’ means a check conducted by the operator and completed by the pilot or the technical crew member to demonstrate competence in carrying out normal, abnormal and emergency procedures;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(93) ‘performance class A aeroplanes’ means multi-engined aeroplanes powered by turbo-propeller engines with an MOPSC of more than nine or a maximum take-off mass exceeding 5 700 kg, and all multi-engined turbo-jet powered aeroplanes;

(94) ‘performance class B aeroplanes’ means aeroplanes powered by propeller engines with an MOPSC of nine or less and a maximum take-off mass of 5 700 kg or less;

(95) ‘performance class C aeroplanes’ means aeroplanes powered by reciprocating engines with an MOPSC of more than nine or a maximum take-off mass exceeding 5 700 kg;

(95a) ‘personnel-carrying device system (PCDS)’ means a system including one or more devices that is either attached to a hoist or cargo hook or mounted to the rotorcraft airframe during human external cargo (HEC) or helicopter hoist operations (HHO). The devices have the structural capability and features needed to transport occupants external to the helicopter e.g. a life safety harness with or without a quick release and strop with a connector ring, a rigid basket or a cage;

(95b) ‘simple personnel carrying device system (simple ‘PCDS’)’ means a PCDS that complies with the following conditions:

(a) meets a harmonised standard under Regulation (EU) 2016/425 of the European Parliament and of the Council31 Regulation (EU) 2016/425 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on personal protective equipment and repealing Council Directive 89/686/EEC (OJ L 81, 31.3.2016, p. 51). or Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council32 Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC (OJ L 157, 9.6.2006, p. 24).;

(b) is designed to restrain no more than a single person (for instance, hoist or cargo hook operator, task specialist or photographer) inside the cabin, or to restrain no more than two persons outside the cabin;

(c) is not a rigid structure such as a cage, a platform or a basket;

(96) ‘pilot-in-command’ means the pilot designated as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of the flight. For the purpose of commercial air transport operations, the ‘pilot-in-command’ shall be termed the ‘commander’;

(96a) ‘portable EFB’ means a portable EFB host platform, used on the flight deck, which is not part of the configuration of the certified aircraft;

(96b) ‘portable electronic device (PED)’ means any kind of electronic device, typically but not limited to consumer electronics, brought on board the aircraft by crew members, passengers, or as part of the cargo, that is not included in the configuration of the certified aircraft. It includes all equipment that is able to consume electrical energy. The electrical energy can be provided from internal sources such as batteries (chargeable or non-rechargeable) or the devices may also be connected to specific aircraft power sources;

(97) ‘principal place of business’ means the head office or registered office of the organisation within which the principal financial functions and operational control of the activities referred to in this Regulation are exercised;

(98) ‘prioritisation of ramp inspections’ means the dedication of an appropriate portion of the total number of ramp inspections conducted by or on behalf of a competent authority on an annual basis as provided in Part-ARO;

(98a) ‘proficient’ means having demonstrated the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes that are required to perform any defined tasks to the prescribed standard;

(98b) ‘psychoactive substances’ means alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants, hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, with the exception of caffeine and tobacco;

(99) ‘public interest site (PIS)’ means a site used exclusively for operations in the public interest;

(100) ‘ramp inspection’ means the inspection of aircraft, of flight and cabin crew qualifications and of flight documentation in order to verify the compliance with the applicable requirements;

(101) ‘rectification interval’ means a limitation on the duration of operations with inoperative equipment;

(102) ‘rejected take-off distance available (RTODAH)’ means the length of the final approach and take-off area declared available and suitable for helicopters operated in performance class 1 to complete a rejected take-off;

(103) ‘rejected take-off distance required (RTODRH)’ means the horizontal distance required from the start of the take-off to the point where the helicopter comes to a full stop following an engine failure and rejection of the take-off at the take-off decision point;

(103a)‘required navigation performance (RNP) specification’ means a navigation specification for PBN operations which includes a requirement for on-board navigation performance monitoring and alerting;

(103b)‘rules of the air’ means the rules established in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 923/201233 Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 of 26 September 2012 laying down the common rules of the air and operational provisions regarding services and procedures in air navigation and amending Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1035/2011 and Regulations (EC) No 1265/2007, (EC) No 1794/2006, (EC) No 730/2006, (EC) No 1033/2006 and (EU) No 255/2010 (OJ L 281, 13.10.2012, p. 1).;

(103c) ‘runway condition report (RCR)’ means a comprehensive standardised report relating to the conditions of the runway surface and their effect on the aeroplane landing and take-off performance, described by means of runway conditions code;

(104) ‘runway visual range (RVR)’ means the range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line;

(104a)‘safe landing’ means, in the context of the fuel/energy policy or fuel/energy schemes, a landing at an adequate aerodrome or operating site with no less than the final reserve fuel/energy remaining and in compliance with the applicable operational procedures and aerodrome operating minima;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

(105) ‘safe forced landing’ means an unavoidable landing or ditching with a reasonable expectancy of no injuries to persons in the aircraft or on the surface;

(105a) ‘safety-sensitive personnel’ means persons who might endanger aviation safety if they perform their duties and functions improperly, including flight crew and cabin crew members, aircraft maintenance personnel and air traffic controllers;

(105b) ‘scenario-based training phase’ means a phase of an EBT module which focuses on the development of competencies, whilst the pilot is trained to mitigate the most critical risks identified for the aircraft generation. It should include the management of specific operator’s threats and errors in a real-time line orientated environment;

(106) ‘seaplane’ means a fixed wing aircraft which is designed for taking off and landing on water and includes amphibians operated as seaplanes;

(107) ‘separate runways’ means runways at the same aerodrome that are separate landing surfaces. These runways may overlay or cross in such a way that if one of the runways is blocked, it will not prevent the planned type of operations on the other runway. Each runway shall have a separate approach procedure based on a separate navigation aid;

(107a) ‘specially prepared winter runway’ means a runway with a dry frozen surface of compacted snow or ice which has been treated with sand or grit or has been mechanically treated to improve runway friction;

(108) ‘special VFR flight’ means a VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control zone in meteorological conditions below VMC;

(109) ‘stabilised approach (SAp)’ means an approach that is flown in a controlled and appropriate manner in terms of configuration, energy and control of the flight path from a pre-determined point or altitude/height down to a point 50 ft above the threshold or the point where the flare manoeuvre is initiated if higher;

(109a) ‘sterile flight crew compartment’ means any period of time when the flight crew members are not disturbed or distracted, except for matters critical to the safe operation of the aircraft or the safety of the occupants;

(110) ‘take-off alternate aerodrome’ means an alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly after take-off and if it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure;

(111) ‘take-off decision point (TDP)’ means the point used in determining take-off performance from which, an engine failure having been recognised at this point, either a rejected take-off may be made or a take-off safely continued;

(112) ‘take-off distance available (TODA)’ in the case of aeroplanes means the length of the take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if provided;

(113) ‘take-off distance available (TODAH)’ in the case of helicopters means the length of the final approach and take-off area plus, if provided, the length of helicopter clearway declared available and suitable for helicopters to complete the take-off;

(114) ‘take-off distance required (TODRH)’ in the case of helicopters means the horizontal distance required from the start of the take-off to the point at which take-off safety speed (VTOSS), a selected height and a positive climb gradient are achieved, following failure of the critical engine being recognised at the TDP, the remaining engines operating within approved operating limits;

(115) ‘take-off flight path’ means the vertical and horizontal path, with the critical engine inoperative, from a specified point in the take-off for aeroplanes to 1 500 ft above the surface and for helicopters to 1 000 ft above the surface;

(116) ‘take-off mass’ means the mass including everything and everyone carried at the commencement of the take-off for helicopters and take-off run for aeroplanes;

(117) ‘take-off run available (TORA)’ means the length of runway that is declared available by the State of the aerodrome and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off;

(117a) ‘task specialist’ means a person assigned by the operator or a third party, or acting as an undertaking, who performs tasks on the ground directly associated with a specialised task or performs specialised tasks on board or from the aircraft;

(118) ‘technical crew member’ means a crew member in commercial air transport HEMS, HHO or NVIS operations other than a flight or cabin crew member, assigned by the operator to duties in the aircraft or on the ground for the purpose of assisting the pilot during HEMS, HHO or NVIS operations, which may require the operation of specialised on-board equipment;

(119) ‘technical instructions (TI)’ means the latest effective edition of the ‘Technical instructions for the safe transport of dangerous goods by air’, including the supplement and any addenda, approved and published by the International Civil Aviation Organisation;

(120) ‘traffic load’ means the total mass of passengers, baggage, cargo and carry-on specialist equipment and including any ballast;

(120a)‘type A EFB application’ means an EFB application whose malfunction or misuse has no safety     effect;

(120b)‘type B EFB application’ means an EFB application:

(a) whose malfunction or misuse is classified as minor failure condition or below; and

(b) which neither replaces nor duplicates any system or functionality required by airworthiness regulations, airspace requirements, or operational rules;

(120c)‘training to proficiency' means training designed to achieve end-state performance objectives, providing sufficient assurance that the trained individual is capable of consistently carrying out specific tasks safely and effectively;

(120d)‘Type A instrument approach operation’ means an instrument approach operation with an MDH or a DH at or above 250 ft;

(120e)‘Type B instrument approach operation’ means an operation with a DH below 250 ft. Type B instrument approach operations are categorised as:

(a) Category I (CAT I): a DH not lower than 200 ft and with either a visibility not less than 800 m or an RVR not less than 550 m;

(b) Category II (CAT II): a DH lower than 200 ft but not lower than 100 ft, and an RVR not less than 300 m;

(c) Category III (CAT III): a DH lower than 100 ft or no DH, and an RVR less than 300 m or no RVR limitation;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(121) ‘unaided NVIS flight’ means, in the case of NVIS operations, that portion of a VFR flight performed at night when a crew member is not using NVG;

(122) ‘undertaking’ means any natural or legal person, whether profit-making or not, or any official body whether having its own personality or not;

(123) ‘V1’ means the maximum speed in the take-off at which the pilot must take the first action to stop the aeroplane within the accelerate-stop distance. V1 also means the minimum speed in the take-off, following a failure of the critical engine at VEF, at which the pilot can continue the take-off and achieve the required height above the take-off surface within the take-off distance;

(124) ‘VEF’ means the speed at which the critical engine is assumed to fail during take-off;

(124a)‘visibility (VIS)’ means visibility for aeronautical purposes, which is the greater of:

(a)    the greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognised when observed against a bright background; and

(a)    the greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of 1 000 candelas can be seen and identified against an unlit background;

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(125) ‘visual approach’ means an approach when either part or all of an instrument approach procedure is not completed and the approach is executed with visual reference to the terrain;

(126) ‘weather-permissible aerodrome’ means an adequate aerodrome where, for the anticipated time of use, weather reports, or forecasts, or any combination thereof, indicate that the weather conditions will be at or above the required aerodrome operating minima, and the runway surface condition reports indicate that a safe landing will be possible;

[points (125) and (126) applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(125) ‘visual approach operation’ means an approach operation by an IFR flight when either a part or all parts of an IAP is (are) not completed and the approach operation is executed with visual reference to terrain;

(126) ‘weather-permissible aerodrome’ means an adequate aerodrome where, for the anticipated time of use, meteorological reports, or forecasts, or any combination thereof, indicate that the meteorological conditions will be at or above the required aerodrome operating minima, and the runway surface condition reports indicate that a safe landing will be possible;

[points (125) and (126) applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(127) ‘wet lease agreement’ means an agreement:

             in the case of CAT operations, between air carriers pursuant to which the aircraft is operated under the AOC of the lessor; or

             in the case of commercial operations other than CAT, between operators pursuant to which the aircraft is operated under the responsibility of the lessor;

(128) ‘wet runway’ means a runway whose surface is covered by any visible dampness or water up to and including 3 mm deep within the area intended to be used.

DEFINITIONS FOR TERMS USED IN ACCEPTABLE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE AND GUIDANCE MATERIAL

For the purpose of Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material to Regulation (EU) No 965/2012, the following definitions should apply:

(a) ‘Abnormal flight behaviour’ means, in the context of an aircraft tracking system, an event affecting a flight:

(1) which is outside of the parameters defined by the operator for normal operation or which indicates an obvious deviation from normal operation; and

(2) for which the operator has determined that it poses a risk for the safe continuation of the flight or for third parties.

(a) ‘Accuracy’ means, in the context of PBN operations, the degree of conformance between the estimated, measured or desired position and/or the velocity of a platform at a given time, and its true position or velocity. Navigation performance accuracy is usually presented as a statistical measure of system error and is specified as predictable, repeatable and relative.

(b) ‘Aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS)’ means a system that augments and/or integrates the information obtained from the other GNSS elements with information available on board the aircraft. The most common form of ABAS is receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM).

(ba) ‘Airport moving map display (AMMD)’ means a software application that displays an airport map on a display device and uses data from a navigation source to depict the aircraft current position on this map while the aircraft is on the ground.

(c) ‘Area navigation (RNAV)’ means a method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of station-referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these.

(d) ‘Availability’ means, in the context of PBN operations, an indication of the ability of the system to provide usable service within the specified coverage area and is defined as the portion of time during which the system is to be used for navigation during which reliable navigation information is presented to the crew, autopilot or other system managing the flight of the aircraft.

(e) ‘Committal point’ means the point in the approach at which the pilot flying decides that, in the event of an engine failure being recognised, the safest option is to continue to the elevated final approach and take-off area (elevated FATO).

(f) ‘Continuity of function’ means, in the context of PBN operations, the capability of the total system, comprising all elements necessary to maintain aircraft position within the defined airspace, to perform its function without non-scheduled interruptions during the intended operation.

(fa) ‘Controlled portable electronic device (C-PED)’ means a PED subject to administrative control by the operator that uses it. This includes, inter alia, tracking the allocation of the devices to specific aircraft or persons and ensuring that no unauthorised changes are made to the hardware, software, or databases. C-PEDs can be assigned to the category of non-intentional transmitters or T-PEDs.

(fb) ‘EFB installed resources’ means certified EFB hardware components external to the EFB host platform itself, such as input/output components (installed remote displays, keyboards, pointing devices, switches, etc.) or a docking station.

(fc) ‘EFB mounting device’ means an aircraft certified part that secures a portable or installed EFB, or EFB system components.

(fd) ‘EFB system supplier’ means the company responsible for developing, or for having developed, the EFB system or part of it.

(g) ‘Emergency locator transmitter’ is a generic term describing equipment that broadcasts distinctive signals on designated frequencies for the purpose of search and rescue (SAR). The ELT may be activated by various conditions (e.g. manual activation, automatic detection of a distress situation, automatic detection of a crash impact, automatic detection of aircraft immersion into water, etc.). The ELT signals usually include signals that are intended to be detected by the international COSPAS-SARSAT programme, and homing signals that are intended to guide SAR teams to the ELT.

(h) ‘Exposure time’ means the actual period during which the performance of the helicopter with the critical engine inoperative in still air does not guarantee a safe forced landing or the safe continuation of the flight.

(i) ‘Fail-operational flight control system’ means a flight control system with which, in the event of a failure below alert height, the approach, flare and landing can be completed automatically. In the event of a failure, the automatic landing system will operate as a fail-passive system.

(j) ‘Fail-operational hybrid landing system’ means a system that consists of a primary fail-passive automatic landing system and a secondary independent guidance system enabling the pilot to complete a landing manually after failure of the primary system.

(k) ‘Fail-passive flight control system’: a flight control system is fail-passive if, in the event of a failure, there is no significant out-of-trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. For a fail-passive automatic flight control system the pilot assumes control of the aeroplane after a failure.

(l) ‘Flight control system’ in the context of low visibility operations means a system that includes an automatic landing system and/or a hybrid landing system.

(m) ‘HEMS dispatch centre’ means a place where, if established, the coordination or control of the helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) flight takes place. It may be located in a HEMS operating base.

(n) ‘Hybrid head-up display landing system (hybrid HUDLS)’ means a system that consists of a primary fail-passive automatic landing system and a secondary independent HUD/HUDLS enabling the pilot to complete a landing manually after failure of the primary system.

(na) ‘Installed EFB’ means an EFB host platform installed in an aircraft, capable of hosting type A and/or type B EFB applications. It may also host certified applications. It is an aircraft part, and, is therefore, covered by the aircraft airworthiness approval.

(o) ‘Integrity’ means, in the context of PBN operations, the ability of a system to provide timely warnings to users when the system should not be used for navigation.

(p) ‘Landing distance available (LDAH)’ means the length of the final approach and take-off area plus any additional area declared available by the State of the aerodrome and suitable for helicopters to complete the landing manoeuvre from a defined height.

(q) ‘Landing distance required (LDRH)’, in the case of helicopters, means the horizontal distance required to land and come to a full stop from a point 15 m (50 ft) above the landing surface.

(r) ‘Lateral navigation’ means a method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on a horizontal plane using radio navigation signals, other positioning sources, external flight path references, or a combination of these.

(ra) ‘mass’ and ‘weight’: In accordance with ICAO Annex 5 and the International System of Units (SI), both terms are used to indicate the actual and limiting masses of aircraft, the payload and its constituent elements, the fuel load, etc. These are expressed in units of mass (kg), but in most approved flight manuals and other operational documentation, these quantities are published as weights in accordance with the common language. In the ICAO standardised system of units of measurement, a weight is a force rather than a mass. Since the use of the term ‘weight’ does not cause any problem in the day-to-day handling of aircraft, its continued use in operational applications and publications is acceptable.

(s) ‘Maximum structural landing mass’ means the maximum permissible total aeroplane mass upon landing under normal circumstances.

(t) ‘Maximum zero fuel mass’ means the maximum permissible mass of an aeroplane with no usable fuel. The mass of the fuel contained in particular tanks should be included in the zero fuel mass when it is explicitly mentioned in the aircraft flight manual.

(ta) ‘Miscellaneous (non-EFB) software applications’ means non-EFB applications that support function(s) not directly related to the tasks performed by the flight crew in the aircraft.

(u) ‘Overpack’, for the purpose of transporting dangerous goods, means an enclosure used by a single shipper to contain one or more packages and to form one handling unit for convenience of handling and stowage.

(v) ‘Package’, for the purpose of transporting dangerous goods, means the complete product of the packing operation consisting of the packaging and its contents prepared for transport.

(w) ‘Packaging’, for the purpose of transporting dangerous goods, means receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment function.

(x) ‘Personal locator beacon (PLB)’ is an emergency beacon other than an ELT that broadcasts distinctive signals on designated frequencies, is standalone, portable and is manually activated by the survivors.

(xa) ‘Ramp inspection tool’ means the IT application including a centralised database used by all stakeholders to store and exchange data related to ramp inspections.

(y) ‘Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)’ means a technique whereby a GNSS receiver/processor determines the integrity of the GNSS navigation signals using only GNSS signals or GNSS signals augmented with altitude. This determination is achieved by a consistency check among redundant pseudo-range measurements. At least one satellite in addition to those required for navigation has to be in view for the receiver to perform the RAIM function.

(z) ‘Rotation point (RP)’ means the point at which a cyclic input is made to initiate a nose-down attitude change during the take-off flight path. It is the last point in the take-off path from which, in the event of an engine failure being recognised, a forced landing on the aerodrome can be achieved.

(za) ‘Runway condition assessment matrix (RCAM)’ means a matrix that allows the assessment of the runway condition code (RWYCC), using associated procedures, from a set of observed runway surface condition(s) and pilot report of braking action.

(zb) ‘Runway condition code (RWYCC)’ means a number, to be used in the runway condition report (RCR), that describes the effect of the runway surface condition on aeroplane deceleration performance and lateral control.

(zc) ‘Runway surface condition’ means a description of the condition of the runway surface used in the RCR which establishes the basis for the determination of the RWYCC for aeroplane performance purposes.

(zd) ‘Runway surface condition descriptors’ means one of the following elements on the surface of the runway:

(1) ‘compacted snow’: snow that has been compacted into a solid mass such that aeroplane tyres, at operating pressures and loadings, will run on the surface without significant further compaction or rutting of the surface;

(2) ‘dry snow’: snow from which a snowball cannot readily be made;

(3) ‘frost’: ice crystals formed from airborne moisture on a surface whose temperature is at or below freezing; frost differs from ice in that the frost crystals grow independently and, therefore, have a more granular texture;

(4) ‘ice’: water that has frozen or compacted snow that has transitioned into ice in cold and dry conditions;

(5) ‘slush’: snow that is so water-saturated that water will drain from it when a handful is picked up or will splatter if stepped on forcefully;

(6) ‘standing water’: water of depth greater than 3 mm;

(7) ‘Wet ice’: ice with water on top of it or ice that is melting.

(8) ‘wet snow’: snow that contains enough water to be able to make a well compacted, solid snowball, but water will not squeeze out.

(aa) ‘Space-based augmentation system (SBAS)’ means a wide coverage augmentation system that augments and/or integrates the information obtained from the other GNSS elements with information from a satellite-based transmitter. The most common form of SBAS in Europe is the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS).

(aaa) ‘Slippery wet runway’ means a wet runway where the surface friction characteristics of a significant portion of the runway have been determined to be degraded.

(ab) ‘Touch down and lift-off area (TLOF)’ means a load-bearing area on which a helicopter may touch down or lift off.

(ac) ‘Transmitting PED (T-PED)’ means a portable electronic device (PED) that has intentional radio frequency (RF) transmission capabilities.

(ad) ‘Vertical navigation’ means a method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on a vertical flight profile using altimetry sources, external flight path references, or a combination of these.

(ae) ‘Viewable stowage’ means a non-certified device that is attached to the flight crew member (e.g. with a kneeboard) or to an existing aircraft part (e.g. using suction cups), and is intended to hold charts or to hold low-mass portable electronic devices that are viewable by the flight crew members at their assigned duty stations.

GM2 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/008/R

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

The following abbreviations and acronyms are used in the Annexes to this Regulation:

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — ED Decision 2022/005/R]

ABBREVIATIONS

The following abbreviations are used in the Annexes to this Regulation:

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — ED Decision 2022/005/R]

A

aeroplane

a/c

aircraft

AAC

aeronautical administrative communications

AAIM

aircraft autonomous integrity monitoring

AAL

above aerodrome level

ABAS

aircraft-based augmentation system

AC

advisory circular

AC

alternating current

ACAS

airborne collision avoidance system

ADF

automatic direction finder

ADG

air driven generator

ADS

automatic dependent surveillance

ADS-B

automatic dependent surveillance - broadcast

ADS-C

automatic dependent surveillance - contract

AEA

Association of European Airlines

AEO

all-engines-operative

AFFF

aqueous film forming foams

AFM

aircraft flight manual

AFN

aircraft flight notification

AFN

ATS facilities notification

AGL

above ground level

AHRS

attitude heading reference system

AIREP

air-report

AIS

aeronautical information service

ALAP

aerodrome landing analysis programme

ALARP

as low as reasonably practicable

ALD

actual landing distance

ALSF

approach lighting system with sequenced flashing lights

AMC

Acceptable Means of Compliance

AML

aircraft maintenance licence

AMSL

above mean sea level

ANP

actual navigation performance

AOC

aeronautical operational control

AOC

air operator certificate

APCH

approach

APP

approach

APU

auxiliary power unit

APV

approach procedure with vertical guidance

AR

authorisation required

ARA

airborne radar approach

ARA

Authority Requirements for Aircrew

A-RNP

advanced required navigation performance

ARO

Authority Requirements for Air Operations

ARP

Aerospace Recommended Practices

ASC

Air Safety Committee

ASDA

accelerate-stop distance available

ASE

altimeter system error

ATA

Air Transport Association

ATC

air traffic control

ATIS

automatic terminal information service

ATN

air traffic navigation

ATPL

airline transport pilot licence

ATQP

alternative training and qualification programme

ATS

air traffic services

ATSC

air traffic service communication

AVGAS

aviation gasoline

AVTAG

aviation turbine gasoline (wide-cut fuel)

AWO

all weather operations

BALS

basic approach lighting system

Baro-VNAV

barometric VNAV

BCAR

British civil airworthiness requirements

BITD

basic instrument training device

CAP

controller access parameters

CAT

commercial air transport

CAT I / II / III

category I / II / III

CBT

computer-based training

CC

cabin crew

CDFA

continuous descent final approach

CDL

configuration deviation list

CFIT

controlled flight into terrain

CG

centre of gravity

CLB

climb

CM

context management

CMV

converted meteorological visibility

CofA

certificate of airworthiness

COM

communication (EBT competency)

COP

code of practice

CoR

certificate of registration

COSPAS-SARSAT

cosmicheskaya sistyema poiska avariynich sudov - search and rescue satellite-aided tracking

CP

committal point

CPA

closest point of approach

CPDLC

controller pilot data link communication

C-PED

controlled portable electronic device

CPL

commercial pilot licence

CRE

class rating examiner

CRI

class rating instructor

CRM

crew resource management

CRZ

cruise

CS

Certification Specifications

CSP

communication service provider

CVR

cockpit voice recorder

DA

decision altitude

DA/H

decision altitude/height

DAP

downlinked aircraft parameters

D-ATIS

digital automatic terminal information service

DC

direct current

DCL

departure clearance

DES

descent

D-FIS

data link flight information service

DG

dangerous goods

DH

decision height

DI

daily inspection

DIFF

deck integrated fire fighting system

DLR

data link recorder

DME

distance measuring equipment

D-METAR

data link - meteorological aerodrome report

D-OTIS

data link - operational terminal information service

DPATO

defined point after take-off

DPBL

defined point before landing

DR

decision range

DSTRK

desired track

EBT

evidence-based training

EC

European Community

ECAC

European Civil Aviation Conference

EFB

electronic flight bag

EFIS

electronic flight instrument system

EGNOS

European geostationary navigation overlay service

EGT

exhaust gas temperature

ELT

emergency locator transmitter

ELT(AD)

emergency locator transmitter (automatically deployable)

ELT(AF)

emergency locator transmitter (automatic fixed)

ELT(DT)

emergency locator transmitter (distress tracking)

ELT(AP)

emergency locator transmitter (automatic portable)

ELT(S)

survival emergency locator transmitter

EPE

estimated position of error

EPR

engine pressure ratio

EPU

estimated position of uncertainty

ERA

en-route alternate (aerodrome)

ERP

emergency response plan

ETOPS

extended range operations with two-engined aeroplanes

EU

European Union

EUROCAE

European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment

EVAL

evaluation phase

EVS

enhanced vision system

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FAF

final approach fix

FALS

full approach lighting system

FANS

future air navigation systems

FAP

final approach point

FAR

Federal Aviation Regulation

FATO

final approach and take-off

FC

flight crew

FCL

flight crew licensing

FCOM

flight crew operating manual

FDM

flight data monitoring

FDO

flying display operation

FDR

flight data recorder

FFS

full flight simulator

FGS

flight control/guidance system

FI

flight instructor

FLIPCY

flight plan consistency

FLTA

forward-looking terrain avoidance

FMECA

failure mode, effects and criticality analysis

FMS

flight management system

FNPT

flight and navigation procedures trainer

FOD

foreign object damage

FOSA

flight operational safety assessment

FPA

flight path management — automation (EBT competency)

FPM

flight path management — manual control (EBT competency)

fpm

feet per minute

FRT

fixed radius transition

FSTD

flight simulation training device

ft

feet

FTD

flight training device

FTE

full time equivalent

FTE

flight technical error

FTL

flight and duty time limitations

g

gram

GAGAN

GPS aided geo augmented navigation

GBAS

ground-based augmentation system

GCAS

ground collision avoidance system

GEN

general

GIDS

ground ice detection system

GLS

GBAS landing system

GM

Guidance Material

GMP

general medical practitioner

GND

ground

GNSS

global navigation satellite system

GPS

global positioning system

GPWS

ground proximity warning system

H

helicopter

HEMS

helicopter emergency medical service

HF

high frequency

Hg

mercury

HHO

helicopter hoist operation

HIALS

high intensity approach lighting system

HIGE

hover in ground effect

HLL

helideck limitations list

HOGE

hover out of ground effect

HoT

hold-over time

hPa

hectopascals

HPL

human performance and limitations

HUD

head-up display

HUDLS

head-up guidance landing system

HUMS

health usage monitor system

IAF

initial approach fix

IALS

intermediate approach lighting system

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

IDE

instruments, data and equipment

IF

intermediate fix

IFR

instrument flight rules

IFSD

in-flight shutdown

IGE

in ground effect

ILS

instrument landing system

IMC

instrument meteorological conditions

in

inches

INS

inertial navigation system

IP

intermediate point

IR

Implementing Rule

IR

instrument rating

IRS

inertial reference system

ISA

international standard atmosphere

ISI

in-seat instruction

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

IV

intravenous

JAA

Joint Aviation Authorities

JAR

Joint Aviation Requirements

kg

kilograms

km

kilometres

KNO

application of knowledge (EBT competency)

kt

knots

LDA

landing distance available

LDF

landing distance factor

LDG

landing

LDP

landing decision point

LDTA 

landing distance at time of arrival

LED

light-emitting diode

LHO

local helicopter operation

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — ED Decision 2022/005/R]

LHS

left hand seat

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — ED Decision 2022/005/R]

LHS

left-hand seat

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — ED Decision 2022/005/R]

LIFUS

line flying under supervision

LNAV

lateral navigation

LoA

letter of acceptance

LOC

localiser

LOC-I

loss of control in-flight

LOE

line-oriented evaluation

LOFT

line-oriented flight training

LOQE

line-oriented quality evaluation

LOS

limited obstacle surface

LP

Localiser performance

LPV

localiser performance with vertical guidance

LRCS

long range communication system

LRNS

long range navigation system

LTW

Leadership and teamwork (EBT competency)

LVO

low visibility operation

LVP

low visibility procedures

LVTO

low visibility take-off

m

metres

MALS

medium intensity approach lighting system

MALSF

medium intensity approach lighting system with sequenced flashing lights

MALSR

medium intensity approach lighting system with runway alignment indicator lights

MAPt

missed approach point

MCTOM

maximum certified take-off mass

MDA

minimum descent altitude

MDH

minimum descent height

MEA

minimum en-route altitude

MED

medical

MEL

minimum equipment list

METAR

meteorological aerodrome report

MGA

minimum grid altitude

MHA

minimum holding altitude

MHz

megahertz

MID

midpoint

MLR

manuals, logs and records

MLS

microwave landing system

MLX

millilux

mm

millimetres

MM

multi-mode

MMEL

master minimum equipment list

MNPS

minimum navigation performance specifications

MOC

minimum obstacle clearance

MOCA

minimum obstacle clearance altitude

MOPSC

maximum operational passenger seating configuration

MORA

minimum off-route altitude

MPSC

maximum passenger seating capacity

MSA

minimum sector altitude

MSAS

multi-functional satellite augmentation system

MT

manoeuvres training phase

MTCA

minimum terrain clearance altitude

N

North

NADP

noise abatement departure procedure

NALS

no approach lighting system

NCC

non-commercial operations with complex motor-powered aircraft

NCO

non-commercial operations with other-than-complex motor-powered aircraft

NF

free power turbine speed

NG

engine gas generator speed

NM

nautical miles

NOTAM

notice to airmen

NOTECHS

non-technical skills evaluation

NOTOC

notification to captain

NPA

non-precision approach

NPA

Notice of Proposed Amendment

NSE

navigation system error

NVD

night vision device

NVG

night vision goggles

NVIS

night vision imaging system

OAT

outside air temperature

OB

observable behaviour

OCH

obstacle clearance height

OCL

oceanic clearance

ODALS

omnidirectional approach lighting system

OEI

one-engine-inoperative

OFS

obstacle-free surface

OGE

out of ground effect

OIP

offset initiation point

OM

operations manual

OML

operational multi-pilot limitation

ONC

operational navigation chart

OPS

operations

ORO

Organisation Requirements for Air Operations

OTS CAT II

other than standard category II

PAPI

precision approach path indicator

PAR

precision approach radar

PBCS 

performance-based communication and surveillance

PBE

protective breathing equipment

PBN

performance-based navigation

PC/PT

proficiency check/proficiency training

PCDS

personnel carrying device system

PDA

premature descent alert

PDP

predetermined point

PED

portable electronic device

PFC

porous friction course

PIC

pilot-in-command

PIN

personal identification number

PIS

public interest site

PLB

personal locator beacon

PNR

point of no return

POH

pilot’s operating handbook

PRM

person with reduced mobility

PRO

application of procedures (EBT competency)

PSD

problem-solving & decision making (EBT competency)

QAR

quick access recorder

QFE

atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation / runway threshold

QNH

atmospheric pressure at nautical height

RA

resolution advisory

RAIM

receiver autonomous integrity monitoring

RAT

ram air turbine

RCAM

runway condition assessment matrix

RCC

rescue coordination centre

RCF

reduced contingency fuel

RCLL

runway centre line lights

RCP

required communication performance

RCR

runway condition report

RF

radius to fix

RF

radio frequency

RFC

route facility chart

RI

ramp inspection

RI

rectification interval

RIE

rectification interval extension

RMA

regional monitoring agency

RNAV

area navigation

RNP

required navigation performance

RNP APCH

RNP approach

RNP AR APCH

RNP approach for which authorisation is required

ROD

rate of descent

RP

rotation point

RSP

required surveillance performance

RTCA

Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics

RTODAH

rejected take-off distance available (helicopters)

RTODRH

rejected take-off distance required (helicopters)

RTOM

reduced take-off mass

RTZL

runway touchdown zone lights

RVR

runway visual range

RVSM

reduced vertical separation minima

RWYCC

runway condition code

S

South

SAFA

safety assessment of foreign aircraft

SALS

simple approach lighting system

SALSF

simple approach lighting system with sequenced flashing lights

Sap

stabilised approach

SAP

system access parameters

SAR

search and rescue

SAS

stability augmentation system

SAW

situation awareness (EBT competency)

SBAS

satellite-based augmentation system

SBT

scenario-based training

SCC

senior cabin crew

SCP

special category of passenger

SDCM

system of differential correction and monitoring

SFE

synthetic flight examiner

SFI

synthetic flight instructor

SID

standard instrument departure

SMM

safety management manual

SMS

safety management system

SNAS

satellite navigation augmentation system

SOP

standard operating procedure

SPA

operations requiring specific approvals

SPECI

aviation selected special weather report

SPO

specialised operations

SRA

surveillance radar approach

SSALF

simplified short approach lighting system with sequenced flashing lights

SSALR

simplified short approach lighting system with runway alignment indicator lights

SSALS

simplified short approach lighting system

SSEC

static source error correction

SSR

secondary surveillance radar

STAR

standard terminal arrival route

STC

supplemental type certificate

TA

traffic advisory

TAC

terminal approach chart

TAS

true airspeed

TAWS

terrain awareness warning system

TC

technical crew

TC

type certificate

TCAS

traffic collision avoidance system

TCCA

Transport Canada Civil Aviation

TCH

type certificate holder

TDP

take-off decision point

TDZ

touchdown zone

THR

threshold

TI

Technical Instructions

TIT

turbine inlet temperature

TLS

target level of safety

TMG

touring motor glider

TO

take-off

TODA

take-off distance available (aeroplanes)

TODAH

take-off distance available (helicopters)

TODRH

take-off distance required (helicopters)

TOGA

take-off/go around

TORA

take-off run available

T-PED

transmitting portable electronic device

TRE

type rating examiner

TRI

type rating instructor

TSE

total system error

TVE

total vertical error

TWIP

terminal weather information for pilots

UMS

usage monitoring system

UPRT

upset prevention and recovery training

UTC

coordinated universal time

V2

take-off safety speed

V50

stalling speed

VAT

indicated airspeed at threshold

VDF

VHF direction finder

VFR

visual flight rules

VHF

very high frequency

VIS

visibility

VMC

visual meteorological conditions

VMO

maximum operating speed

VNAV

vertical navigation

VOR

VHF omnidirectional radio range

VT

threshold speed

VTOL

vertical take-off and landing

VTOSS

take-off safety speed

WAAS

wide area augmentation system

WAC

world aeronautical chart

WIFI

wireless fidelity

WLM

workload management (EBT competency)

ZFTT

zero flight-time training

GM3 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

HELIDECK

The term ‘helideck’ includes take-off and landing operations on ships and vessels and covers ‘shipboard final approach and take off areas (FATOs).

GM4 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2012/015/R

HEAD-UP GUIDANCE LANDING SYSTEM (HUDLS)

A HUDLS is typically used for primary approach guidance to decision heights of 50 ft.

GM5 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

HELICOPTER EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES (HEMS) FLIGHT

(a) A HEMS flight (or more commonly referred to as HEMS mission) normally starts and ends at the HEMS operating base following tasking by the ‘HEMS dispatch centre’. Tasking can also occur when airborne, or on the ground at locations other than the HEMS operating base.

(b) The following elements should be regarded as integral parts of the HEMS mission:

(1) flights to and from the HEMS operating site when initiated by the HEMS dispatch centre;

(2) flights to and from an aerodrome/operating site for the delivery or pick-up of medical supplies and/or persons required for completion of the HEMS mission; and

(3) flights to and from an aerodrome/operating site for refuelling required for completion of the HEMS mission.

GM6 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT

Those parts of an open-sea area not considered to constitute a hostile environment should be designated by the appropriate authority in the appropriate aeronautical information publication (AIP) or other suitable documentation.

GM7 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (NVIS)

Helicopter components of the NVIS include the radio altimeter, visual warning system and audio warning system.

GM8 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

OFFSHORE LOCATION

‘Offshore location’ includes, but is not limited to:

(a) helidecks;

(b) shipboard heliports; and

(c) winching areas on vessels or renewable-energy installations.

GM9 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

OFFSHORE OPERATIONS

An offshore operation is considered to be a helicopter flight for the purpose of:

(a) support of offshore oil, gas and mineral exploration, production, storage and transport;

(b) support to offshore wind turbines and other renewable-energy sources; or

(c) support to ships including sea pilot transfer.

GM10 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

COASTLINE

The national definition of coastline should be included by the appropriate authority in the aeronautical information publication (AIP) or other suitable documentation.

GM11 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

PUBLIC INTEREST SITE

An example of a public interest sites is a landing site based at a hospital located in a hostile environment in a congested area, which due to its size or obstacle environment does not allow the application of performance class 1 requirements that would otherwise be required for operations in a congested hostile environment.

GM12 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS

The ICAO document number for the Technical Instructions is Doc 9284-AN/905.

GM13 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

V1

The first action includes for example: apply brakes, reduce thrust, deploy speed brakes.

GM14 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2016/022/R

TASK SPECIALISTS

For the purpose of this Regulation, persons that are carried in a specialised operation, e.g. on a parachute flight, sensational flight or scientific research flight, are considered to be task specialists.

GM15 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2019/005/R

UPSET PREVENTION AND RECOVERY TRAINING (UPRT) DEFINITIONS

‘Aeroplane upset prevention and recovery training (UPRT)’ refers to training consisting of:

             aeroplane upset prevention training: a combination of theoretical knowledge and flying training with the aim of providing flight crew with the required competencies to prevent aeroplane upsets; and

             aeroplane upset recovery training: a combination of theoretical knowledge and flying training with the aim of providing flight crew with the required competencies to recover from aeroplane upsets.

‘Aeroplane upset’ refers to an undesired aircraft state characterised by unintentional divergences from parameters normally experienced during operations. An aeroplane upset may involve pitch and/or bank angle divergences as well as inappropriate airspeeds for the conditions.

‘Angle of attack (AOA)’ means the angle between the oncoming air, or relative wind, and a defined reference line on the aeroplane or wing.

‘Approach-to-stall’ means flight conditions bordered by the stall warning and stall.

‘Competency’ means a combination of skills, knowledge, and attitudes required to perform a task to the prescribed standard.

‘Developed upset’ means a condition meeting the definition of an aeroplane upset.

‘Developing upset’ means any time the aeroplane begins to unintentionally diverge from the intended flight path or airspeed.

‘Energy state’ means how much of each kind of energy (kinetic, potential or chemical) the aeroplane has available at any given time.

‘Error’ means an action or inaction by the flight crew that leads to deviations from organisational or flight crew intentions or expectations.

‘Error management’ means the process of detecting and responding to errors with countermeasures that reduce or eliminate the consequences of errors, and mitigate the probability of further errors or undesired aircraft states.

‘First indication of a stall’ means the initial aural, tactile or visual sign of an impending stall, which can be either naturally or synthetically induced.

‘Flight crew resilience’ means the ability of a flight crew member to recognise, absorb and adapt to disruptions.

‘Fidelity level’ means the level of realism assigned to each of the defined FSTD features.

‘Flight path’ means the trajectory or path of the aeroplane travelling through the air over a given space of time.

‘Flight path management’ means active manipulation, using either the aeroplanes automation or manual handling, to command the aeroplane flight controls to direct the aeroplane along a desired trajectory.

‘FSTD Training Envelope’ refers to the high and moderate confidence regions of the FSTD validation envelope.

‘Load factor’ factor means the ratio of a specified load to the weight of the aeroplane, the former being expressed in terms of aerodynamic forces, propulsive forces, or ground reactions.

‘Loss of control in flight (LOCI)’ means a categorisation of an accident or incident resulting from a deviation from the intended flight path.

‘Manoeuvre-based training’ means training that focuses on a single event or manoeuvre in isolation.

‘Negative training’ means training which unintentionally introduces incorrect information or invalid concepts, which could actually decrease rather than increase safety.

‘Negative transfer of training’ means the application (and ‘transfer’) of what was learned in a training environment (i.e., a classroom, an FSTD) to normal practice, i.e. it describes the degree to which what was learned in training is applied to actual normal practices. In this context, negative transfer of training refers to the inappropriate generalisation of knowledge and skill to a situation or setting in normal practice that does not equal the training situation or setting.

‘Post-stall regime’ means flight conditions at an angle of attack greater than the critical angle of attack.

‘Scenario-based training’ means training that incorporates manoeuvres into real-world experiences to cultivate practical flying skills in an operational environment.

‘Stall’ means a loss of lift caused by exceeding the aeroplane’s critical angle of attack.

Note: A stalled condition can exist at any attitude and airspeed, and may be recognised by continuous stall warning activation accompanied by at least one of the following:

(a) buffeting, which could be heavy at times;

(b) lack of pitch authority and/or roll control; and

(c) inability to arrest the descent rate.

‘Stall Event’ means an occurrence whereby the aeroplane experiences conditions associated with an approach-to-stall or a stall.

‘Stall (event) recovery procedure’ means the manufacturer-approved aeroplane-specific stall recovery procedure. If an OEM-approved recovery procedure does not exist, the aeroplane-specific stall recovery procedure developed by the operator, based on the stall recovery template contained in GM5 ORO.FC.220&230, may be used.

‘Stall warning’ means a natural or synthetic indication provided when approaching a stall that may include one or more of the following indications:

(a) aerodynamic buffeting (some aeroplanes will buffet more than others);

(b) reduced roll stability and aileron effectiveness;

(c) visual or aural cues and warnings;

(d) reduced elevator (pitch) authority;

(e) inability to maintain altitude or arrest rate of descent; and

(f) stick shaker activation (if installed).

Note: A stall warning indicates an immediate need to reduce the angle of attack.

‘Startle’ means the initial short-term, involuntary physiological and cognitive reactions to an unexpected event that commence the normal human stress response.

‘Stick pusher’ means a device that, automatically applies a nose down movement and pitch force to an aeroplane’s control columns, to attempt to decrease the aeroplane’s angle of attack. Device activation may occur before or after aerodynamic stall, depending on the aeroplane type.

Note: A stick pusher is not installed on all aeroplane types.

‘Stick shaker’ means a device that automatically vibrates the control column to warn the pilot of an approaching stall.

Note: A stick shaker is not installed on all aeroplane types.

‘Stress (response)’ means the response to a threatening event that includes physiological, psychological and cognitive effects. These effects may range from positive to negative and can either enhance or degrade performance.

‘Surprise’ means the emotionally-based recognition of a difference in what was expected and what is actual.

‘Threat’ means events or errors that occur beyond the influence of the flight crew, increase operational complexity and must be managed to maintain the margin of safety.

‘Threat management’ means the process of detecting and responding to threats with countermeasures that reduce or eliminate the consequences of threats and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft states.

‘Train-to-proficiency’ means approved training designed to achieve end-state performance objectives, providing sufficient assurances that the trained individual is capable to consistently carry out specific tasks safely and effectively.

Note: In the context of this definition, ‘train-to-proficiency’ can be replaced by ‘training-to-proficiency’.

‘Undesired aircraft state’ means flight crew-induced aircraft position or speed deviation, misapplication of controls, or incorrect systems configuration, associated with a reduction in margins of safety.

Note: Undesired states can be managed effectively, restoring margins of safety, or flight crew response(s) can induce an additional error, incident, or accident.

Note: All countermeasures are necessary flight crew actions. However, some countermeasures to threats, errors and undesired aircraft states that flight crew employ, build upon ‘hard’/systemic-based resources provided by the aviation system.

‘Unsafe situation’ means a situation, which has led to an unacceptable reduction in safety margin.

GM16 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2019/008/R

MINOR FAILURE CONDITION

Minor failure conditions may include, for example, a slight reduction in safety margins or functional capabilities, a slight increase in crew workload, such as routine flight plan changes, or some physical discomfort to passengers or cabin crew. Further guidance can be found in AMC 25.1309.

Minor failure conditions are not considered to be unsafe conditions in accordance with AMC 21.A.3B(b).

GM17 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2019/019/R

SIMPLE AND COMPLEX PERSONNEL-CARRYING DEVICE SYSTEM (PCDS)

(a) The following may qualify as a simple PCDS:

(1) A safety harness or rescue triangle for no more than two persons.

(2) A fixed-rope system for no more than two persons, to be attached under a single cargo hook or Y-rope to be attached to a dual hook.

(b) The following may not qualify as a simple PCDS:

(1) Any system that connects three persons or more to the helicopter.

(2) A PCDS with new or novel features.

(3) A PCDS that has not yet been proven by an appreciable and satisfactory service experience.

(c) The connecting elements to the hoist or cargo hook are part of the PCDS.

(d) The following standards may be used for a simple PCDS:

Table 1: Information on existing available standards applicable to a simple PCDS

Regulation (EU) 2016/42534 OJ L 81, 31.3.2016, p. 51. or

Directive 89/686/EEC if validly marketed before 21 April 2019

Personal protective equipment

Directive 2006/42/EC35 OJ L 157, 9.6.2006, p. 24.

Machinery

EN 354

Personal protective equipment for work positioning and prevention of falls from a height — lanyards

EN 355

Personal protective equipment against falls from a height — energy absorbers

EN 358

Personal protective equipment for work positioning and prevention of falls from a height — belts for work positioning and restraint and work positioning lanyards

EN 361

Personal protective equipment against falls from a height — full body harnesses

EN 362

Personal protective equipment against falls from a height — connectors

EN 363

Personal fall protection equipment — personal fall-protection systems

EN 364

Personal protective equipment against falls from a height — test methods

EN 365

Marking/packaging/instructions to use

EN 813

Personal fall-protection equipment — sit harnesses

EN 1497

Personal protective equipment against falls from a height — rescue harnesses

EN 1498

Personal protective equipment against falls from a height — rescue loops

EN 1891

Personal protective equipment for the prevention of falls from a height — low stretch kernmantle ropes

EN 12275

Mountaineering equipment — connectors — safety requirements and test methods

EN 12277

Mountaineering equipment — harnesses — safety requirements and test methods

GM18 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2019/019/R

DETERMINING THE PRINCIPAL PLACE OF BUSINESS

(a) The principal place of business encompasses the principal financial functions and operational control of the activities of an operator. It may refer to the organisation’s site from which the majority of its management personnel specified in ORO.GEN.110 directs, controls or coordinates its operational activities, ensuring that the organisation complies with Regulation (EU) No 965/2012. For non-commercial operations, this is usually the home base of the aircraft concerned or the location of the flight department.

(b) Since an operator, especially in the world of non-commercial operations, may use several places where it performs financial transactions, or several operational bases where there are personnel in charge of operational control, for the purpose of an effective oversight, it is relevant that the principal place of business be the one:

(1) where the operator has registered its organisation with the local register and where it pays corporate tax;

(2) where its main building facilities are located;

(3) where main administrative and financial work is being done (where salaries and employment benefits are paid); and

(4) from where the organisation management directs, controls or coordinates a substantial part of its activities, ensuring that the organisation complies with the requirements specified in Regulation (EU) No 965/2012.

(c) Organisations that perform also activities which are not subject to Part-ORO, Part-NCC or Part-SPO are recommended to consider that part of the organisation which is responsible for the operation of aircraft subject to Part-ORO, Part-NCC or Part-SPO.

For such organisations, the accountable manager is that manager who has the authority to ensure that all activities subject to Part-ORO, Part-NCC or Part-SPO can be financed and carried out in accordance with the applicable requirements. If the accountable manager is not located in the part of the organisation that is responsible for the operation of aircraft, but the other criteria mentioned in point (b) apply, the location of the accountable manager does not need to be considered for the determination of the principal place of business.

GM19 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/002/R

EVIDENCE-BASED TRAINING

‘Behaviour’ refers to the way a person responds, either overtly or covertly, to a specific set of conditions, and which is capable of being measured.

‘Instructor concordance’ is also called ‘inter-rater reliability’.

‘Conditions’ refers to anything that may qualify a specific environment in which performance will be demonstrated.

‘Cycle’ refers to the combination of two modules where Cycle 1 comprises Modules 1 and 2, Cycle 2 comprises Modules 3 and 4, and Cycle 3 comprises Modules 5 and 6 of the 3-year EBT programme.

‘Equivalency of approaches’ refers to approach clustering in other industry documentation.

‘Equivalency of malfunctions’ refers to malfunction clustering in other industry documentation.

‘Evaluation phase (EVAL)’ refers to the phase where a first assessment of competencies is performed in order to identify individual training needs. On completion of the evaluation phase, any areas that do not meet the minimum competency standard will become the focus of the subsequent training. The evaluation phase comprises a complete mission as a crew but not necessarily a complete flight.

‘Facilitation technique’ refers to an active training method, which uses effective questioning, listening and a non-judgemental approach, and is particularly effective in developing skills and attitudes, assisting trainees in developing insight and their own solutions, resulting in better understanding, retention and commitment.

‘Line-orientated flight scenario(s)’ are comprised of scenario elements derived from the table of assessment and training topics.

‘Line-orientated safety audit (LOSA)’ is one of the tools used to help evaluate the performance of the operations. It consists of line flights that are observed by appropriately qualified operator personnel to provide feedback to validate the EBT programme. LOSA may be one of the tools used to look at those elements of the operation that are unable to be monitored by FDM or Advanced FDM programmes.

‘Manoeuvres training phase’ refers to the phase where skill retention is trained (body memory actions). Flight path control may be accomplished by a variety of means including manual aircraft control and the use of auto flight systems.

‘Monitoring’ refers to a cognitive process to compare an actual to an expected state. It requires knowledge, skills and attitudes to create a mental model and to take appropriate action when deviations are recognised.

‘Observable behaviour (OB)’ refers to a single role-related behaviour that can be observed. The instructor may or may not be able to measure it.

‘Performance criteria’ refers to statements used to assess whether the required levels of performance have been achieved for a competency. A performance criterion consists of an OB, a condition (or conditions) and a competency standard.

‘Practical assessment (or EBT practical assessment)’ refers to a method for assessing performance that serves to verify the integrated performance of competencies. It takes place in either a simulated or an operational environment. An EBT assessment is equivalent to a proficiency check and is performed under the instructor privilege in the context of proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 10 to Part-FCL. More information can be found in ICAO Doc 9868 ‘PANS-TRG’.

‘Scenario-based training phase (SBT)’ refers to the largest phase in the EBT programme. It is designed to maximise crew’s exposure to a variety of situations that develop and sustain a high level of competency and resilience. The scenario for this phase should include critical external and environmental threats, to build effective crew interaction to identify and manage errors. A portion of the phase will also be directed towards the management of critical system malfunctions. 

Scenario elements address the training topic and detail the threat and/or error that the crew are exposed to.

‘Train-to-proficiency’ refers to approved training designed to achieve end-state performance objectives, providing sufficient assurance that the trained individual is capable of consistently carrying out specific tasks safely and effectively.

Note: In the context of this definition, ‘train-to-proficiency’ can be replaced by ‘training-to-proficiency’.

GM20 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/005/R

CONTAMINATED RUNWAY

As the runway condition is reported in runway thirds, a significant portion of the runway surface area is more than 25 % of one third of the runway surface area within the required length and width being used.

The runway length being used in this context is the physical length of runway available, typically from the start of the take-off run available (TORA) in one direction to the start of the TORA in the opposite direction. When the runway is shortened by a notice to airmen (NOTAM) — for example, due to works, or the aerodrome operator is not able to clear the full length of the runway and closes part of it for operations, the length being used is that declared in the NOTAM and the ‘reduced runway length’ that declared in the RCR.

The runway width being used in this context is the physical width of the runway (between the runway edge lights), or the ‘cleared width’ if reported in the RCR. It is not intended that 25 % coverage is reported when contaminants affect only the runway edges after runway cleaning. Runway inspectors are instructed to focus on the area around the wheel tracks when reporting the contaminant type, coverage and depth.

GM21 Annex I Definitions

 ED Decision 2021/005/R

DRY RUNWAY/WET RUNWAY

The ‘area intended to be used’ means the area of the runway that is part of the TORA, accelerate and stop distance available (ASDA) or landing distance available (LDA) declared in the aeronautical information publication (AIP) or by a NOTAM.

GM22 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/005/R

RUNWAY CONDITION CODE (RWYCC)

The purpose of the runway condition code (RWYCC) is to permit an operational aeroplane landing performance calculation by the flight crew.

GM23 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/005/R

RUNWAY SURFACE CONDITION(S)

(a) The runway surface conditions used in the RCR establish a common language between the aerodrome operator, the aeroplane manufacturer and the aeroplane operator.

(b) Aircraft de-icing chemicals and other contaminants are also reported but are not included in the list of runway surface condition descriptors because their effect on the runway surface friction characteristics and the RWYCC cannot be evaluated in a standardised manner.

GM24 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/005/R

RUNWAY SURFACE CONDITION DESCRIPTORS — GENERAL

The runway surface condition descriptors are used solely in the context of the RCR and are not intended to supersede or replace any existing World Meteorological Organization (WMO) definitions.

RUNWAY SURFACE CONDITION DESCRIPTORS — FROST

(a) Freezing refers to the freezing point of water (0 °C).

(b) Under certain conditions, frost can cause the surface to become very slippery, and it is then reported appropriately as downgraded RWYCC.

RUNWAY SURFACE CONDITION DESCRIPTORS — STANDING WATER

Running water of depth greater than 3 mm is reported as ‘standing water’ by convention.

RUNWAY SURFACE CONDITION DESCRIPTORS – WET ICE

Freezing precipitation can lead to runway conditions associated with wet ice from an aeroplane performance point of view. Wet ice can cause the surface to become very slippery. It is then reported appropriately as downgraded RWYCC.

GM25 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/005/R

LANDING DISTANCE AT TIME OF ARRIVAL

The landing distance data to be used for a landing performance assessment at time of arrival allow to establish an operationally achievable landing distance from 50ft above runway threshold to full stop that takes into account AFM procedures for final approach and landing and is provided as a function of the main influence parameters such as aeroplane mass and configuration, pressure altitude, wind, outside air temperature, runway slope and approach speed increments. It may be provided for use of automation such as autobrakes and autoland and may account for reverse thrust use. As the landing distance at time of arrival is the unfactored minimum landing distance achievable for the assumed conditions, an appropriate margin should be applied to this distance to determine the minimum LDA necessary for a safe stop.

GM26 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/005/R

SLIPPERY WET RUNWAY

(a) The surface friction characteristics of the runway are considered degraded when below the minimum standards.

(b) A portion of runway in the order of 100 m long may be considered significant.

GM27 Annex I Definitions

ED Decision 2021/005/R

FLIGHT RECORDER

A flight recorder may be crash-protected or lightweight and may be deployable or not. Crash-protected flight recorders are capable of withstanding very severe crash conditions such as those encountered during some accidents of large aeroplanes and large helicopters. Crash-protected flight recorders comprise one or more of the following systems: a flight data recorder (FDR), a cockpit voice recorder (CVR), an airborne image recorder (AIR), or a data link recorder (DLR). Lightweight flight recorders are usually designed to meet less demanding requirements than crash-protected flight recorders, which allows them to be lighter. A non-deployable flight recorder is permanently attached to the aircraft. A deployable flight recorder includes a part that is capable of automatically deploying from the aircraft.

GM28 Annex I Definitions for terms used in Annexes II to VIII

ED Decision 2022/005/R

FLIGHT MONITORING AND FLIGHT WATCH — RELEVANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Relevant safety information is any element that may affect the safety of the flight, such as:

(a) an aircraft technical failure (e.g. failures where flight operations personnel can help to calculate the landing distance or new trip fuel or to update the aerodrome minima);

(b) unforeseen hazards:

(1) air traffic (e.g. delays and/or long distance to complete the approach, extensive use of radar vectoring);

(2) meteorological conditions (e.g. DH and aerodrome operating minima, adverse or extreme meteorological conditions);

(3) aerodrome and runway status (e.g. insufficient runway length due to brake failure, obstruction or closure of the runway, runway contamination, failure or malfunction caused by on-ground navigation or approach equipment);

(4) navigation aid status (e.g. failure of the navigation aids);

(5) availability of communications (e.g. failure of communications capabilities, interruptions, interferences, change of frequency channels); and

(6) terrain and obstacles (e.g. geophysical phenomena (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami), difficult terrain at an unplanned aerodrome (large bodies of water, mountains);

(c) updates of the operational flight plan when they affect the fuel reserves:

(1) diversion to an en route alternate (ERA) aerodrome, a destination alternate, or a take-off alternate aerodrome;

(2) change of the runway selected for landing if the new runway is shorter;

(3) location of the decision point or the point of no return (PNR) due to, for instance, change in altitude, in wind data, etc.;

(4) significant in-flight change of the flight route compared to the route in the flight planning; or

(5) significant deviation from the planned fuel consumption; and

(d) position reporting:

(1) flight-monitoring personnel should report in every phase of the flight: taxi, take-off, climb, cruise, cruise steep climb, descent, approach, landing;

(2) flight watch provides active tracking; and

(3) where no real-time automatic position-reporting is possible, the operator should have an acceptable alternative to ensure in-flight reporting at least every hour.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

FUEL/ENERGY

The energy used for aircraft propulsion comes from various sources and is of various types.

A frequently used type of energy in aviation is derived from processing (in a piston or turbine engine) hydrocarbon-based fuels that include gasoline (leaded or unleaded), diesel, avgas, JET A-1, and JET B. Hydrogen may also be used as fuel for fuel cell applications, which generate electricity that is used to generate propulsion. However, as current technologies already use other sources of energy for aircraft propulsion, such as stored electrical energy, the typical term ‘fuel’ has become restrictive and no longer covers emerging technologies.

Therefore, a broader, combined term is introduced to accommodate new types of energy, other than fuel, used for aircraft propulsion purposes.

The term ‘fuel/energy’ should cater for both typical fuel and any other type or source of energy used for aircraft propulsion, including but not limited to electrical energy stored in batteries.

When used in the combination ‘fuel/energy’, the term ‘energy’ only refers to the electrical energy used for aircraft propulsion purposes. It does not include any other form of stored electrical energy that is used on board an aircraft (e.g. batteries of EFBs, ELTs, underwater locating devices (ULDs), automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), or backup energy sources).

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

FUEL/ENERGY EN ROUTE ALTERNATE (ERA) AERODROME

Fuel/energy ERA aerodromes could be used in the following cases:

(a) ‘fuel ERA aerodrome critical scenario’: that aerodrome is used when additional fuel is required at the most critical point along the route to comply with point (c)(6) of point CAT.OP.MPA.181 ‘Fuel/energy scheme — fuel/energy planning and in-flight re-planning policy — aeroplanes’;

(b) ‘fuel ERA aerodrome 3 %’: that aerodrome is used when an operator reduces the contingency fuel to 3 %; and

(c) ‘fuel ERA aerodrome PNR’: that aerodrome is used at the PNR during isolated aerodrome operations.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]