ORO.FC.200 Composition of flight crew

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) There shall not be more than one inexperienced flight crew member in any flight crew.

(b) The commander may delegate the conduct of the flight to another pilot suitably qualified in accordance with Annex I (Part-FCL) to Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 provided that the requirements of ORO.FC.105(b)(1), (b)(2) and (c) are complied with.

(c) Specific requirements for aeroplane operations under instrument flight rules (IFR) or at night.

(1) The minimum flight crew shall be two pilots for all turbo-propeller aeroplanes with a maximum operational passenger seating configuration (MOPSC) of more than nine and all turbojet aeroplanes.

(2) Aeroplanes other than those covered by (c)(1) shall be operated with a minimum crew of two pilots, unless the requirements of ORO.FC.202 are complied with, in which case they may be operated by a single pilot.

(d) Specific requirements for helicopter operations

For all operations of helicopters with an MOPSC of more than 19 and for operations under IFR of helicopters with an MOPSC of more than 9, the minimum flight crew shall be two pilots.

CREWING OF INEXPERIENCED FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS

The operator should establish procedures in the operations manual taking into account the following elements:

Aeroplanes

(a) The operator should consider that a flight crew member is inexperienced, following completion of a type rating or command course, and the associated line flying under supervision, until he/she has achieved on the type either:

(1) 100 flight hours and flown 10 sectors within a consolidation period of 120 consecutive days; or

(2) 150 flight hours and flown 20 sectors (no time limit).

(b) A lesser number of flight hours or sectors, subject to any other conditions that the competent authority may impose, may be acceptable to the competent authority when one of the following applies:

(1) a new operator is commencing operations;

(2) an operator introduces a new aeroplane type;

(3) flight crew members have previously completed a type conversion course with the same operator;

(4) credits are defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012; or

(5) the aeroplane has a maximum take-off mass of less than 10 tonnes or a maximum operational passenger seating configuration (MOPSC) of less than 20.

Helicopters

(c) The operator should consider that, when two flight crew members are required, a flight crew member, following completion of a type rating or command course, and the associated line flying under supervision, is inexperienced until either:

(1) he/she has achieved 50 flight hours on the type and/or in the role within a period of 60 days; or

(2) he/she has achieved 100 flight hours on the type and/or in the role (no time limit).

(d) A lesser number of flight hours, on the type and/or in the role, and subject to any other conditions which the competent authority may impose, may be acceptable to the competent authority when one of the following applies:

(1) a new operator is commencing operations;

(2) an operator introduces a new helicopter type;

(3) flight crew members have previously completed a type conversion course with the same operator (reconversion); or

(4) credits are defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.

ORO.FC.A.201 In-flight relief of flight crew members

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) The commander may delegate the conduct of the flight to:

(1) another qualified commander; or

(2) for operations only above flight level (FL) 200, a pilot who complies with the following minimum qualifications:

(i) ATPL;

(ii) conversion training and checking, including type rating training, in accordance with ORO.FC.220;

(iii) all recurrent training and checking in accordance with ORO.FC.230 and ORO.FC.240;

(iv) route/area and aerodrome competence in accordance with ORO.FC.105.

(b) The co-pilot may be relieved by:

(1) another suitably qualified pilot;

(2) for operations only above FL 200, a cruise relief co-pilot that complies with the following minimum qualifications:

(i) valid commercial pilot licence (CPL) with an instrument rating;

(ii) conversion training and checking, including type rating training, in accordance with ORO.FC.220 except the requirement for take-off and landing training;

(iii) recurrent training and checking in accordance with ORO.FC.230 except the requirement for take-off and landing training.

(c) A flight engineer may be relieved in flight by a crew member suitably qualified in accordance with applicable national rules.

ORO.FC.202 Single-pilot operations under IFR or at night

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

In order to be able to fly under IFR or at night with a minimum flight crew of one pilot, the following shall be complied with:

(a) The operator shall include in the operations manual a pilot’s conversion and recurrent training programme that includes the additional requirements for a single-pilot operation. The pilot shall have undertaken training on the operator’s procedures, in particular regarding:

(1) engine management and emergency handling;

(2) use of normal, abnormal and emergency checklist;

(3) air traffic control (ATC) communication;

(4) departure and approach procedures;

(5) autopilot management, if applicable;

(6) use of simplified in-flight documentation;

(7) single-pilot crew resource management.

(b) INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

(c) For aeroplane operations under IFR the pilot shall have:

(1) a minimum of 50 hours flight time under IFR on the relevant type or class of aeroplane, of which 10 hours are as commander; and

(2) completed during the preceding 90 days on the relevant type or class of aeroplane:

(i) five IFR flights, including three instrument approaches, in a single-pilot role; or

(ii) an IFR instrument approach check.

(d) For aeroplane operations at night the pilot shall have:

(1) a minimum of 15 hours flight time at night which may be included in the 50 hours flight time under IFR in (c)(1); and

(2) completed during the preceding 90 days on the relevant type or class of aeroplane:

(i) three take-offs and landings at night in the single pilot role; or

(ii) a night take-off and landing check.

(e) For helicopter operations under IFR the pilot shall have:

(1) 25 hours total IFR flight experience in the relevant operating environment; and

(2) 25 hours flight experience as a single pilot on the specific type of helicopter, approved for single-pilot IFR, of which 10 hours may be flown under supervision, including five sectors of IFR line flying under supervision using the single-pilot procedures; and

(3) completed during the preceding 90 days:

(i) five IFR flights as a single pilot, including three instrument approaches, carried out on a helicopter approved for this purpose; or

(ii) an IFR instrument approach check as a single pilot on the relevant type of helicopter, flight training device (FTD) or full flight simulator (FFS).

ORO.FC.205 Command course

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

 (a) For aeroplane and helicopter operations, the command course shall include at least the following elements:

(1) training in an FSTD, which includes line oriented flight training (LOFT) and/or flight training;

(2) the operator proficiency check, operating as commander;

(3) command responsibilities training;

(4) line training as commander under supervision, for a minimum of:

(i) 10 flight sectors, in the case of aeroplanes; and

(ii) 10 hours, including at least 10 flight sectors, in the case of helicopters;

(5) completion of a line check as commander and demonstration of adequate knowledge of the route or area to be flown and of the aerodromes, including alternate aerodromes, facilities and procedures to be used; and

(6) crew resource management training.

COMBINED UPGRADING AND CONVERSION COURSE — HELICOPTER

If a pilot is converting from one helicopter type to another when upgrading to commander:

(a) the command course should also include a conversion course in accordance with ORO.FC.220; and

(b) additional flight sectors should be required for a pilot transitioning onto a new type of helicopter.

ORO.FC.215 Initial operator’s crew resource management (CRM) training

Regulation (EU) No 965/2012

(a) The flight crew member shall have completed an initial CRM training course before commencing unsupervised line flying.

(b) Initial CRM training shall be conducted by at least one suitably qualified CRM trainer who may be assisted by experts in order to address specific areas.

(c) If the flight crew member has not previously received theoretical training in human factors to the ATPL level, he/she shall complete, before or combined with the initial CRM training, a theoretical course provided by the operator and based on the human performance and limitations syllabus for the ATPL as established in Annex I (Part-FCL) to Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011.

TRAINING ELEMENTS AND TRAINER QUALIFICATION

Initial operator’s CRM training should:

(a) cover the applicable provisions of AMC1 ORO.FC.115, including the training elements as specified in Table 1 thereof; and

(b) be conducted by a flight crew CRM trainer who is qualified as specified in AMC3 ORO.FC.115.

[applicable until 25 March 2023 — ED Decision 2022/014/R]

(b) be conducted by a flight crew CRM trainer who is qualified as specified in AMC2 ORO.FC.146.

[applicable from 26 March 2023 ED Decision 2022/014/R]

ORO.FC.220 Operator conversion training and checking

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) CRM training shall be integrated into the operator conversion training course.

(b) Once an operator conversion course has been commenced, the flight crew member shall not be assigned to flying duties on another type or class of aircraft until the course is completed or terminated. Crew members operating only performance class B aeroplanes may be assigned to flights on other types of performance class B aeroplanes during conversion courses to the extent necessary to maintain the operation. Crew members may be assigned to flights on single‑engined helicopters during an operator conversion course on a single-engined helicopter, provided that the training is unaffected.

(c) The amount of training required by the flight crew member for the operator’s conversion course shall be determined in accordance with the standards of qualification and experience specified in the operations manual, taking into account his/her previous training and experience.

(d) The flight crew member shall complete:

(1) the operator proficiency check and the emergency and safety equipment training and checking before commencing line flying under supervision (LIFUS); and

(2) the line check upon completion of line flying under supervision. For performance class B aeroplanes, LIFUS may be performed on any aeroplane within the applicable class.

(e) In the case of aeroplanes, pilots that have been issued a type rating based on a zero flight-time training (‘ZFTT’) course shall:

(1) commence line flying under supervision not later than 21 days after the completion of the skill test or after appropriate training provided by the operator. The content of that training shall be described in the operations manual;

(2) complete six take-offs and landings in an FSTD not later than 21 days after the completion of the skill test under the supervision of a type rating instructor for aeroplanes (‘TRI(A)’) occupying the other pilot seat. The number of take-offs and landings may be reduced when credits are defined in the mandatory part of the operational suitability data established in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 748/2012. If those take-offs and landings have not been performed within 21 days, the operator shall provide refresher training the content of which shall be described in the operations manual;

(3) conduct the first four take-offs and landings of the LIFUS in the aeroplane under the supervision of a TRI(A) occupying the other pilot seat. The number of take-offs and landings may be reduced when credits are defined in the mandatory part of the operational suitability data established in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.

(f) If operational circumstances, such as applying for a new AOC or adding a new aircraft type or class to the fleet, do not allow the operator to comply with the requirements in (d), the operator may develop a specific conversion course, to be used temporarily for a limited number of pilots.

OPERATOR CONVERSION TRAINING SYLLABUS

(a) General

(1) The operator conversion training should include, in the following order:

(i) ground training and checking, including aircraft systems, and normal, abnormal and emergency procedures;

(ii) emergency and safety equipment training and checking, (completed before any flight training in an aircraft commences);

(iii) flight training and checking (aircraft and/or FSTD); and

(iv) line flying under supervision and line check.

(2) When the flight crew member has not previously completed an operator’s conversion course, he/she should undergo general first-aid training and, if applicable, ditching procedures training using the equipment in water.

(3) Where the emergency drills require action by the non-handling pilot, the check should additionally cover knowledge of these drills.

(4) The operator’s conversion may be combined with a new type/class rating training, as required by Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011.

(5) The operator should ensure that:

(i) applicable elements of CRM training, as specified in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.FC.115, are integrated into all appropriate phases of the conversion training; and

(ii) the personnel integrating elements of CRM into conversion training are suitably qualified, as specified in AMC3 ORO.FC.115.

(b) Ground training

(1) Ground training should comprise a properly organised programme of ground instruction supervised by training staff with adequate facilities, including any necessary audio, mechanical and visual aids. Self-study using appropriate electronic learning aids, computer-based training (CBT), etc., may be used with adequate supervision of the standards achieved. However, if the aircraft concerned is relatively simple, unsupervised private study may be adequate if the operator provides suitable manuals and/or study notes.

(2) The course of ground instruction should incorporate formal tests on such matters as aircraft systems, performance and flight planning, where applicable.

(c) Emergency and safety equipment training and checking

(1) Emergency and safety equipment training should take place in conjunction with cabin/technical crew undergoing similar training with emphasis on coordinated procedures and two-way communication between the flight crew compartment and the cabin.

(2) On the initial conversion course and on subsequent conversion courses as applicable, the following should be addressed:

(i) Instruction on first-aid in general (initial conversion course only); instruction on first-aid as relevant to the aircraft type of operation and crew complement, including those situations where no cabin crew is required to be carried (initial and subsequent).

(ii) Aero-medical topics, including:

(A) hypoxia;

(B) hyperventilation;

(C) contamination of the skin/eyes by aviation fuel or hydraulic or other fluids;

(D) hygiene and food poisoning; and

(E) malaria.

(iii) The effect of smoke in an enclosed area and actual use of all relevant equipment in a simulated smoke-filled environment.

(iv) Actual fire fighting, using equipment representative of that carried in the aircraft on an actual or simulated fire except that, with Halon extinguishers, an alternative extinguisher may be used.

(v) The operational procedures of security, rescue and emergency services.

(vi) Survival information appropriate to their areas of operation (e.g. polar, desert, jungle or sea) and training in the use of any survival equipment required to be carried.

(vii) A comprehensive drill to cover all ditching procedures where flotation equipment is carried. This should include practice of the actual donning and inflation of a life-jacket, together with a demonstration or audio-visual presentation of the inflation of life-rafts and/or slide-rafts and associated equipment. This practice should, on an initial conversion course, be conducted using the equipment in water, although previous certified training with another operator or the use of similar equipment will be accepted in lieu of further wet-drill training.

(viii) Instruction on the location of emergency and safety equipment, correct use of all appropriate drills, and procedures that could be required of flight crew in different emergency situations. Evacuation of the aircraft (or a representative training device) by use of a slide where fitted should be included when the operations manual procedure requires the early evacuation of flight crew to assist on the ground.

(d) Flight training

(1) Flight training should be conducted to familiarise the flight crew member thoroughly with all aspects of limitations and normal, abnormal and emergency procedures associated with the aircraft and should be carried out by suitably qualified class and type rating instructors and/or examiners. For specific operations, such as steep approaches, ETOPS, or operations based on QFE, additional training should be carried out, based on any additional elements of training defined for the aircraft type in the operational suitability data in accordance with Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012, where they exist.

(2) In planning flight training on aircraft with a flight crew of two or more, particular emphasis should be placed on the practice of LOFT with emphasis on CRM, and the use of crew coordination procedures, including coping with incapacitation.

(3) Normally, the same training and practice in the flying of the aircraft should be given to co-pilots as well as commanders. The ‘flight handling’ sections of the syllabus for commanders and co-pilots alike should include all the requirements of the operator proficiency check required by ORO.FC.230.

(4) Unless the type rating training programme has been carried out in an FSTD usable for ZFTT, the training should include at least three take-offs and landings in the aircraft.

(e) Line flying under supervision (LIFUS)

(1) Following completion of flight training and checking as part of the operator’s conversion course, each flight crew member should operate a minimum number of sectors and/or flight hours under the supervision of a flight crew member nominated by the operator.

(2) The minimum flight sectors/hours should be specified in the operations manual and should be determined by the following:

(i) previous experience of the flight crew member;

(ii) complexity of the aircraft; and

(iii) the type and area of operation.

(3) For performance class B aeroplanes, the amount of LIFUS required is dependent on the complexity of the operations to be performed.

(f) Passenger handling for operations where no cabin crew is required

Other than general training on dealing with people, emphasis should be placed on the following:

(1) advice on the recognition and management of passengers who appear or are intoxicated with alcohol, under the influence of drugs or aggressive;

(2) methods used to motivate passengers and the crowd control necessary to expedite an aircraft evacuation; and

(3) the importance of correct seat allocation with reference to aircraft mass and balance. Particular emphasis should also be given on the seating of special categories of passengers.

(g) Discipline and responsibilities, for operations where no cabin crew is required

Emphasis should be placed on discipline and an individual's responsibilities in relation to:

(1) his/her ongoing competence and fitness to operate as a crew member with special regard to flight and duty time limitation (FTL) requirements; and

(2) security procedures.

(h) Passenger briefing/safety demonstrations, for operations where no cabin crew is required

Training should be given in the preparation of passengers for normal and emergency situations.

[AMC1 ORO.FC.220 applicable until 25 March 2023 — ED Decision 2022/014/R]

OPERATOR CONVERSION TRAINING SYLLABUS

(a) General

(1) The operator conversion training should include, in the following order:

(i) ground training and checking, including all of the following:

(A) aircraft systems;

(B) normal procedures, which include flight planning and ground-handling and flight operations, including performance, mass and balance, fuel schemes, selection of alternates, and ground de-icing/anti-icing;

(C) abnormal and emergency procedures, which include pilot incapacitation as applicable;

(D) a review of relevant samples of accident/incident and occurrences to increase awareness of the occurrences that may be relevant for the intended operation;

(ii) emergency and safety equipment training and checking (completed before any flight training in an aircraft commences);

(iii) flight training and checking (aircraft and/or FSTD); and

(iv) line flying under supervision and line check.

(2) When the flight crew member has not previously completed an operator’s conversion course, he/she should undergo general first-aid training and, if applicable, ditching procedures training using the equipment in water.

(3) Where the emergency drills require action by the non-handling pilot, the check should additionally cover knowledge of these drills.

(4) The operator’s conversion may be combined with a new type/class rating training, as required by Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011.

(5) The operator should ensure that:

(i) applicable elements of CRM training, as specified in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.FC.115, are integrated into all appropriate phases of the conversion training; and

(ii) the personnel integrating elements of CRM into conversion training are suitably qualified, as specified in AMC2 ORO.FC.146.

(b) Ground training

(1) Ground training should comprise a properly organised programme of ground instruction supervised by training staff with adequate facilities, including any necessary audio, mechanical and visual aids. Self-study using appropriate electronic learning aids, computer-based training (CBT), etc., may be used with adequate supervision of the standards achieved. However, if the aircraft concerned is relatively simple, unsupervised private study may be adequate if the operator provides suitable manuals and/or study notes.

(2) The course of ground instruction should incorporate formal tests.

(c) Emergency and safety equipment training and checking

(1) Emergency and safety equipment training should take place in conjunction with cabin/technical crew undergoing similar training with emphasis on coordinated procedures and two-way communication between the flight crew compartment and the cabin.

(2) On the initial conversion course and on subsequent conversion courses as applicable, the following should be addressed:

(i) Instruction on first-aid in general (initial conversion course only); instruction on first-aid as relevant to the aircraft type of operation and crew complement, including those situations where no cabin crew is required to be carried (initial and subsequent).

(ii) Aero-medical topics, including:

(A) hypoxia;

(B) hyperventilation;

(C) contamination of the skin/eyes by aviation fuel or hydraulic or other fluids;

(D) hygiene and food poisoning; and

(E) malaria.

(iii) The effect of smoke in an enclosed area and actual use of all relevant equipment in a simulated smoke-filled environment.

(iv) Actual fire fighting, using equipment representative of that carried in the aircraft on an actual or simulated fire except that, with Halon extinguishers, an alternative extinguisher may be used.

(v) The operational procedures of security, rescue and emergency services.

(vi) Survival information appropriate to their areas of operation (e.g. polar, desert, jungle or sea) and training in the use of any survival equipment required to be carried.

(vii) A comprehensive drill to cover all ditching procedures where flotation equipment is carried. This should include practice of the actual donning and inflation of a life-jacket, together with a demonstration or audio-visual presentation of the inflation of life-rafts and/or slide-rafts and associated equipment. This practice should, on an initial conversion course, be conducted using the equipment in water, although previous certified training with another operator or the use of similar equipment will be accepted in lieu of further wet-drill training.

(viii) Instruction on the location of emergency and safety equipment, correct use of all appropriate drills, and procedures that could be required of flight crew in different emergency situations. Evacuation of the aircraft (or a representative training device) by use of a slide where fitted should be included when the operations manual procedure requires the early evacuation of flight crew to assist on the ground.

(3) Operations where no cabin crew is required

(i) Passenger handling

Other than general training on dealing with people, emphasis should be placed on the following:

(A) advice on the recognition and management of passengers who appear or are intoxicated with alcohol, under the influence of drugs or aggressive;

(B) methods used to motivate passengers and the crowd control necessary to expedite an aircraft evacuation; and

(C) the importance of correct seat allocation with reference to aircraft mass and balance. Particular emphasis should also be given on the seating of special categories of passengers.

(ii) Discipline and responsibilities

Emphasis should be placed on discipline and an individual’s responsibilities in relation to:

(A) his or her ongoing competence and fitness to operate as a crew member with special regard to flight and duty time limitation (FTL) requirements; and

(B) security procedures.

(iii) Passenger briefing/safety demonstrations

Training should be given in the preparation of passengers for normal and emergency situations.

(d) Flight training

(1) Flight training should be conducted to familiarise the flight crew member thoroughly with all aspects of limitations and normal, abnormal and emergency procedures associated with the aircraft and should be carried out by suitably qualified class and type rating instructors and/or examiners. For specific operations, such as steep approaches, ETOPS, or operations based on QFE, additional training should be carried out, based on any additional elements of training defined for the aircraft type in the operational suitability data in accordance with Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012, where they exist.

(2) In planning flight training on aircraft with a flight crew of two or more, particular emphasis should be placed on the practice of LOFT with emphasis on CRM, and the use of crew coordination procedures, including coping with incapacitation.

(3) Normally, the same training and practice in the flying of the aircraft should be given to co-pilots as well as commanders. The ‘flight handling’ sections of the syllabus for commanders and co-pilots alike should include all the requirements of the operator proficiency check required by ORO.FC.230.

(4) Unless the type rating training programme has been carried out in an FSTD usable for ZFTT, the training should include at least three take-offs and landings in the aircraft.

(e) Operator proficiency check

(1) For aeroplanes, the operator proficiency check that is part of the operator’s conversion checking should follow the provisions in AMC1 ORO.FC.230. For EBT, the operator should include either an EBT module in accordance with ORO.FC.231 or an OPC in accordance with AMC1 ORO.FC.230.

(2) For helicopters, the operator proficiency check that is part of the operator’s conversion checking should include at least the following emergency/abnormal procedures as relevant to the helicopter and operations:

(i) engine fire;

(ii) interior helicopter fire or smoke;

(iii) emergency operation of undercarriage;

(iv) hydraulic failure;

(v) electrical failure;

(vi) flight and engine control system malfunctions;

(vii) recovery from unusual attitudes;

(viii) landing with one or more engine(s) inoperative;

(ix) instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) autorotation techniques;

(x) autorotation to a designated area;

(xi) pilot incapacitation;

(xii) directional control failures and malfunctions; and

(xiii) engine failure and if relevant, relight;

and for multi-engined helicopters:

(xiv) engine failure during take-off before decision point;

(xv) engine failure during take-off after decision point;

(xvi) engine failure during landing before decision point; and

(xvii) engine failure during landing after decision point.

(3) For helicopter pilots required to engage in IFR operations, the proficiency check should include the following additional normal/abnormal/emergency procedures:

(i) 3D approach operation to minima;

(ii) go-around on instruments;

(iii) 2D approach operation to minima;

(iv) if relevant, at least one of the 3D or 2D approach operations should be an RNP APCH or RNP AR APCH operation;

(v) in the case of multi-engined helicopters, a simulated failure of one engine to be included in either the 3D or 2D approach operation to minima; and

(vi) where appropriate to the helicopter type, approach with flight control system/flight director system malfunctions, flight instrument and navigation equipment failures.

(4) For helicopters, the flight crew should be assessed on their CRM skills in accordance with the methodology described in AMC1 ORO.FC.115 and as specified in the operations manual.

(5) The use of FSTDs, composition of the flight crew, and the possible combinations with training or with the licence proficiency check should be defined as per AMC1 ORO.FC.230.

(f) Line flying under supervision (LIFUS)

(1) Following completion of flight training and checking as part of the operator’s conversion course, each flight crew member should operate a minimum number of sectors and/or flight hours under the supervision of a flight crew member nominated by the operator.

(2) The minimum flight sectors/hours should be specified in the operations manual and should be determined by the following:

(i) previous experience of the flight crew member;

(ii) complexity of the aircraft; and

(iii) the type and area of operation.

(3) For performance class B aeroplanes, the amount of LIFUS required is dependent on the complexity of the operations to be performed.

[AMC1 ORO.FC.220 applicable from 26 March 2023]

OPERATOR CONVERSION TRAINING SYLLABUS — FLIGHT ENGINEERS

(a) Operator conversion training for flight engineers should approximate to that of pilots.

(b) If the flight crew includes a pilot with the duties of a flight engineer, he/she should, after training and the initial check in these duties, operate a minimum number of flight sectors under the supervision of a nominated additional flight crew member. The minimum figures should be specified in the operations manual and should be selected after due note has been taken of the complexity of the aircraft and the experience of the flight crew member.

TRAINING PROGRAMMES

The operator should ensure that training programmes include the relevant de-identified feedback from the management system, including occurrence reporting and flight data monitoring programmes.

[applicable from 26 March 2023]

ASSIGNMENT TO FLIGHTS DURING AN OPERATOR CONVERSION COURSE — HELICOPTERS

(a) A group of helicopter types should include either only single-engined turbine helicopters operated only under VFR or only single-engined piston helicopters operated only under VFR.

(b) The flight crew member should only be assigned to flights on a helicopter within the same group of helicopter types as the type used for the operator conversion training and checking.

(c) Once an operator conversion course has been commenced, the flight crew member should not start another operator conversion course on another helicopter type until that course is completed or terminated.

COMPLETION OF AN OPERATOR’S CONVERSION COURSE

(a) The operator conversion course is deemed to have started when the flight training has begun. The theoretical element of the course may be undertaken ahead of the practical element.

(b) Under certain circumstances the course may have started and reached a stage where, for unforeseen reasons, it is not possible to complete it without a delay. In these circumstances, the operator may allow the pilot to revert to the original type.

(c) Before the resumption of the operator conversion course, the operator should evaluate how much of the course needs to be repeated before continuing with the remainder of the course.

OPERATOR CONVERSION COURSE (OCC) FOR MULTI-CREW PILOT LICENCE (MPL) HOLDERS

When defining the amount of training for MPL holders, who undertake their first conversion course on a new type or at an operator other than the one that was involved in their training for the MPL, the operator should put a process in place to ensure that corrective action can be taken if post-MPL licence training evaluation indicates the need to do so.

LINE FLYING UNDER SUPERVISION

(a) Line flying under supervision provides the opportunity for a flight crew member to carry into practice the procedures and techniques he/she has been made familiar with during the ground and flight training of an operator conversion course. This is accomplished under the supervision of a flight crew member specifically nominated and trained for the task. At the end of line flying under supervision the respective crew member should be able to perform a safe and efficient flight conducted within the tasks of his/her crew member station.

(b) A variety of reasonable combinations may exist with respect to:

(1) a flight crew member's previous experience;

(2) the complexity of the aircraft concerned; and

(3) the type of route/role/area operations.

(c) Aeroplanes

The following minimum figures for details to be flown under supervision are guidelines for operators to use when establishing their individual requirements:

(1) turbo-jet aircraft

(i) co-pilot undertaking first operator conversion course:

(A) total accumulated 100 hours or minimum 40 flight sectors;

(ii) co-pilot upgrading to commander:

(A) minimum 20 flight sectors when converting to a new type;

(B) minimum 10 flight sectors when already qualified on the aeroplane type.

SPECIFIC CONVERSION COURSE — SUITABLY QUALIFIED COMMANDER NOMINATED BY THE OPERATOR — PILOTS WHO TEMPORARILY JOIN THE OPERATOR AND WILL BE NOMINATED TO CONDUCT LINE CHECKS

(a) In some cases, operational circumstances may require the operator to develop a specific conversion course to nominate pilots as suitably qualified commanders to conduct line checks in accordance with the requirements of ORO.FC.146. In this case, the operator conversion training should include training as follows:

(1) normal procedures, which include flight planning and ground-handling and flight operations, including performance, mass and balance, fuel schemes, selection of alternates, and ground de-icing/anti-icing;

(2) abnormal and emergency procedures, which include pilot incapacitation as applicable.

(b) The operator should ensure that the line checker is familiar with:

(1) the operating procedures and the use of checklists used by the operator;

(2) the emergency and safety equipment installed or carried on the operated aircraft.

(c) After the completion of the specific conversion course, the following apply:

(1) The line checker should not exercise duties at the controls of the aircraft.

(2) The line checker should only conduct recurrent line checks of pilots whose previous line check has not expired, in accordance with ORO.FC.230.

(d) The validity of the specific conversion course should be limited to 6 months.

SPECIF CONVERSION COURSE TO BE USE TEMPORARILY FOR A LIMITED NUMBER OF PILOTS — NEW AOC OR ADDITION OF A NEW AIRCRAFT TYPE OR CLASS TO THE FLEET

For a new AOC or for the addition of a new aircraft type or class to the fleet, the operator may contact the competent authority to agree on a specific conversion course to be included in the operations manual (CAT requires approval in accordance with ORO.FC.145 point (c)) to be used temporarily for a limited number of pilots. The specific course may include an agreement on the minimum experience of the pilots, the required experience of the line supervisor and line checkers amongst others.

UPSET PREVENTION AND RECOVERY TRAINING (UPRT) FOR COMPLEX MOTOR-POWERED AEROPLANES WITH A MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL PASSENGER SEATING CONFIGURATION (MOPSC) OF MORE THAN 19

(a) Upset prevention training should:

(1) consist of ground training and flight training in an FSTD or an aeroplane;

(2) include upset prevention elements from Table 1 for the conversion training course; and

(3) include upset prevention elements in Table 1 for the recurrent training programme at least every 12 calendar months, such that all the elements are covered over a period not exceeding 3 years.

Table 1: Elements and respective components of upset prevention training

Elements and components

Ground training

FSTD/ Aeroplane training

A.

Aerodynamics

 

 

1.

General aerodynamic characteristics

 

2.

Aeroplane certification and limitations

 

3.

Aerodynamics (high and low altitudes)

4.

Aeroplane performance (high and low altitudes)

5.

Angle of attack (AOA) and stall awareness

6.

Stick shaker or other stall-warning device activation (as applicable)

7.

Stick pusher (as applicable)

8.

Mach effects (if applicable to the aeroplane type)

9.

Aeroplane stability

10.

Control surface fundamentals

11.

Use of trims

12.

Icing and contamination effects

13.

Propeller slipstream (as applicable)

B.

Causes of and contributing factors to upsets

 

 

1.

Environmental

 

2.

Pilot-induced

 

3.

Mechanical (aeroplane systems)

 

C.

Safety review of accidents and incidents relating to aeroplane upsets

 

 

1.

Safety review of accidents and incidents relating to aeroplane upsets

 

D.

g-load awareness and management

 

 

1.

Positive/negative/increasing/decreasing g-loads

2.

Lateral g awareness (sideslip)

3.

g-load management

E.

Energy management

 

 

1.

Kinetic energy vs potential energy vs chemical energy (power)

F.

Flight path management

 

 

1.

Relationship between pitch, power and performance

2.

Performance and effects of differing power plants (if applicable)

3.

Manual and automation inputs for guidance and control

4.

Type-specific characteristics

5.

Management of go-arounds from various stages during the approach

6.

Automation management

7.

Proper use of rudder

G.

Recognition

 

 

1.

Type‑specific examples of physiological, visual and instrument clues during developing and developed upsets

2.

Pitch/power/roll/yaw

3.

Effective scanning (effective monitoring)

4.

Type-specific stall protection systems and cues

5.

Criteria for identifying stalls and upsets

H.

System malfunction

(including immediate handling and subsequent operational considerations, as applicable)

 

 

1.

Flight control defects

2.

Engine failure (partial or full)

3.

Instrument failures

4.

Loss of reliable airspeed

5.

Automation failures

6.

Fly-by-wire protection degradations

7.

Stall protection system failures including icing alerting systems

I.

Manual handling skills

(no autopilot, no autothrust/autothrottle and, where possible, without flight directors)

 

 

1.

Flight at different speeds, including slow flight, and altitudes within the full normal flight envelope

 

2.

Procedural instrument flying and manoeuvring including instrument departure and arrival

 

3.

Visual approach

 

4.

Go-arounds from various stages during the approach (refer to point (d) of GM1 to Appendix 9 to Part-FCL65 Please refer to ED Decision 2011/016/R. for further guidance on go-around training)

5.

Steep turns

 

(b) Upset recovery training should:

(1) consist of ground training and flight training in an FFS qualified for the training task;

(2) be completed from each seat in which a pilot’s duties require him/her to operate; and

(3) include the recovery exercises in Table 2 for the recurrent training programme, such that all the exercises are covered over a period not exceeding 3 years.

Table 2: Exercises for upset recovery training

Exercises

Ground training

FFS training

A.

Recovery from developed upsets

 

 

1.

Timely and appropriate intervention

2.

Recovery from stall events, in the following configurations;

 take-off configuration,

 clean configuration low altitude,

 clean configuration near maximum operating altitude, and

 landing configuration during the approach phase.

3.

Recovery from nose high at various bank angles

4.

Recovery from nose low at various bank angles

5.

Consolidated summary of aeroplane recovery techniques

(c) The operator should ensure that personnel providing FSTD UPRT are competent and current to deliver the training, and understand the capabilities and limitations of the device used.

(d) An FFS that is used for the training referred to in point (b)(1) should be qualified in accordance with the special evaluation requirements set out in CS-FSTD(A) (Issue 2 or later).

UPSET PREVENTION AND RECOVERY TRAINING (UPRT) FOR COMPLEX MOTOR-POWERED AEROPLANES WITH A MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL PASSENGER SEATING CONFIGURATION (MOPSC) OF 19 OR LESS

(a) Upset prevention training should:

(1) consist of ground training and flight training in an FSTD or an aeroplane;

(2) include upset prevention elements in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.FC.220&230 for the conversion training course; and

(3) include upset prevention elements in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.FC.220&230 for the recurrent training programme at least every 12 calendar months, such that all the elements are covered over a period not exceeding 3 years.

(b) Upset recovery training should:

(1) consist of ground training and flight training in an FFS qualified for the training task, if available;

(2) be completed from each seat in which a pilot’s duties require him/her to operate; and

(3) include the recovery exercises in Table 2 of AMC1 ORO.FC.220&230 for the recurrent training programme, such that all the exercises are covered over a period not exceeding 3 years.

(c) The operator should ensure that personnel providing FSTD UPRT are competent and current to deliver the training, and understand the capabilities and limitations of the device used.

(d) An FFS that is used for the training referred to in point (b)(1) should be qualified in accordance with the special evaluation requirements set out in CS-FSTD(A) (Issue 2 or later).

UPSET PREVENTION AND RECOVERY TRAINING (UPRT) FOR COMPLEX MOTOR-POWERED AEROPLANES

The objective of the UPRT is to help flight crew acquire the required competencies in order to prevent or recover from a developing or developed aeroplane upset. Prevention training prepares flight crew to avoid incidents whereas recovery training prepares flight crew to prevent an accident once an upset condition has developed.

HUMAN FACTORS

Threat and Error Management (TEM) and Crew Resource Management (CRM) principles should be integrated into the UPRT. In particular, the surprise and startle effect, and the importance of resilience development should be emphasised.

Training should also emphasise that an actual upset condition may expose flight crew to significant physiological and psychological challenges, such as visual illusions, spatial disorientation and unusual g-forces, with the objective to develop strategies to deal with such challenges.

USE OF FSTD FOR UPRT

The use of an FSTD provides valuable training without the risks associated with aeroplane training. The training envelope (envelope within which all training exercises will be carried out) should be specified by the operator in terms of the range of attitudes, speed and g-loads that can be used for training, taking into account:

(1) the training environment;

(2) the capabilities of the instructors; and

(3) in the case of training in FSTDs, the limitations of the FSTD (as per GM15 to Annex I (Definitions) to Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 for the FSTD training envelope); and

(4) in the case of training in aeroplanes, the capabilities and certification of the aeroplane, while considering a margin of safety in order to ensure that unintentional deviations from the training envelope will not exceed aeroplane limitations. Different training envelopes may be specified for different aeroplane types even within a single training course.

ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE

Specific guidance to the UPRT elements and exercises contained in the AMC is available from the latest revision of the ICAO Document 10011 (‘Manual on UPRT’).

Further guidance is available in:

             Revision 2 (as regards training scenarios for UPRT) and Revision 3 of the Aeroplane Upset Recovery Training Aid (AURTA (Revision 2) / AUPRTA (Revision 3)); and

             the Flight Safety Foundation Publication (‘A Practical Guide for Improving Flight Path Monitoring’), November 2014.

UPSET PREVENTION TRAINING FOR COMPLEX MOTOR-POWERED AEROPLANES

The recurrent training should prioritise the upset prevention elements and respective components according to the operator’s safety risk assessment.

Upset prevention training should use a combination of manoeuvre-based and scenario-based training. Scenario-based training may be used to introduce flight crew to situations which, if not correctly managed, could lead to an upset condition. Relevant TEM and CRM aspects should be included in scenario-based training and the flight crew should understand the limitations of the FSTD in replicating the physiological and psychological aspects of exposure to upset prevention scenarios.

In order to avoid negative training and negative transfer of training, operators should ensure that the selected upset prevention scenarios and exercises take into consideration the limitations of the FSTD and the extent to which it represents the handling characteristics of the actual aeroplane. If it is determined that the FSTD is not suitable, the operator should ensure that the required training outcome can be achieved by other means.

GO-AROUNDS FROM VARIOUS STAGES DURING THE APPROACH

Guidance on go-around training is provided in point (d) of GM1 to Appendix 9 to Part-FCL.

UPSET RECOVERY TRAINING FOR COMPLEX MOTOR-POWERED AEROPLANES

The upset recovery training exercises should be manoeuvre-based, which enables flight crew to apply their handling skills and recovery strategy whilst leveraging CRM principles to return the aeroplane from an upset condition to a stabilised flight path.

The flight crew should understand the limitations of the FFS in replicating the physiological and psychological aspects of upset recovery exercises.

In order to avoid negative training and negative transfer of training, operators should ensure that the selected upset recovery exercises take into consideration the limitations of the FFS.

STALL EVENT RECOVERY TRAINING

It is of utmost importance that stall event recovery training takes into account the capabilities of the FFS used. To deliver stall event recovery training, the FFS should be qualified against the relevant UPRT elements of CS-FSTD(A) (Issue 2 or later). Stall event recovery training should include training up to the stall (approach-to-stall). Post-stall training may be delivered, provided the device has been qualified against the relevant optional elements of CS-FSTD(A) (Issue 2 or later) and the operator demonstrates that negative training or negative transfer of training is avoided. A ‘stall event’ is defined as an occurrence whereby the aeroplane experiences one or more conditions associated with an approach-to-stall or stall.

Stall event recovery training should emphasise the requirement to reduce the angle of attack (AOA) whilst accepting the resulting altitude loss. High-altitude stall event training should be included so that flight crew appreciate the aeroplane control response, the significant altitude loss during the recovery, and the increased time required. The training should also emphasise the risk of triggering a secondary stall event during the recovery.

Recovery from a stall event should always be in accordance with the stall event recovery procedures of the OEMs. If an OEM-approved recovery procedure does not exist, operators should develop and train the aeroplane-specific stall recovery procedure based on the template in Table 1 below.

Refer to Revision 3 of the Airplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training Aid (AUPRTA) for a detailed explanation and rationale on the stall event recovery template as recommended by the OEMs.

Table 1: Recommended Stall Event Recovery Template

Stall Event Recovery Template

Pilot Flying - Immediately do the following at first indication of a stall (aerodynamic buffeting, reduced roll stability and aileron effectiveness, visual or aural cues and warnings, reduced elevator (pitch) authority, inability to maintain altitude or arrest rate of descent, stick shaker activation (if installed).) – during any flight phases except at lift-off.

Pilot Flying (PF)

Pilot Monitoring (PM)

1.

AUTOPILOT – DISCONNECT

(A large out-of-trim condition could be encountered when the autopilot is disconnected.)

MONITOR

airspeed and attitude throughout the recovery and ANNOUNCE

any continued divergence

2.

AUTOTHRUST/AUTOTHROTTLE – OFF

3.

a) NOSE DOWN PITCH CONTROL apply until stall warning is eliminated

b) NOSE DOWN PITCH TRIM (as needed)

(Reduce the angle of attack (AOA) whilst accepting the resulting altitude loss.)

4.

BANK – WINGS LEVEL

5.

THRUST – ADJUST (as needed)

(Thrust reduction for aeroplanes with underwing mounted engines may be needed)

6.

SPEEDBRAKES/SPOILERS - RETRACT

7.

When airspeed is sufficiently increasing - RECOVER to level flight

(Avoid the secondary stall due premature recovery or excessive g-loading.)

NOSE HIGH AND NOSE LOW RECOVERY TRAINING

Nose-high and nose-low recovery training should be in accordance with the strategies recommended by the OEMs contained in the Tables 2 and 3 below. As the OEM procedures always take precedence over the recommendations, operators should consult their OEM on whether any approved type-specific recovery procedures are available prior to using the templates.

Refer to Revision 3 of the Airplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training Aid (AUPRTA) for a detailed explanation and rationale on the nose high and nose low recovery strategies as recommended by the OEMs.

Table 2: Recommended Nose High Recovery Strategy Template

Nose HIGH Recovery Strategy

Either pilot - Recognise and confirm the developing situation by announcing: ‘Nose High’

PF

PM

1.

AUTOPILOT – DISCONNECT

(A large out of trim condition could be encountered when the AP is disconnected.)

MONITOR airspeed and attitude throughout the recovery and ANNOUNCE

any continued divergence

2.

AUTOTHRUST/AUTOTHROTTLE – OFF

3.

APPLY as much nose-down control input as required to obtain a nose-down pitch rate

4.

THRUST – ADJUST (if required)

(Thrust reduction for aeroplanes with underwing mounted engines may be needed.)

5.

ROLL – ADJUST (if required)

(Avoid exceeding 60 degrees bank.)

6.

When airspeed is sufficiently increasing - RECOVER to level flight

(Avoid the secondary stall due premature recovery or excessive g-loading.)

NOTE:

1) Recovery to level flight may require use of pitch trim.

2) If necessary, consider reducing thrust in aeroplanes with underwing-mounted engines to aid in achieving nose-down pitch rate.

3) WARNING: Excessive use of pitch trim or rudder may aggravate the upset situation or may result in high structural loads.

Table 3: Recommended Nose Low Recovery Strategy Template

Nose LOW Recovery Strategy Template

Either pilot - Recognise and confirm the developing situation by announcing: ‘Nose Low’

(If the autopilot or autothrust/autothrottle is responding correctly, it may not be appropriate to decrease the level of automation while assessing if the divergence is being stopped.)

PF

PM

1.

AUTOPILOT – DISCONNECT

(A large out of trim condition could be encountered when the AP is disconnected.)

MONITOR airspeed and attitude throughout the recovery and ANNOUNCE

any continued divergence

2.

AUTOTHRUST/AUTOTHROTTLE – OFF

3.

RECOVERY from stall if required

4.

ROLL in the shortest direction to wings level.

(It may be necessary to reduce the g-loading by applying forward control pressure to improve roll effectiveness)

5.

THRUST and DRAG – ADJUST (if required)

6.

RECOVER to level flight.

(Avoid the secondary stall due premature recovery or excessive g-loading.)

NOTE:

1) Recovery to level flight may require use of pitch trim.

2) WARNING: Excessive use of pitch trim or rudder may aggravate the upset situation or may result in high structural loads.

PERSONNEL PROVIDING FSTD UPSET PREVENTION AND RECOVERY TRAINING (UPRT)

It is of paramount importance that personnel providing UPRT in FSTDs have the specific competence to deliver such training, which may not have been demonstrated during previous instructor qualification training. Operators should, therefore, have a comprehensive training and standardisation programme in place, and may need to provide FSTD instructors with additional training to ensure such instructors have and maintain complete knowledge and understanding of the UPRT operating environment, and skill sets.

Standardisation and training should ensure that personnel providing FSTD UPRT:

(1) are able to demonstrate the correct upset recovery techniques for the specific aeroplane type;

(2) understand the importance of applying type-specific Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) procedures for recovery manoeuvres;

(3) are able to distinguish between the applicable SOPs and the OEMs recommendations (if available);

(4) understand the capabilities and limitations of the FSTD used for UPRT, based on the applicable FSTD training envelope;

(5) are aware of the potential of negative transfer of training that may exist when training outside the capabilities of the FSTD;

(6) understand and are able to use the IOS of the FSTD in the context of effective UPRT delivery;

(7) understand and are able to use the FSTD instructor tools available for providing accurate feedback on flight crew performance;

(8) understand the importance of adhering to the FSTD UPRT scenarios that have been validated by the training programme developer; and

(9) understand the missing critical human factor aspects due to the limitations of the FSTD and convey this to the flight crew receiving the training.

ORO.FC.230 Recurrent training and checking

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) Each flight crew member shall complete recurrent training and checking relevant to the type or variant, and associated equipment of aircraft on which they operate.

(b) Operator proficiency check

(1) Each flight crew member shall complete operator proficiency checks as part of the normal crew complement.

(2) When the flight crew member will be required to operate under IFR, the operator proficiency check shall be conducted without external visual reference, as appropriate.

(3) The validity period of the operator proficiency check shall be 6 calendar months. For operations under VFR by day of performance class B aeroplanes that are conducted during seasons not longer than 8 consecutive months, one operator proficiency check shall be sufficient. The proficiency check shall be undertaken before commencing CAT operations.

(c) Line check

Each flight crew member shall complete a line check on the aircraft. The validity period of the line check shall be 12 calendar months.

(d) Emergency and safety equipment training and checking

Each flight crew member shall complete recurrent training and checking on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried on board the aircraft. The validity period of an emergency and safety equipment training and checking shall be 12 calendar months.

(e) CRM training

(1) Elements of CRM shall be integrated into all appropriate phases of the recurrent training.

(2) Each flight crew member shall undergo specific modular CRM training. All major topics of CRM training shall be covered by distributing modular training sessions as evenly as possible over each 3-year period.

(f) Each flight crew member shall undergo ground training and flight training in an FSTD or an aircraft, or a combination of FSTD and aircraft training, at least every 12 calendar months.

RECURRENT TRAINING SYLLABUS

(a) Recurrent training

Recurrent training should comprise the following:

(1) Ground training

(i) The ground training programme should include:

(A) aircraft systems;

(B) operational procedures and requirements, including ground de-icing/anti-icing and pilot incapacitation; and

(C) accident/incident and occurrence review.

(ii) Knowledge of the ground training should be verified by a questionnaire or other suitable methods.

(iii) When the ground training is conducted within 3 calendar months prior to the expiry of the 12 calendar months period, the next ground and refresher training should be completed within 12 calendar months of the original expiry date of the previous training.

(2) Emergency and safety equipment training

(i) Emergency and safety equipment training may be combined with emergency and safety equipment checking and should be conducted in an aircraft or a suitable alternative training device.

(ii) Every year the emergency and safety equipment training programme should include the following:

(A) actual donning of a life-jacket, where fitted;

(B) actual donning of protective breathing equipment, where fitted;

(C) actual handling of fire extinguishers of the type used;

(D) instruction on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried on the aircraft;

(E) instruction on the location and use of all types of exits;

(F) security procedures.

(iii) Every 3 years the programme of training should include the following:

(A) actual operation of all types of exits;

(B) demonstration of the method used to operate a slide where fitted;

(C) actual fire-fighting using equipment representative of that carried in the aircraft on an actual or simulated fire except that, with Halon extinguishers, an alternative extinguisher may be used;

(D) the effects of smoke in an enclosed area and actual use of all relevant equipment in a simulated smoke-filled environment;

(E) actual handling of pyrotechnics, real or simulated, where applicable;

(F) demonstration in the use of the life-rafts where fitted. In the case of helicopters involved in extended over water operations, demonstration and use of the life-rafts.

Helicopter water survival training

Where life-rafts are fitted for helicopter extended overwater operations (such as sea pilot transfer, offshore operations, regular, or scheduled, coast-to-coast overwater operations), a comprehensive wet drill to cover all ditching procedures should be practised by aircraft crew. This wet drill should include, as appropriate, practice of the actual donning and inflation of a life-jacket, together with a demonstration or audio-visual presentation of the inflation of life-rafts. Crews should board the same (or similar) life-rafts from the water whilst wearing a life-jacket. Training should include the use of all survival equipment carried on board life-rafts and any additional survival equipment carried separately on board the aircraft;

consideration should be given to the provision of further specialist training such as underwater escape training. Where operations are predominately conducted offshore, operators should conduct 3-yearly helicopter underwater escape training at an appropriate facility;

wet practice drill should always be given in initial training unless the crew member concerned has received similar training provided by another operator;

(G) particularly in the case where no cabin crew is required, first-aid, appropriate to the aircraft type, the kind of operation and crew complement.

(iv) The successful resolution of aircraft emergencies requires interaction between flight crew and cabin/technical crew and emphasis should be placed on the importance of effective coordination and two-way communication between all crew members in various emergency situations.

(v) Emergency and safety equipment training should include joint practice in aircraft evacuations so that all who are involved are aware of the duties other crew members should perform. When such practice is not possible, combined flight crew and cabin/technical crew training should include joint discussion of emergency scenarios.

(vi) Emergency and safety equipment training should, as far as practicable, take place in conjunction with cabin/technical crew undergoing similar training with emphasis on coordinated procedures and two-way communication between the flight crew compartment and the cabin.

(3) CRM

Elements of CRM training, as specified in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.FC.115, should be integrated into all appropriate phases of recurrent training.

(4) Aircraft/FSTD training

(i) General

(A) The aircraft/FSTD training programme should be established in a way that all major failures of aircraft systems and associated procedures will have been covered in the preceding 3 year period.

(B) When engine-out manoeuvres are carried out in an aircraft, the engine failure should be simulated.

(C) Aircraft/FSTD training may be combined with the operator proficiency check.

(D) When the aircraft/FSTD training is conducted within 3 calendar months prior to the expiry of the 12 calendar months period, the next aircraft/FSTD training should be completed within 12 calendar months of the original expiry date of the previous training.

(ii) Helicopters

(A) Where a suitable FSTD is available, it should be used for the aircraft/FSTD training programme. If the operator is able to demonstrate, on the basis of a compliance and risk assessment, that using an aircraft for this training provides equivalent standards of training with safety levels similar to those achieved using an FSTD, the aircraft may be used for this training to the extent necessary.

(B) The recurrent training should include the following additional items, which should be completed in an FSTD:

             settling with power and vortex ring;

             loss of tail rotor effectiveness.

(5) For operations with other-than-complex motor-powered aeroplanes, all training and checking should be relevant to the type of operation and class of aeroplane on which the flight crew member operates with due account taken of any specialised equipment used.

(b) Recurrent checking

Recurrent checking should comprise the following:

(1) Operator proficiency checks

(i) Aeroplanes

Where applicable, operator proficiency checks should include the following manoeuvres as pilot flying:

(A) rejected take-off when an FSTD is available to represent that specific aeroplane, otherwise touch drills only;

(B) take-off with engine failure between V1 and V2 (take-off safety speed) or, if carried out in an aeroplane, at a safe speed above V2;

(C) 3D approach operation to minima with, in the case of multi-engine aeroplanes, one-engine-inoperative;

(D) 2D approach operation to minima;

(E) at least one of the 3D or 2D approach operations should be an RNP APCH or RNP AR APCH operation;

(F) missed approach on instruments from minima with, in the case of multi-engined aeroplanes, one-engine-inoperative;

(G) landing with one-engine-inoperative. For single-engine aeroplanes a practice forced landing is required.

(ii) Helicopters

(A) Where applicable, operator proficiency checks should include the following abnormal/emergency procedures:

             engine fire;

             fuselage fire;

             emergency operation of under carriage;

             fuel dumping;

             engine failure and relight;

             hydraulic failure;

             electrical failure;

             engine failure during take-off before decision point;

             engine failure during take-off after decision point;

             engine failure during landing before decision point;

             engine failure during landing after decision point;

             flight and engine control system malfunctions;

             recovery from unusual attitudes;

             landing with one or more engine(s) inoperative;

             instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) autorotation techniques;

             autorotation to a designated area;

             pilot incapacitation;

             directional control failures and malfunctions.

(B) For pilots required to engage in IFR operations, proficiency checks include the following additional abnormal/emergency procedures:

             3D approach operation to minima;

             go-around on instruments from minima with, in the case of multi-engined helicopters, a simulated failure of one engine;

             2D approach operation to minima;

             at least one of the 3D or 2D approach operations should be an RNP APCH or RNP AR APCH operation;

             in the case of multi-engined helicopters, a simulated failure of one engine to be included in either the 3D or 2D approach operation to minima;

             landing with a simulated failure of one or more engines;

             where appropriate to the helicopter type, approach with flight control system/flight director system malfunctions, flight instrument and navigation equipment failures.

(C) Before a flight crew member without a valid instrument rating is allowed to operate in VMC at night, he/she should be required to undergo a proficiency check at night. Thereafter, each second proficiency check should be conducted at night.

(iii) Once every 12 months the checks prescribed in (b)(1)(ii)(A) may be combined with the proficiency check for revalidation or renewal of the aircraft type rating.

(iv) Operator proficiency checks should be conducted by a type rating examiner (TRE) or a synthetic flight examiner (SFE), as applicable.

(2) Emergency and safety equipment checks

The items to be checked should be those for which training has been carried out in accordance with (a)(2).

(3) Line checks

(i) Line checks should establish the ability to perform satisfactorily a complete line operation, including pre-flight and post-flight procedures and use of the equipment provided, as specified in the operations manual. The route chosen should be such as to give adequate representation of the scope of a pilot’s normal operations. When weather conditions preclude a manual landing, an automatic landing is acceptable. The commander, or any pilot who may be required to relieve the commander, should also demonstrate his/her ability to ‘manage’ the operation and take appropriate command decisions.

(ii) The flight crew should be assessed on their CRM skills in accordance with the methodology described in AMC1 ORO.FC.115 and as specified in the operations manual.

(iii) CRM assessment should not be used as a reason for a failure of the line check, unless the observed behaviour could lead to an unacceptable reduction in safety margin.

(iv) When pilots are assigned duties as pilot flying and pilot monitoring, they should be checked in both functions.

(v) Line checks should be conducted by a commander nominated by the operator. The operator should inform the competent authority about the persons nominated. The person conducting the line check should occupy an observer’s seat where installed. His/her CRM assessments should solely be based on observations made during the initial briefing, cabin briefing, flight crew compartment briefing and those phases where he/she occupies the observer’s seat.

(A) For aeroplanes, in the case of long haul operations where additional operating flight crew are carried, the person may fulfil the function of a cruise relief pilot and should not occupy either pilot’s seat during take-off, departure, initial cruise, descent, approach and landing.

(vi) Where a pilot is required to operate as pilot flying and pilot monitoring, he/she should be checked on one flight sector as pilot flying and on another flight sector as pilot monitoring. However, where the operator’s procedures require integrated flight preparation, integrated cockpit initialisation and that each pilot performs both flying and monitoring duties on the same sector, then the line check may be performed on a single flight sector.

(4) When the operator proficiency check, line check or emergency and safety equipment check are undertaken within the final 3 calendar months of validity of a previous check, the period of validity of the subsequent check should be counted from the expiry date of the previous check.

(5) In the case of single-pilot operations with helicopters, the recurrent checks referred to in (b)(1), (2) and (3) should be performed in the single-pilot role on a particular helicopter type in an environment representative of the operation.

(c) Flight crew incapacitation training, except single-pilot operations

(1) Procedures should be established to train flight crew to recognise and handle flight crew incapacitation. This training should be conducted every year and can form part of other recurrent training. It should take the form of classroom instruction, discussion, audio-visual presentation or other similar means.

(2) If an FSTD is available for the type of aircraft operated, practical training on flight crew incapacitation should be carried out at intervals not exceeding 3 years.

(d) Personnel providing training and checking

Training and checking should be provided by the following personnel:

(1) ground and refresher training by suitably qualified personnel;

(2) flight training by a flight instructor (FI), type rating instructor (TRI) or class rating instructor (CRI) or, in the case of the FSTD content, a synthetic flight instructor (SFI), providing that the FI, TRI, CRI or SFI satisfies the operator's experience and knowledge requirements sufficient to instruct on the items specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i)(A) and (B);

(3) emergency and safety equipment training by suitably qualified personnel;

(4) CRM:

(i) integration of CRM elements into all the phases of the recurrent training by all the personnel conducting recurrent training. The operator should ensure that all personnel conducting recurrent training are suitably qualified to integrate elements of CRM into this training;

(ii) classroom CRM training by at least one CRM trainer, qualified as specified in AMC3 ORO.FC.115 who may be assisted by experts in order to address specific areas.

(5) recurrent checking by the following personnel:

(i) operator proficiency check by a type rating examiner (TRE), class rating examiner (CRE) or, if the check is conducted in an FSTD, a TRE, CRE or a synthetic flight examiner (SFE), trained in CRM concepts and the assessment of CRM skills.

(ii) emergency and safety equipment checking by suitably qualified personnel.

(e) Use of FSTD

(1) Training and checking provide an opportunity to practice abnormal/emergency procedures that rarely arise in normal operations and should be part of a structured programme of recurrent training. This should be carried out in an FSTD whenever possible.

(2) The line check should be performed in the aircraft. All other training and checking should be performed in an FSTD, or, if it is not reasonably practicable to gain access to such devices, in an aircraft of the same type or in the case of emergency and safety equipment training, in a representative training device. The type of equipment used for training and checking should be representative of the instrumentation, equipment and layout of the aircraft type operated by the flight crew member.

(3) Because of the unacceptable risk when simulating emergencies such as engine failure, icing problems, certain types of engine(s) (e.g. during continued take-off or go-around, total hydraulic failure), or because of environmental considerations associated with some emergencies (e.g. fuel dumping) these emergencies should preferably be covered in an FSTD. If no FSTD is available, these emergencies may be covered in the aircraft using a safe airborne simulation, bearing in mind the effect of any subsequent failure, and the exercise must be preceded by a comprehensive briefing.

[AMC1 ORO.FC.230 applicable until 25 March 2023 — ED Decision 2022/014/R]

RECURRENT TRAINING AND CHECKING SYLLABUS

(a) Recurrent training

Recurrent training should comprise the following:

(1) Ground training

(i) The ground training programme should include:

(A) aircraft systems;

(B) normal procedures, which include flight planning and ground-handling and flight operations, including performance, mass and balance, fuel schemes, selection of alternates, and ground de-icing/anti-icing;

(C) abnormal and emergency procedures, which include pilot incapacitation as applicable;

(D) a review of relevant samples of accident/incident and occurrences to increase awareness of the occurrences that may be relevant for the intended operation.

(ii) Knowledge of the ground training should be verified by a questionnaire or other suitable methods.

(2) Emergency and safety equipment training

(i) Emergency and safety equipment training may be combined with emergency and safety equipment checking and should be conducted in an aircraft or a suitable alternative training device.

(ii) Every year the emergency and safety equipment training programme should include the following:

(A) actual donning of a life-jacket, where fitted;

(B) actual donning of protective breathing equipment, where fitted;

(C) actual handling of fire extinguishers of the type used;

(D) instruction on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried on the aircraft;

(E) instruction on the location and use of all types of exits;

(F) security procedures.

(iii) Every 3 years the programme of training should include the following:

(A) actual operation of all types of exits;

(B) demonstration of the method used to operate a slide where fitted;

(C) actual fire-fighting using equipment representative of that carried in the aircraft on an actual or simulated fire except that, with Halon extinguishers, an alternative extinguisher may be used;

(D) the effects of smoke in an enclosed area and actual use of all relevant equipment in a simulated smoke-filled environment;

(E) actual handling of pyrotechnics, real or simulated, where applicable;

(F) demonstration in the use of the life-rafts where fitted. In the case of helicopters involved in extended over water operations, demonstration and use of the life-rafts.

Helicopter water survival training

Where life-rafts are fitted for helicopter extended overwater operations (such as sea pilot transfer, offshore operations, regular, or scheduled, coast-to-coast overwater operations), a comprehensive wet drill to cover all ditching procedures should be practised by aircraft crew. This wet drill should include, as appropriate, practice of the actual donning and inflation of a life-jacket, together with a demonstration or audio-visual presentation of the inflation of life-rafts. Crews should board the same (or similar) life-rafts from the water whilst wearing a life-jacket. Training should include the use of all survival equipment carried on board life-rafts and any additional survival equipment carried separately on board the aircraft;

             consideration should be given to the provision of further specialist training such as underwater escape training. Where operations are predominately conducted offshore, operators should conduct 3-yearly helicopter underwater escape training at an appropriate facility;

             wet practice drill should always be given in initial training unless the crew member concerned has received similar training provided by another operator;

(G) particularly in the case where no cabin crew is required, first-aid, appropriate to the aircraft type, the kind of operation and crew complement.

(iv) The successful resolution of aircraft emergencies requires interaction between flight crew and cabin/technical crew and emphasis should be placed on the importance of effective coordination and two-way communication between all crew members in various emergency situations.

(v) Emergency and safety equipment training should include joint practice in aircraft evacuations so that all who are involved are aware of the duties other crew members should perform. When such practice is not possible, combined flight crew and cabin/technical crew training should include joint discussion of emergency scenarios.

(vi) Emergency and safety equipment training should, as far as practicable, take place in conjunction with cabin/technical crew undergoing similar training with emphasis on coordinated procedures and two-way communication between the flight crew compartment and the cabin.

(3) CRM

Elements of CRM training, as specified in Table 1 of AMC1 ORO.FC.115, should be integrated into all appropriate phases of recurrent training.

(4) Aircraft/FSTD training

(i) General

(A) The aircraft/FSTD training programme should be established in a way that all major failures of aircraft systems and associated procedures will have been trained in the preceding 3-year period.

(B) When engine-out manoeuvres are carried out in an aircraft, the engine failure should be simulated.

(C) The recurrent aircraft/FSTD training of a single task or manoeuvre should be separate from, and should not take place at the same time as, an operator proficiency check of the item.

(ii) Helicopters

(A) If the operator is able to demonstrate, on the basis of a compliance and risk assessment, that alternating the use of an FSTD with the use of an aircraft for this training provides equivalent standards of training with safety levels similar to those achieved using an FSTD, the aircraft may be used (alternating with the use of an FSTD) for this training to the extent necessary.

(B) Where a suitable FSTD is available and accessible, it should be used to complete the following additional items:

             settling with power and vortex ring;

             loss of tail rotor effectiveness.

(5) For operations with other-than-complex motor-powered aeroplanes, all training and checking should be relevant to the type of operation and class of aeroplane on which the flight crew member operates with due account taken of any specialised equipment used.

(b) Recurrent checking

Recurrent checking should comprise the following:

(1) Operator proficiency checks

(i) Aeroplanes

 Operator proficiency checks should take place as part of the normal crew complement and should include, where applicable, the following manoeuvres as pilot flying:

(A) rejected take-off when an FSTD is available to represent that specific aeroplane, otherwise touch drills only;

(B) take-off with engine failure between V1 and V2 (take-off safety speed) or, if carried out in an aeroplane, at a safe speed above V2;

(C) 3D approach operation to minima with, in the case of multi-engined aeroplanes, one-engine-inoperative;

(D) 2D approach operation to minima;

(E) at least one of the 3D or 2D approach operations should be an RNP APCH or RNP AR APCH operation;

(F) missed approach on instruments from minima with, in the case of multi-engined aeroplanes, one-engine-inoperative;

(G) landing with one-engine-inoperative. For single-engined aeroplanes, a practice forced landing is required.

(ii) Helicopters

(A) The aircraft/FSTD checking programme should be established in a way that all major failures of aircraft systems and associated procedures will have been checked in the preceding 3-year period.

The operator should define which failures are major for the purpose of the operator proficiency check based on a risk assessment, taking the following into account:

(a) cautions or warnings associated with the failure;

(b) the criticality of the situation or failure;

(c) the outcome of the procedure (land immediately or as soon as possible as opposed to land as soon as practical);

(d) when available, manufacturer documentation; and

(e) the list of abnormal/emergency procedures described in point (e)(1) of AMC1 ORO.FC.220.

In addition, for single-engined helicopters, each operator proficiency check should include at least the following procedures:

(f) engine failure;

(g) directional control failures and malfunctions; and

(h) hydraulic failure as applicable.

(B) When a group of single-engine turbine or single-engine piston helicopter types is defined for the purpose of extending the validity of the operator proficiency check, all major system failures should nevertheless be checked on every type within a 3-year cycle unless credits related to the training, checking and recent experience requirements are defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 for the relevant types or variants.

(C) For pilots required to engage in IFR operations, proficiency checks include the following additional normal/abnormal/emergency procedures:

             3D approach operation to minima;

             go-around on instruments;

             2D approach operation to minima;

             if relevant, at least one of the 3D or 2D approach operations should be an RNP APCH or RNP AR APCH operation;

             in the case of multi-engined helicopters, a simulated failure of one engine to be included in either the 3D or 2D approach operation to minima;

             where appropriate to the helicopter type, approach with flight control system/flight director system malfunctions, flight instrument and navigation equipment failures.

(D) Before a flight crew member without a valid instrument rating is allowed to operate in VMC at night, they should be required to undergo a proficiency check at night. Thereafter, each second proficiency check should be conducted at night.

(E) Operator proficiency checks should be conducted with two qualified pilots in multi-pilot operations, and one qualified pilot in single-pilot operations. A pilot flying both single-pilot and multi-pilot operations should be checked in multi-pilot conditions with the essential malfunctions or manoeuvres below being also checked in the single-pilot role:

(a) at least two abnormal or emergency manoeuvres relevant to the type based on a risk assessment;

(b) one instrument approach for IFR operations.

(F) The flight crew should be assessed on their CRM skills in accordance with the methodology described in AMC1 and AMC2 ORO.FC.115 and as specified in the operations manual.

(G) If the operator is able to demonstrate, on the basis of a compliance and risk assessment, that alternating the use of an FSTD with the use of an aircraft for this training provides equivalent standards of checking with safety levels similar to those achieved using an FSTD, the aircraft may be used (alternating with the use of an FSTD) for this checking to the extent necessary.

(iii) The checks prescribed in (b)(1) may be combined with the skill test or proficiency check required for the issue, the revalidation or renewal of the aircraft type rating and with the skill test required for the issue of the ATPL licence.

(2) Emergency and safety equipment checks

The items to be checked should be those for which training has been carried out in accordance with (a)(2).

(3) Line checks

(i) A line check should establish the ability to perform satisfactorily a complete line operation, including pre-flight and post-flight procedures and use of the equipment provided, as specified in the operations manual. The route chosen should be such as to give adequate representation of the scope of a pilot’s normal operations. When weather conditions preclude a manual landing, an automatic landing is acceptable. The commander, or any pilot who may be required to relieve the commander, should also demonstrate their ability to ‘manage’ the operation and take appropriate command decisions.

(ii) The flight crew should be assessed on their CRM skills in accordance with the methodology described in AMC1 ORO.FC.115 and as specified in the operations manual.

(iii) CRM assessment should not be used as a reason for a failure of the line check, unless the observed behaviour could lead to an unacceptable reduction in safety margin.

(iv) When pilots are assigned duties as pilot flying and pilot monitoring, they should be checked in both functions.

(v) A line check should be conducted by a commander nominated by the operator. The operator should maintain a list of nominated commanders and inform the competent authority about the persons nominated. The person conducting the line check should occupy an observer’s seat where installed.

(A) For aeroplanes, in the case of long-haul operations where additional operating flight crew are carried, the person conducting the line check may fulfil the function of a cruise relief pilot and should not occupy either pilot’s seat during take-off, departure, initial cruise, descent, approach and landing.

(B) If an observer’s seat is not installed but a forward-facing passenger seat allows a good view and sound of the cockpit and the crew, this seat should be used as an observer’s seat.

(C) If an observer’s seat is not available and cannot be installed, the commander nominated by the operator should occupy a pilot seat to conduct the line check.

(vi) CRM assessment during the line check

(A) The CRM assessment taking place during the line check should be solely based on observations made during the initial briefing, cabin briefing, flight crew compartment briefing and those phases where the line checker occupies the observer’s seat.

(B) If an observer’s seat is not available and cannot be installed, then the operator should define the best way to assess CRM taking into account the CRM principles above.

(vii) Complementary CRM assessment

 If a suitable FSTD is available and accessible for operator proficiency checks or FSTD training, then a CRM assessment should take place in a line-oriented flight scenario (LOFT or line-oriented section of the OPC) of an FSTD session. This assessment complements the CRM assessment taking place during the line check, but is not part of the line check.

(viii) Where a pilot is required to operate as pilot flying and pilot monitoring, they should be checked on one flight sector as pilot flying and on another flight sector as pilot monitoring.

(4) In the case of single-pilot operations, the recurrent checks referred to in (b)(1) and (3) should be performed in the single-pilot role in an environment representative of the operation.

(c) Flight crew incapacitation training, except single-pilot operations

(1) Procedures should be established to train flight crew to recognise and handle flight crew incapacitation. This training should be conducted every year and can form part of other recurrent training. It should take the form of classroom instruction, discussion, audio-visual presentation or other similar means.

(2) If an FSTD is available for the type of aircraft operated, practical training on flight crew incapacitation should be carried out at intervals not exceeding 3 years.

(d) Use of FSTD

(1) Training and checking provide an opportunity to practise abnormal/emergency procedures that rarely arise in normal operations and should be part of a structured programme of recurrent training. This should be carried out in an FSTD when available and accessible.

(2) The line check should be performed in the aircraft. All other training and checking should be performed in an FSTD, or, if it is not reasonably practicable to gain access to such devices, in an aircraft of the same type or in the case of emergency and safety equipment training, in a representative training device. The type of equipment used for training and checking should be representative of the instrumentation, equipment and layout of the aircraft type operated by the flight crew member.

(3) Because of the unacceptable risk when simulating emergencies such as engine failure, icing problems, certain types of engine(s) (e.g. during continued take-off or go-around, total hydraulic failure), or because of environmental considerations associated with some emergencies (e.g. fuel dumping) these emergencies should preferably be covered in an FSTD. If no FSTD is available, these emergencies may be covered in the aircraft using a safe airborne simulation, bearing in mind the effect of any subsequent failure, and the exercise must be preceded by a comprehensive briefing.

[AMC1 ORO.FC.230 applicable from 26 March 2023]

FLIGHT ENGINEERS

(a) The recurrent training and checking for flight engineers should meet the requirements for pilots and any additional specific duties, omitting those items that do not apply to flight engineers.

(b) Recurrent training and checking for flight engineers should, whenever possible, take place concurrently with a pilot undergoing recurrent training and checking.

(c) The line check should be conducted by a commander or by a flight engineer nominated by the operator, in accordance with national rules, if applicable.

TRAINING PROGRAMMES

The operator should ensure that training programmes include the relevant de-identified feedback from the management system, including occurrence reporting and flight data monitoring programmes.

[applicable from 26 March 2023]

LINE CHECK AND PROFICIENCY TRAINING AND CHECKING

(a) Line checks, route and aerodrome knowledge and recent experience requirements are intended to ensure the crew member’s ability to operate efficiently under normal conditions, whereas other checks and emergency and safety equipment training are primarily intended to prepare the crew member for abnormal/emergency procedures.

(b) The line check is considered a particularly important factor in the development, maintenance and refinement of high operating standards, and can provide the operator with a valuable indication of the usefulness of his/her training policy and methods. Line checks are a test of a flight crew member’s ability to perform a complete line operation, including pre-flight and post-flight procedures and use of the equipment provided, and an opportunity for an overall assessment of his/her ability to perform the duties required as specified in the operations manual. The line check is not intended to determine knowledge on any particular route.

[point (b) applicable until 25 March 2023 — ED Decision 2022/014/R]

(b) The line check is considered a particularly important factor in the development, maintenance and refinement of high operating standards, and can provide the operator with a valuable indication of the usefulness of its training policy and methods. Line checks are a test of a flight crew member’s ability to perform a complete line operation, including pre-flight and post-flight procedures and use of the equipment provided, and an opportunity for an overall assessment of their ability to perform the duties required as specified in the operations manual. The line check is not intended to determine knowledge on any particular route.

[point (b) applicable from 26 March 2023 — ED Decision 2022/014/R]

(c) Proficiency training and checking

When an FSTD is used, the opportunity should be taken, where possible, to use LOFT.

MAJOR FAILURES — HELICOPTERS

(d) The list of major failures as defined by the operator in AMC1 ORO.FC.230 for the purpose of training may be more extensive than the list covered in the 3-yearly operator proficiency checking programme for the following reasons:

(1) It may happen that several training elements are covered by a single check; and

(2) Certain complex system malfunctions are best explored under recurrent training, where the trainee will derive more benefit and training to proficiency is also employed.

[point (d) applicable from 26 March 2023 — ED Decision 2022/014/R]

MIXED EVIDENCE-BASED RECURRENT TRAINING AND CHECKING OF FLIGHT CREW CONDUCTED IN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICES (FSTDs)

ICAO has developed Doc 9995 ‘Manual of Evidence-based Training’, followed by the EASA EBT manual, which is intended to provide guidance to the competent authorities, operators and approved training organisations on the recurrent assessment and training of pilots by establishing a new methodology for the development and conduct of a recurrent assessment and training programme, titled evidence-based training (EBT).

ICAO Doc 9995 and the EASA EBT manual are the reference documents for operators seeking to implement mixed EBT. The purpose of this guidance material (GM) is to enable the implementation of mixed EBT according to the principles established in ICAO Doc 9995 and the EASA EBT manual in the context of the European regulatory framework.

In the current regulatory framework, it is possible to achieve mixed EBT implementation. Implementation of a mixed EBT programme means that some portion of the recurrent assessment and training is dedicated to the application of EBT. This includes the licence proficiency check (LPC) and the operator proficiency check (OPC).

As it is possible to combine LPC and OPC in ORO.FC, this GM is applicable to both checks. Therefore, the EBT programme described in this GM refers to the recurrent training and checking of flight crew, including LPCs and OPCs.

The EBT programme takes into account the differences between aircraft of different generations and the effect of these differences on training. The operator should acquire a thorough knowledge of ICAO Doc 9995 or the EASA EBT manual before implementing this GM. For applicability, see ICAO Doc 9995  or the EASA tables of applicable aeroplane/helicopter types by generation.

Mixed EBT programme

The operator may undertake implementation of the mixed EBT programme according to this GM. The ICAO table of assessment and training topics is defined in ICAO Doc 9995 Chapter 4.3.1 and in Appendices 2 to 7; the EASA EBT programme is defined in AMC2 to AMC7 to ORO.FC.232.

The mixed EBT programme provides operators with the flexibility to adapt programmes according to their specific risks.

The operator should contact the competent authority in order for them to assess the application of the process described in ICAO Doc 9995 or the EBT manual.

Personnel providing training and checking in EBT (Refers to AMC1 ORO.FC.230(d))

ICAO Doc 9995 Chapter 6, or EASA AMC1 and AMC2 to ORO.FC.146(c), contain(s) the guidance for the assessment and training of personnel involved in the conduct of EBT.

Equivalency of malfunctions (Refers to ICAO Doc 9995 Paragraph 3.8.3)

According to the concept of EASA and ICAO Doc 9995 Chapter 3.8.3, major failures reduce the capability of the aircraft or the ability of the crew to cope with operating conditions to the extent that there would be a significant reduction in functional capabilities, significant increase in crew workload or in conditions impairing crew efficiency.

Clusters of major failures of aircraft systems are determined by reference to malfunction characteristics and the underlying elements of crew performance required to manage them. Equivalency of malfunctions may be used to guide the operator towards the implementation of a mixed EBT programme according to AMC1 ORO.FC.230(a)(4)(i)(A) and ORO.FC.145(d).

Conduct of licence and operator proficiency checks

The EASA EBT programme described in ORO.FC.231 and the ICAO EBT programme described in ICAO Doc 9995 contains modules with three phases: the EVAL, the MT, and the SBT. In order to comply with the regulatory framework, in the mixed EBT programme the LPC and OPC requirements are fulfilled by a combination of the EVAL and the manoeuvres validation phase, which replaces the MT described in the EASA EBT programme or ICAO Doc 9995. The manoeuvres validation phase is defined in Section 2 below. This is a form of mixed EBT implementation, which is described as follows:

1. Evaluation phase: This includes check scenarios referred to in Part-FCL Appendix 9 within an approved mixed EBT programme.

 In order to facilitate the provision of simple and realistic scenarios in accordance with ICAO Doc 9995 Chapters 3.8 and 7.4, the EVAL is not intended to be a comprehensive assessment of all Part-FCL Appendix 9 items; nevertheless, the list below includes the items that should be included in the EVAL only.

 

Part-FCL or Part-ORO reference

Description

A

E

R

O

P

L

A

N

E

S

H

E

L

I

C

O

P

T

E

R

S

Part-FCL Appendix 9 Paragraph 6

The examiner may choose between different skill test or proficiency check scenarios containing simulated relevant operations developed and approved by the competent authority. Full-flight simulators and other training devices, when available, shall be used, as established in this Part.

A

E

R

O

P

L

A

N

E

S

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Paragraph 16 of section B

The test or check should be accomplished under instrument flight rules (IFRs), if instrument rating (IR) is included, and as far as possible be accomplished in a simulated commercial air transport environment. An essential element to be checked is the ability to plan and conduct the flight from routine briefing material.

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Item 1.4

 

Use of checklist prior to starting engines, starting procedures, radio and navigation equipment check, selection and setting of navigation and communication frequencies.

 

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Item 1.6

Before take-off checks.

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Item 3.8.1*

Adherence to departure and arrival routes and ATC instructions.

 

The starred item (*) shall be flown solely by reference to instruments. If this condition is not met during the skill test or proficiency check, the type rating will be restricted to VFR only.

H

E

L

I

C

O

P

T

E

R

S

Part-FCL Appendix 9 Paragraph 2 of section C

In case of proficiency check for an IR, the applicant shall pass section 5 of the proficiency check. Failure in more than three items will require the applicant to take the entire section 5 again. An applicant failing not more than three items shall take the failed items again. Failure in any item of the re-check or failure in any other items of section 5 already passed will require the applicant to take the entire check again.

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Item 1.3.

Starting procedures, radio and navigation equipment check, selection and setting of navigation and communication frequencies

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Item 1.4

Taxiing/air taxiing in compliance with air traffic control instructions or with instructions of an instructor

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Item 1.5

Pre-take-off procedures and checks

Part-FCL Appendix 9

Item 5.2*

Adherence to departure and arrival routes and ATC instructions

 

The starred item (*) shall be flown solely by reference to instruments. If this condition is not met during the skill test or proficiency check, the type rating will be restricted to VFR only.

2. Manoeuvres validation phase: The purpose of the manoeuvres validation phase is to check the handling skills necessary to fly critical flight manoeuvres so that they are maintained to a defined level of proficiency. This replaces the MT described in ICAO Doc 9995 Chapter 7.5 and ORO.FC.231(a)(2)(iv)(B)(a). Manoeuvres in this context are not part of the line-orientated flight scenario; they are a sequence of deliberate actions to achieve a prescribed flight path or to perform a prescribed event to a prescribed outcome. All remaining items listed in Part-FCL Appendix 9, and not included in the EVAL, should be included here. The manoeuvres listed in Doc 9995 or the EASA table of assessment and training topics for the MT that do not form part of the Part-FCL Appendix 9 mandatory items may be trained after the manoeuvres validation phase.

3. Scenario-based training phase: The purpose of the SBT is to further develop pilot core competencies in a learning environment. This does not form part of any LPC or OPC requirement.

It should be noted that if the operator is following an alternative means of compliance to ORO.FC.230 (b) Operator proficiency check, the equivalence of using EBT evaluation and manoeuvres validation phases may no longer exist.

Conduct of CRM assessment

The operator is advised to use the EBT grading system (AMC1 ORO.FC.231(d)(1)) and the EBT competencies (AMC1 ORO.FC.231(b)) for the non-technical skills assessment.

Additional guidance on mixed EBT implementation is available in the EASA checklist ‘Oversight guidance for transition to Mixed EBT Implementation’.

ORO.FC.231 Evidence-based training

Regulation (EU) 2020/2036

(a) EBT PROGRAMME

(1) The operator may substitute the requirements of ORO.FC.230 by establishing, implementing and maintaining a suitable EBT programme approved by the competent authority.

 The operator shall demonstrate its capability to support the implementation of the EBT programme (including an implementation plan) and perform a safety risk assessment demonstrating how an equivalent level of safety is achieved.

(2) The EBT programme shall:

(i) correspond to the size of the operator, and the nature and complexity of its activities, taking into account the hazards and associated risks inherent in those activities;

(ii) ensure pilot competence by assessing and developing pilot competencies required for a safe, effective and efficient operation of aircraft;

(iii) ensure that each pilot is exposed to the assessment and training topics derived in accordance with ORO.FC.232;

(iv) include at least six EBT modules distributed across a 3-year programme; each EBT module shall consist of an evaluation phase and a training phase. The validity period of a EBT module shall be 12 months;

(A) The evaluation phase comprises a line-orientated flight scenario (or scenarios) to assess all competencies and identify individual training needs.

(B)  The training phase comprises:

(a) the manoeuvres training phase, comprising training to proficiency in certain defined manoeuvres;

(b) the scenario-based training phase, comprising a line-orientated flight scenario (or scenarios) to develop competencies and address individual training needs.

The training phase shall be conducted in a timely manner after the evaluation phase.

(3) The operator shall ensure that each pilot enrolled in the EBT programme completes:

(i) a minimum of two EBT modules within the validity period of the type rating, separated by a period of not less than 3 months. The EBT module is completed when:

(A) the content of the EBT programme is completed for that EBT module (exposure of the pilot to the assessment and training topics); and

(B) an acceptable level of performance in all observed competencies has been demonstrated;

(ii) line evaluation(s) of competence; and

(iii) ground training.

(4) The operator shall establish an EBT instructor standardisation and concordance assurance programme to ensure that the instructors involved in EBT are properly qualified to perform their tasks.

(i) All instructors must be subject to this programme;

(ii) The operator shall use appropriate methods and metrics to assess concordance;

(iii) The operator shall demonstrate that the instructors have sufficient concordance.

(5) The EBT programme may include contingency procedures for unforeseen circumstances that could affect the delivery of the EBT modules. The operator shall demonstrate the need for those procedures. The procedures shall ensure that a pilot does not continue line operations if the performance observed was below the minimum acceptable level. They may include:

(i) a different separation period between EBT modules; and

(ii) different order of the phases of the EBT module.

(b) COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK

The operator shall use a competency framework for all aspects of assessment and training within an EBT programme. The competency framework shall:

(1) be comprehensive, accurate, and usable;

(2) include observable behaviours required for safe, effective and efficient operations;

(3) include a defined set of competencies, their descriptions and their associated observable behaviours.

(c) TRAINING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

(1) The EBT system performance shall be measured and evaluated through a feedback process in order to:

(i) validate and refine the operator’s EBT programme;

(ii) ascertain that the operator’s EBT programme develops pilot competencies.

(2) The feedback process shall be included in the operator’s management system.

(3) The operator shall develop procedures governing the protection of EBT data.

(d) GRADING SYSTEM

(1) The operator shall use a grading system to assess the pilot competencies. The grading system shall ensure:

(i) a sufficient level of detail to enable accurate and useful measurements of individual performance;

(ii) a performance criterion and a scale for each competency, with a point on the scale which determines the minimum acceptable level to be achieved for the conduct of line operations. The operator shall develop procedures to address low performance of the pilot;

(iii) data integrity;

(iv) data security.

(2) The operator shall verify at regular intervals the accuracy of the grading system against a criterion-referenced system.

(e) SUITABLE TRAINING DEVICES AND VOLUME OF HOURS TO COMPLETE THE OPERATOR’S EBT PROGRAMME

(1) Each EBT module shall be conducted in an FSTD with a qualification level adequate to ensure the correct delivery of the assessment and training topics.

(2) The operator shall provide a sufficient volume of hours in the suitable training device for the pilot to complete the operator’s EBT programme. The criteria to determine the volume of the EBT programme are as follows:

(i) The volume corresponds to the size and complexity of the EBT programme;

(ii) The volume is sufficient to complete the EBT programme;

(iii) The volume ensures an effective EBT programme taking into account the recommendations provided by ICAO, the Agency, and the competent authority;

(iv) The volume corresponds to the technology of the training devices used.

(f) EQUIVALENCY OF MALFUNCTIONS

(1) Each pilot shall receive assessment and training in the management of aircraft system malfunctions.

(2) Aircraft system malfunctions that place a significant demand on a proficient crew shall be organised by reference to the following characteristics:

(i) immediacy;

(ii) complexity;

(iii) degradation of aircraft control;

(iv) loss of instrumentation;

(v) management of consequences.

(3) Each pilot shall be exposed to at least one malfunction for each characteristic at the frequency determined by the table of assessment and training topics.

(4) Demonstrated proficiency in the management of one malfunction is considered equivalent to demonstrated proficiency in the management of other malfunctions with the same characteristics.

(g) EQUIVALENCY OF APPROACHES RELEVANT TO OPERATIONS

(1) The operator shall ensure that each pilot receives regular training in the conduct of approach types and approach methods relevant to operations.

(2) This training shall include approaches that place an additional demand on a proficient crew.

(3) This training shall include the approaches that require specific approval in accordance with Annex V (Part-SPA) to this Regulation.

(h) LINE EVALUATION OF COMPETENCE

(1) Each pilot shall periodically undertake a line evaluation of competence in an aircraft to demonstrate the safe, effective and efficient conduct of normal line operations described in the operations manual.

(2) The validity period of a line evaluation of competence shall be 12 months.

(3) The operator approved for EBT may, with the approval of the competent authority, extend the validity of the line evaluation of competence to:

(i) either 2 years, subject to a risk assessment;

(ii) or 3 years, subject to a feedback process for the monitoring of line operations which identifies threats to the operations, minimises the risks of such threats, and implements measures to manage human error in the operations.

(4) For successful completion of the line evaluation of competence, the pilot shall demonstrate an acceptable level of performance in all observed competencies.

(i) GROUND TRAINING

(1) Every 12 calendar months, each pilot shall undergo:

(i) technical ground training;

(ii) assessment and training on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried on the aircraft.

(2) The operator may, with the approval of the competent authority and subject to a risk assessment, extend the period of assessment and training on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried on the aircraft to 24 months.

EBT PROGRAMME SUITABILITY

An operator’s EBT programme is one in which:

(a) training is focused on development of competencies, rather than repetition of tasks;

(b) the development of the programme is based on data-driven EBT training topics with a link to the operator’s competency framework;

(c) training needs are addressed through training based on underlying competencies;

(d) the programme includes:

(1) an evaluation phase to identify training needs based on competencies and collect population-based data; to identify the training needs means, the root cause of the deficiency observed should be identified rather than the symptoms of the deficiency;

(2) a manoeuvres training phase (skill retention): to train skill-based manoeuvres (body memory actions). These manoeuvres should place a significant demand on a proficient pilot; and

(3) a scenario-based training phase to focus on identified training needs based on competencies rather than repetition of tasks;

(e) the programme includes the conduct of objective observations based on a competency framework, and documents evidence of the behaviour observed;

(f) there is a customisation of syllabi:

(1) The operator should describe in the operations manual the procedure to customise syllabi. It should include how to:

(i) select the example scenario elements within a training topic that should be included in the EBT programme; and

(ii) contextualise the example scenario elements based on the operator’s operational data (e.g. input from SMS, FDM programme, etc.) and training data.

(2) This customisation should be based on evidence both internal and external to the operator;

(g) performance is evaluated using a competency-based grading system;

(h) instructors grade competencies based on observable behaviours (OBs);

(i) instructors grade the pilot using a defined methodology — observe, record, classify and assess/evaluate (ORCA) is recommended;

(j) instructors have completed the EBT instructor standardisation;

(k) instructors have sufficient concordance based on defined criteria (instructor concordance assurance programme);

(l) the analysis of the pilot's performance is used to determine competency-based training needs;

(m) there is a range of teaching styles during simulator training to accommodate trainee learning needs; and

(n) facilitation techniques in debriefing are incorporated.

UPSET PREVENTION AND RECOVERY TRAINING (UPRT) FOR COMPLEX MOTOR-POWERED AEROPLANES WITH A MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL PASSENGER SEATING CONFIGURATION (MOPSC) OF MORE THAN 19

Operators approved for EBT should follow the provisions for upset prevention and recovery training (UPRT) contained in AMC1 ORO.FC.220&230 ‘Operator conversion training and checking & recurrent training and checking’. These provisions should be included in the tables of assessment and training topics detailed in ORO.FC.232.

PERSONNEL CONDUCTING ASSESSMENT AND PROVIDING TRAINING

(a) Ground and refresher training should be provided by suitably qualified personnel.

(b) For non-EBT assessment and training: flight training should be provided by a flight instructor (FI), type rating instructor (TRI) or class rating instructor (CRI) or, in the case of the FSTD content, a synthetic flight instructor (SFI). The FI, TRI, CRI or SFI should satisfy the operator's standardisation, experience and knowledge requirements.

(c) Emergency and safety equipment training should be provided by suitably qualified personnel.

(d) CRM training should be provided by an EBT instructor or, for the classroom CRM training, a CRM trainer.

(e) Additional personnel requirements are described in ORO.FC.146 and ORO.FC.231 and in the associated AMC and GM.

RECURRENT CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM)

Operators implementing EBT in accordance with ORO.FC.231 may demonstrate compliance with ORO.FC.115 by showing how the recurrent CRM requirements are integrated within the operator’s EBT programme. An example of how this may be done is provided in the safety promotion material of EASA (e.g. ‘EASA EBT manual´).

EBT PROGRAMME — TRANSITION FROM MIXED EBT

The operator may agree with the competent authority the transition measures from mixed EBT to EBT baseline, which may include amongst others that the 3-year programme may include one or more modules in mixed EBT and one or more modules in EBT baseline, provided that all assessment and training topics in ORO.FC.232 are completed in the 3-year programme.

CUSTOMISATION OF THE EBT PROGRAMME (SYLLABI)

(a) Syllabi can be customised at three different steps:

(1) The first step would be a syllabus for the whole pilots’ population (customisation only at type rating level and/or aircraft generation level). At this step, the operator customises the example scenario elements based on relevant operational data (safety management system, state safety plan, OSD, occurrences, manufacturer data, etc.), and the training topics within the module are the same (same syllabus). At this level, it may be necessary to have a different example scenario element for the different crews within the same module to ensure that pilots are exposed to surprise and unexpected events and thus avoid pilots knowing all the details of the simulator session beforehand.

(2) The second step would be a different syllabus or part of it for the different populations of pilots. For example, some parts of the syllabus are different for the co-pilot and the captain, or the syllabus is different for the B747 pilots or for the Airbus pilots, etc. At this step, the module or part of the module is different for each population; this may include a different example scenario element for each population (or a different training topic; however, the customisation at training topic level is more difficult to control).

(3) The third step would be syllabi tailored to the individual pilot (pilot customisation — individual syllabus). This step is linked to the procedures established for the tailored training and the additional training of the pilots following the VENN model.

(b) The procedure to describe the customisation of syllabi must be described in the OM. Customisation is based on evidence that can be gathered on three different levels, two from the inner loop, one from the outer loop.

(1) Inner loop

(i) Individual evidence based on training data (e.g. grading metrics, training reports, questionnaires, etc.), analysed either for an individual pilot or a group of pilots (for example, all co-pilots, all B747 pilots, all pilots flying an Airbus model, etc.).

(ii) Operator-specific evidence gathered through the safety management process in accordance with ORO.GEN.200.

(2) Outer loop

 Evidence gathered from external sources such as authorities (e.g. state safety plan, etc.), OEMs (e.g. OEBs, OSD, safety documentation such as getting to grip, etc.

EBT PROGRAMME

Further guidance on the EBT programme can be found in the EASA EBT manual.

EXPERIENCE IN MIXED EBT TO SUBSTITUTE ORO.FC.230

(a) The operator should have a minimum experience of 3 years of a mixed EBT programme. Note: More information on a mixed EBT programme is provided in GM1 ORO.FC.230(a);(b);(f) and in GM2 ORO.FC.A.245.

(b) The operator should demonstrate 2 years of an instructor concordance assurance programme.

(c) The operator should demonstrate 1 year of a valid equivalency of malfunctions.

(d) The operator should demonstrate 1 year of integration of the training data in the customisation of the EBT programme and SMS data for the contextualisation of the example scenario elements.

(e) The operator should demonstrate that there is a verification of the grading system and feedback is provided to the training system performance and to the instructor standardisation concordance assurance.

SUBSTITUTION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF ORO.FC.230

(f) One complete EBT module substitutes one operator proficiency check (OPC).

(g) The line evaluation of competence substitutes the line check.

EBT PROGRAMME AND ASSSESMENT AND TRAINING TOPICS — RESILIENCE

(a) Compliance with the table of assessment and training topics ensures that crews are presented with an array of realistic changing events that allow for resilience development purposes.

(b) The EBT programme should be designed observing the following principles for resilience development:

(1) Resilience, surprise, and unexpected events

  The EBT programme should be designed in such a way that in every cycle the simulator session (or part of it) allows variations so that the pilots are not familiar with the scenarios presented in the simulator session. Variations should be the focus of EBT programme design, and should not be left to the discretion of individual instructors, in order to preserve programme integrity and fairness.

(2) Resilience and decision-making (dilemma)

  The EBT programme should be designed in such a way that in every cycle the crews are exposed to a scenario where more than one possible and less than ideal solutions exist, with some unfavourable conditions attached to each solution.

VALIDITY OF THE EBT MODULE

(a) The validity period should be counted from the end of the month when the module was completed. When the module is undertaken within the last 3 months of the validity period, the new validity period should be counted from the original expiry date.

(b) In the context of ORO.FC.130 point (a), the pilot should have a valid module.

EBT PROGRAMME AND ASSSESMENT AND TRAINING TOPICS — RESILIENCE

(a) For resilience development, crews should be exposed to an array of realistic changing scenarios. The strategies developed by the crews whilst coping with different causes of action will create opportunities for resilience development.

(b) Resilience and surprise

 The operator may create a comprehensive list of scenarios to ensure that each crew is trained in different scenarios avoiding the same scenarios for all crews. This relates to training topic ‘surprise’ and to the customisation of the EBT programme.

(c) Resilience and unexpected events

 Exposing crews to rare, fortuitous, events may prepare crews to deal with other unexpected events. For instance, the table of assessment and training topics offers infrequent example scenario elements such as flying over ‘no fly zone’, etc. The operator may also take infrequent examples from occurrence reporting, or SMS, or manufacturer reports, etc. This relates to decision-making (PSD) — see OB 6.9 ‘Demonstrates resilience when encountering an unexpected event’.

(d) Dilemma

 The operator may create scenarios suitable for training of threat assessment, threat management processes and option generation, leading to an optimum decision-making process. At programme design, as in real life, one ‘correct answer’ should be avoided; instead, the EBT programme should offer the crews a number of less than ideal courses of actions; some with unfavourable conditions attached. This relates to decision-making (PSD) and to the contextualisation of the example scenario element.

EBT PROGRAMME —TRAINING PHASE — IN-SEAT INSTRUCTION (ISI)

(a) Effective monitoring and error detection are increasingly important when operating highly reliable automated aircraft.

(b) In-seat instruction may be used as a valuable tool to maintain and develop the training objectives of some of the training topics, such as skills of monitoring, cross-checking, error management, and recognition of mismanaged aircraft state.

EBT PROGRAMME — ORDER OF THE PHASES

The order of the phases is intended as follows:

(a) First, the EVAL; and

(b) Second, and in a timely manner after the EVAL, the training phases. The training phases are the MT and the SBT and may be delivered in any order.

Further guidance can be found in the EASA EBT manual.

EBT PROGRAMME — ENROLMENT

(a) Enrolment is when a flight crew member commences the first EBT module.

(b) A flight crew member is considered to leave the operator’s EBT programme (de-enrolled) when the operator is no longer responsible for the administrative action for the flight crew’s licence revalidation under an EBT programme.

(c) The operator should inform the flight crew members who fail to demonstrate an acceptable level of competence and leave the operator’s EBT programme (de-enrolled) that they should not exercise the privileges of that type rating.

MODULE SEPARATION BY A PERIOD OF NOT LESS THAN 3 MONTHS

(a) The separation begins when the first module finished (end of the training phase) and the second module begins (EVAL).

(b) When the operator decides to do more than two modules during the validity period of the type rating (approximately 1 year), the operator may count the 3 months of separation between the first and the third module if it so wishes.

(c) The separation of 3 months applies even between modules in different validity periods.

INSTRUCTOR CONCORDANCE ASSURANCE PROGRAMME (ICAP)

(a) The ICAP should be able to identify areas of weak concordance to drive improvement in the quality and validity of the grading system.

(b) The ICAP should be adapted to the size and complexity of the instructors’ group and the complexity of the operator’s EBT programme.

(c) Complex operators should include an ICAP-specific data analysis, demonstrating:

(1) instructor-group assessment homogeneity (agreement);

(2) instructor assessment accuracy (alignment).

(d) The operator should verify the concordance of the instructors:

(1) once every cycle;

(2) for a sufficient number of competency-grade combinations.

(e) The operator should establish procedures to address those instructors who do not meet the standards required.

(f) The operator should maintain a list with the EBT instructors qualified to deliver the EBT programme.

INSTRUCTOR CONCORDANCE ASSURANCE PROGRAMME (ICAP)

(a) Instructor concordance is a tool for continuous improvement of the EBT programme as data reliability results in a more accurate and effective training.

(b) The operator may have a more frequent, or even a continuous, assessment of concordance as it provides more opportunities to improve.

(c) Concordance standards are normally set by the operator; however, the competent authority may recommend criteria, as licences’ revalidation is performed under EBT.

(d) Individual instructor concordance may be verified:

(1) through uniform standardisation material where at least three different levels of performance are included and for all the competencies at a frequency of 72 months;

(2) by reference to the analysis of the data produced by the instructor every 12 months; normalisation may be necessary as there is no homogeneity of all EBT modules and the pilots that the instructor assessed; and

(e) Instructor-group assessment homogeneity (agreement) may be inferred from instructors who have observed the same content.

(f) Instructor assessment accuracy (alignment) may be inferred from comparing instructor assessments with an ‘assessment standard’ consisting of correctly identified competency(-ies) and correctly identified grade levels. Neither the competency(-ies) nor the grade level(s) may be communicated in advance to the instructors. The assessment standards may be set by consensus of a standards group, in order to guard against individual biases.

(g) When the operator uses a small group of instructors (e.g. 10), the data-driven concordance assurance programme may be directly integrated into the annual refresher training, removing the need for the above guidance.

(h) Operators with a complex group of instructors (e.g. a big rotation of instructors, subcontracted instructors, big number of instructors, many different fleets, etc.) may need to implement a more extensive concordance assessment system.

CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES FOR UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES THAT MAY AFFECT THE DELIVERY OF THE MODULE

(a) The operator should detail in the EBT programme the contingency procedures in the event of unforeseen circumstances that may affect the delivery of the module (e.g. long-term sick pilot).

(b) In case of unforeseen interruption of a module at any point, the missing parts of the module should be rescheduled.

(1) The pilot may continue line flying until the expiry of the validity period unless the performance observed was below the minimum acceptable level.

(2) If the interruption results in an instructor change, the operator should ensure that the instructor completing the module is provided with the details of the performance of the pilots.

(c) In case the pilot misses modules and does not meet the requirements of recent experience (FCL.060):

(1) when the pilot misses one module out of the two modules required, the EVAL of the missing module should be rescheduled before the pilot can resume line operations. The MT and SBT phases of the missing module should be completed 30 days after the EVAL or before the expiry date, whichever occurs first;

(2) when the pilot misses one module in the preceding 12 months but the pilot’s rating is expired by less than 3 months, the missing module should be rescheduled before the pilot can resume line operations;

(3) when the pilot misses one module in the preceding 12 months but the pilot’s rating is expired by longer than 3 months but shorter than 1 year, the missing module should be rescheduled. The evaluation should be delivered by an EBT instructor (or instructors) with examiner privileges before the pilot can resume line operations;

(4) when the pilot misses two modules and the pilot’s rating is valid:

(i) one module should be rescheduled before the pilot can resume line operations using an EBT instructor (or instructors) with examiner privileges; and

(ii) training topics B and C of the other module should be rescheduled before the expiry date.

In such case, the 3-month separation requirement between modules may not apply;

(5) when the pilot misses two modules and the pilot’s rating is expired by less than 1 year:

(i) one module should be rescheduled using an EBT instructor (or instructors) with examiner privileges; and

(ii) training topics B and C of the other module should be rescheduled before the pilot can resume line operations.

In such case, the period of 3-month separation between modules may not apply; and

(6) if the amount of time elapsed since the expiry of the rating is more than 1 year, the pilot is de-enrolled. AMC1 FCL.625(c) ‘IR — Validity, revalidation and renewal’ and AMC1 FCL.740(b)‘Validity and renewal of class and type ratings’ apply.

(d) In the case of other situations not covered by points (b) or (c), point (a) applies.

CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES — RATINGS RENEWAL

(a) The renewal of ratings (e.g. type rating or instrument rating) in EBT follows the Annex I (Part-FCL) to the Aircrew Regulation provisions (IRs and AMC) and is complemented with the provisions covered in AMC1 ORO.FC.231(a)(5). The ATO or the operator will determine the amount of training following Part-FCL; however, as EBT combines assessment and training, the following guidance is applicable:

(1) Expiry shorter than 3 months may not require additional training in Part-FCL. In EBT, the missing module is rescheduled with an EBT instructor. Following that, the EBT manager for the type rating may renew the licence without extra training, as the EBT programme is now completed (at least two modules in the last 12 months).

(2) In Part-FCL, when the expiry is longer than 3 months but shorter than 1 year, there need to be two training sessions. In EBT, there are two cases:

(i) One module is missing: the pilot must complete the missing module (two simulator sessions) before resuming line operations. Following that, the EBT manager for the type rating may renew the licence in accordance with Appendix 10 as the EBT programme is now completed (two modules in the last 12 months).

(ii) Two modules are missing: the pilot must complete one module (two simulator sessions) and training topics B and C of the other missing module (an extra simulator session) with a total of three simulator sessions. Training data is gathered in a short time period; therefore, an EBT instructor with examiner privilege is involved to ensure the proficiency of the pilot.

(b) In case of an expiry longer than 1 year, the requirements of Part-FCL will be followed and the proficiency checks will be performed in accordance with Appendix 9 as the EBT system may not have sufficient training data for the pilot.

Expiry longer than 1 year but shorter than 3 years: a minimum of three training sessions in which the most important malfunctions in the available system are covered plus a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 to renew the licence.

RECOMMENDED EBT COMPETENCIES (EASA COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK)

(a) The operator should include in its EBT programme at least the following competencies:

Application of knowledge (KNO)

Description:

Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of relevant information, operating instructions, aircraft systems and the operating environment

OB 0.1

Demonstrates practical and applicable knowledge of limitations and systems and their interaction

OB 0.2

Demonstrates the required knowledge of published operating instructions

OB 0.3 

 

Demonstrates knowledge of the physical environment, the air traffic environment and the operational infrastructure (including air traffic routings, weather, airports)

OB 0.4

Demonstrates appropriate knowledge of applicable legislation.

OB 0.5

Knows where to source required information

OB 0.6 

Demonstrates a positive interest in acquiring knowledge

OB 0.7 

Is able to apply knowledge effectively

Application of procedures and compliance with regulations (PRO)

Description:

Identifies and applies appropriate procedures in accordance with published operating instructions and applicable regulations

OB 1.1

Identifies where to find procedures and regulations

OB 1.2

Applies relevant operating instructions, procedures and techniques in a timely manner

OB 1.3

Follows SOPs unless a higher degree of safety dictates an appropriate deviation

OB 1.4

Operates aircraft systems and associated equipment correctly

OB 1.5

Monitors aircraft systems status

OB 1.6

Complies with applicable regulations

OB 1.7

Applies relevant procedural knowledge

Communication (COM)

Description:

Communicates through appropriate means in the operational environment, in both normal and non-normal situations

OB 2.1

Determines that the recipient is ready and able to receive information

OB 2.2

Selects appropriately what, when, how and with whom to communicate

OB 2.3

Conveys messages clearly, accurately and concisely

OB 2.4

Confirms that the recipient demonstrates understanding of important information

OB 2.5

Listens actively and demonstrates understanding when receiving information

OB 2.6

Asks relevant and effective questions

OB 2.7

Uses appropriate escalation in communication to resolve identified deviations

OB 2.8

Uses and interprets non-verbal communication in a manner appropriate to the organisational and social culture

OB 2.9

Adheres to standard radiotelephone phraseology and procedures

OB 2.10

Accurately reads, interprets, constructs and responds to datalink messages in English

Aeroplane flight path management — automation (FPA)

Description:

Controls the flight path through automation

OB 3.1

Uses appropriate flight management, guidance systems and automation, as installed and applicable to the conditions

OB 3.2

Monitors and detects deviations from the intended flight path and takes appropriate action

OB 3.3

Manages the flight path to achieve optimum operational performance

OB 3.4

Maintains the intended flight path during flight using automation whilst managing other tasks and distractions

OB 3.5

Selects appropriate level and mode of automation in a timely manner considering phase of flight and workload

OB 3.6

Effectively monitors automation, including engagement and automatic mode transitions

Aeroplane flight path management — manual control (FPM)

Description:

Controls the flight path through manual control

OB 4.1

Controls the aircraft manually with accuracy and smoothness as appropriate to the situation

OB 4.2

Monitors and detects deviations from the intended flight path and takes appropriate action

OB 4.3

Manually controls the aeroplane using the relationship between aeroplane attitude, speed and thrust, and navigation signals or visual information

OB 4.4

Manages the flight path to achieve optimum operational performance

OB 4.5

Maintains the intended flight path during manual flight whilst managing other tasks and distractions

OB 4.6

Uses appropriate flight management and guidance systems, as installed and applicable to the conditions

OB 4.7

Effectively monitors flight guidance systems including engagement and automatic mode transitions

Leadership & teamwork (LTW)

Description:

Influences others to contribute to a shared purpose. Collaborates to accomplish the goals of the team

OB 5.1

Encourages team participation and open communication

OB 5.2

Demonstrates initiative and provides direction when required

OB 5.3

Engages others in planning

OB 5.4

Considers inputs from others

OB 5.5

Gives and receives feedback constructively

OB 5.6

Addresses and resolves conflicts and disagreements in a constructive manner

OB 5.7

Exercises decisive leadership when required

OB 5.8

Accepts responsibility for decisions and actions

OB 5.9

Carries out instructions when directed

OB 5.10

Applies effective intervention strategies to resolve identified deviations

OB 5.11

Manages cultural and language challenges, as applicable

Problem-solving — decision-making (PSD)

Description: