NCO.OP.100 Use of aerodromes and operating sites

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall only use aerodromes and operating sites that are adequate for the type of aircraft and operation concerned.

NCO.OP.101 Altimeter check and settings

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) The pilot-in-command shall check the proper operation of the altimeter before each departure.

(b) The pilot-in-command shall use appropriate altimeter settings for all phases of flight, taking into account any procedure prescribed by the State of the aerodrome or the State of the airspace.

[applicable from 30 October 2022— Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

NCO.OP.105 Specification of isolated aerodromes – aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

For the selection of alternate aerodromes and the fuel policy, the pilot-in-command shall consider an aerodrome as an isolated aerodrome if the flying time to the nearest adequate destination alternate aerodrome is more than:

(a) for aeroplanes with reciprocating engines, 60 minutes; or

(b) for aeroplanes with turbine engines, 90 minutes.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

USE OF AN AERODROME AS AN ISOLATED AERODROME

The concept of an isolated aerodrome allows the operator to use aerodromes that would otherwise be impossible or impractical to use with sufficient fuel/energy to fly to the destination aerodrome and then to a destination alternate aerodrome, provided that operational criteria are used to ensure a safe-landing option, for example by specifying a point of no return (PNR). If alternate fuel/energy is carried, the operator is not required to consider the aerodrome isolated and use the aforementioned operational criteria.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

NCO.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 379/2014

(a) For instrument flight rules (IFR) flights, the pilot-in-command shall select and use aerodrome operating minima for each departure, destination and alternate aerodrome. Such minima shall:

(1) not be lower than those established by the State in which the aerodrome is located, except when specifically approved by that State; and

(2) when undertaking low visibility operations, be approved by the competent authority in accordance with Annex V (Part-SPA), Subpart E to Regulation (EU) No 965/2012.

(b) When selecting the aerodrome operating minima, the pilot-in-command shall take the following into account:

(1) the type, performance and handling characteristics of the aircraft;

(2) his/her competence and experience;

(3) the dimensions and characteristics of the runways and final approach and take-off areas (FATOs) that may be selected for use;

(4) the adequacy and performance of the available visual and non-visual ground aids;

(5) the equipment available on the aircraft for the purpose of navigation and/or control of the flight path, during the take-off, the approach, the flare, the landing, the rollout and the missed approach;

(6) the obstacles in the approach, the missed approach and the climb-out areas necessary for the execution of contingency procedures;

(7) the obstacle clearance altitude/height for the instrument approach procedures;

(8) the means to determine and report meteorological conditions; and

(9) the flight technique to be used during the final approach.

(c) The minima for a specific type of approach and landing procedure shall only be used if:

(1) the ground equipment required for the intended procedure is operative;

(2) the aircraft systems required for the type of approach are operative;

(3) the required aircraft performance criteria are met; and

(4) the pilot is qualified appropriately.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(a) For instrument flight rules (IFR) flights, the pilot-in-command shall establish aerodrome operating minima for each departure, destination or alternate aerodrome that is planned to be used in order to ensure separation of the aircraft from terrain and obstacles and to mitigate the risk of loss of visual references during the visual flight segment of instrument approach operations.

(b) The aerodrome operating minima shall take the following elements into account, if relevant:

(1) the type, performance, and handling characteristics of the aircraft;

(2) the equipment available on the aircraft for the purpose of navigation, acquisition of visual references, and/or control of the flight path during take-off, approach, landing, and missed approach;

(3) any conditions or limitations stated in the aircraft flight manual (AFM);

 (4) the dimensions and characteristics of the runways/final approach and take-off areas (FATOs) that may be selected for use;

(5) the adequacy and performance of the available visual and non-visual aids and infrastructure;

(6) the obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H) for the instrument approach procedures (IAPs), if established;

(7)  the obstacles in the climb-out areas and clearance margins;

(8) the competence and relevant operational experience of the pilot-in-command;

(9) the IAP, if established;

(10) the aerodrome characteristics and the type of air navigation services (ANS) available, if any;

(11) any minima that may be promulgated by the State of the aerodrome;

(12) the conditions prescribed in any specific approvals for low-visibility operations (LVOs) or operations with operational credits.

[applicable from 30 October 2022 Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

TAKE-OFF OPERATIONS

(a) General:

(1) Take-off minima should be expressed as visibility (VIS) or runway visual range (RVR) limits, taking into account all relevant factors for each aerodrome planned to be used and aircraft characteristics. Where there is a specific need to see and avoid obstacles on departure and/or for a forced landing, additional conditions, e.g. ceiling, it should be specified.

(2) When the reported meteorological visibility is below that required for take-off and RVR is not reported, a take-off should only be commenced if the pilot-in-command can determine that the visibility along the take-off runway/area is equal to or better than the required minimum.

(3) When no reported meteorological visibility or RVR is available, a take-off should only be commenced if the pilot-in-command can determine that the RVR/VIS along the take-off runway/area is equal to or better than the required minimum.

(b) Visual reference:

(1) The take-off minima should be selected to ensure sufficient guidance to control the aircraft in the event of both a rejected take-off in adverse circumstances and a continued take-off after failure of the critical engine.

(2) For night operations, ground lights should be available to illuminate the runway/final approach and take-off area (FATO) and any obstacles.

VISUAL APPROACH

For a visual approach operation, the RVR should not be less than 800 m.

EFFECT ON LANDING MINIMA OF TEMPORARILY FAILED OR DOWNGRADED GROUND EQUIPMENT

(a) Non-precision approaches requiring a final approach fix (FAF) and/or missed approach point (MAPt) should not be conducted where a method of identifying the appropriate fix is not available.

(b) A minimum RVR of 750 m should be used for CAT I approaches in the absence of centreline lines and/or touchdown zone lights.

(c) Where approach lighting is partly unavailable, minima should take account of the serviceable length of approach lighting.

COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE INFORMATION

An acceptable method of selecting aerodrome operating minima is through the use of commercially available information.

VERTICAL PATH CONTROL

Due consideration should be given to the selection of an appropriate technique for vertical path control on non-precision approaches (NPAs). Where appropriate instrumentation and/or facilities are available, a continuous descent final approach technique (CDFA) usually offers increased safety and a lower workload compared to a step-down approach.

CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING RVR/CMV

(a) In order to qualify for the lowest allowable values of RVR/CMV specified in Table 3.A, the instrument approach should meet at least the following facility requirements and associated conditions:

(1) Instrument approaches with designated vertical profile up to and including 4.5° for Category A and B aeroplanes, or 3.77° for Category C and D aeroplanes, where the facilities are:

(i) instrument landing system (ILS)/microwave landing system (MLS)/GBAS landing system (GLS)/precision approach radar (PAR); or

(ii) approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV); and

where the final approach track is offset by not more than 15° for Category A and B aeroplanes or by not more than 5° for Category C and D aeroplanes.

(2) Instrument approach operations flown using the CDFA technique with a nominal vertical profile, up to and including 4.5° for Category A and B aeroplanes, or 3.77° for Category C and D aeroplanes, where the facilities are non-directional beacon (NDB), NDB/distance measuring equipment (DME), VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR), VOR/DME, localiser (LOC), LOC/DME, VHF direction finder (VDF), surveillance radar approach (SRA) or global navigation satellite system (GNSS)/lateral navigation (LNAV), with a final approach segment of at least 3 NM, which also fulfil the following criteria:

(i) the final approach track is offset by not more than 15° for Category A and B aeroplanes or by not more than 5° for Category C and D aeroplanes;

(ii) the final approach fix (FAF) or another appropriate fix where descent is initiated is available, or distance to threshold (THR) is available by flight management system (FMS)/area navigation (NDB/DME) or DME; and

(iii) the missed approach point (MAPt) is determined by timing, the distance from FAF to THR is ≤ 8 NM.

(3) Instrument approaches where the facilities are NDB, NDB/DME, VOR, VOR/DME, LOC, LOC/DME, VDF, SRA or GNSS/LNAV, not fulfilling the criteria in (a)(2), or with an minimum descent height (MDH) ≥ 1 200 ft.

(b) The missed approach operation, after an approach operation has been flown using the CDFA technique, should be executed when reaching the decision height/altitude (DH/A) or the MAPt, whichever occurs first. The lateral part of the missed approach procedure should be flown via the MAPt unless otherwise stated on the approach chart.

DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV/VIS MINIMA FOR NPA, APV, CAT I — AEROPLANES

(a) The minimum RVR/CMV/VIS should be the highest of the values specified in Table 2 and Table 3.A but not greater than the maximum values specified in Table 3.A, where applicable.

(b) The values in Table 2 should be derived from the formula below:

required RVR/VIS (m) = [(DH/MDH (ft) x 0.3048) / tanα] – length of approach lights (m);

where α is the calculation angle, being a default value of 3.00° increasing in steps of 0.10° for each line in Table 2 up to 3.77° and then remaining constant.

(c) If the approach is flown with a level flight segment at or above MDA/H, 200 m should be added for Category A and B aeroplanes and 400 m for Category C and D aeroplanes to the minimum RVR/CMV/VIS value resulting from the application of Table 2 and Table 3.A.

(d) An RVR of less than 750 m, as indicated in Table 2, may be used:

(1) for CAT I operations to runways with full approach lighting system (FALS), runway touchdown zone lights (RTZL) and runway centreline lights (RCLL);

(2) for CAT I operations to runways without RTZL and RCLL when using an approved head-up guidance landing system (HUDLS), or equivalent approved system, or when conducting a coupled approach or flight-director-flown approach to a DH. The instrument landing system (ILS) should not be published as a restricted facility; and

(3) for approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV) operations to runways with FALS, RTZL and RCLL when using an approved head-up display (HUD).

(e) Lower values than those specified in Table 2 may be used for HUDLS and auto-land operations if approved in accordance with SPA.LVO.

(f) The visual aids should comprise standard runway day markings and approach and runway lights as specified in Table 1. The competent authority may approve that RVR values relevant to a basic approach lighting system (BALS) are used on runways where the approach lights are restricted in length below 210 m due to terrain or water, but where at least one cross-bar is available.

(g) For night operations or for any operation where credit for runway and approach lights is required, the lights should be on and serviceable, except as provided for in Table 1.

(h) For single-pilot operations, the minimum RVR/VIS should be calculated in accordance with the following additional criteria:

(1) an RVR of less than 800 m, as indicated in Table 2, may be used for CAT I approaches provided any of the following is used at least down to the applicable DH:

(i) a suitable autopilot, coupled to an ILS, microwave landing system (MLS) or GBAS landing system (GLS) that is not published as restricted; or

(ii) an approved HUDLS, including, where appropriate, enhanced vision system (EVS), or equivalent approved system;

(2) where RTZL and/or RCLL are not available, the minimum RVR/CMV should not be less than 600 m; and

(3) an RVR of less than 800 m, as indicated in Table 2, may be used for APV operations to runways with FALS, RTZL and RCLL when using an approved HUDLS, or equivalent approved system, or when conducting a coupled approach to a DH equal to or greater than 250 ft.

Table 1: Approach lighting systems

Class of lighting facility

Length, configuration and intensity of approach lights

FALS

CAT I lighting system (HIALS ≥ 720 m) distance coded centreline, Barrette centreline

IALS

Simple approach lighting system (HIALS 420 – 719 m) single source, Barrette

BALS

Any other approach lighting system (HIALS, MIALS or ALS 210 – 419 m)

NALS

Any other approach lighting system (HIALS, MIALS or ALS < 210 m) or no approach lights

Note:  HIALS: high intensity approach lighting system;

MIALS: medium intensity approach lighting system;

ALS: approach lighting system.

Table 2: RVR/CMV vs. DH/MDH

DH or MDH

Class of lighting facility

FALS

IALS

BALS

NALS

See (d), (e), (h). above for RVR < 750/800 m

ft

RVR/CMV (m)

200

-

210

550

750

1 000

1 200

211

-

220

550

800

1 000

1 200

221

-

230

550

800

1 000

1 200

231

-

240

550

800

1 000

1 200

241

-

250

550

800

1 000

1 300

251

-

260

600

800

1 100

1 300

261

-

280

600

900

1 100

1 300

281

-

300

650

900

1 200

1 400

301

-

320

700

1 000

1 200

1 400

321

-

340

800

1 100

1 300

1 500

341

-

360

900

1 200

1 400

1 600

361

-

380

1 000

1 300

1 500

1 700

381

-

400

1 100

1 400

1 600

1 800

401

-

420

1 200

1 500

1 700

1 900

421

-

440

1 300

1 600

1 800

2 000

441

-

460

1 400

1 700

1 900

2 100

461

-

480

1 500

1 800

2 000

2 200

481

 

500

1 500

1 800

2 100

2 300

501

-

520

1 600

1 900

2 100

2 400

521

-

540

1 700

2 000

2 200

2 400

541

-

560

1 800

2 100

2 300

2 500

561

-

580

1 900

2 200

2 400

2 600

581

-

600

2 000

2 300

2 500

2 700

601

-

620

2 100

2 400

2 600

2 800

621

-

640

2 200

2 500

2 700

2 900

641

-

660

2 300

2 600

2 800

3 000

661

-

680

2 400

2 700

2 900

3 100

681

-

700

2 500

2 800

3 000

3 200

701

-

720

2 600

2 900

3 100

3 300

721

-

740

2 700

3 000

3 200

3 400

741

-

760

2 700

3 000

3 300

3 500

761

-

800

2 900

3 200

3 400

3 600

801

-

850

3 100

3 400

3 600

3 800

851

-

900

3 300

3 600

3 800

4 000

901

-

950

3 600

3 900

4 100

4 300

951

-

1 000

3 800

4 100

4 300

4 500

1 001

-

1 100

4 100

4 400

4 600

4 900

1 101

-

1 200

4 600

4 900

5 000

5 000

1 201 and above

5 000

5 000

5 000

5 000

Table 3.A: CAT I, APV, NPA — aeroplanes

Minimum and maximum applicable RVR/CMV (lower and upper cut-off limits)

Facility/conditions

RVR/CMV (m)

Aeroplane category

A

B

C

D

ILS, MLS, GLS, PAR, GNSS/SBAS, GNSS/VNAV

Min

According to Table 2

Max

1 500

1 500

2 400

2 400

NDB, NDB/DME, VOR, VOR/DME, LOC, LOC/DME, VDF, SRA, GNSS/LNAV with a procedure that fulfils the criteria in GM3 NCO.OP.110(a)(2)

Min

750

750

750

750

Max

1 500

1 500

2 400

2 400

For NDB, NDB/DME, VOR, VOR/DME, LOC, LOC/DME, VDF, SRA, GNSS/LNAV:

             not fulfilling the criteria in GM3 NCO.OP.110(a)(2), or

             with a DH or MDH ≥ 1 200 ft

Min

1 000

1 000

1 200

1 200

Max

According to Table 2 if flown using the CDFA technique, otherwise an add-on of 200/400 m applies to the values in Table 2 but not to result in a value exceeding 5 000 m.

DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV/VIS MINIMA FOR NPA, CAT I — HELICOPTERS

(a) For non-precision approach (NPA) operations, the minima specified in Table 4.1.H should apply:

(1) where the missed approach point is within ½ NM of the landing threshold, the approach minima specified for FALS may be used regardless of the length of approach lights available. However, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights, end lights and FATO/runway markings are still required;

(2) for night operations, ground lights should be available to illuminate the FATO/runway and any obstacles; and

(3) for single-pilot operations, the minimum RVR is 800 m or the minima in Table 2, whichever is higher.

(b) For CAT I operations, the minima specified in Table 4.2.H should apply:

(1) for night operations, ground light should be available to illuminate the FATO/runway and any obstacles;

(2) for single-pilot operations, the minimum RVR/VIS should be calculated in accordance with the following additional criteria:

(i) an RVR of less than 800 m should not be used except when using a suitable autopilot coupled to an ILS, MLS or GLS, in which case normal minima apply; and

(ii) the DH applied should not be less than 1.25 times the minimum use height for the autopilot.

Table 4.1.H: Onshore NPA minima

MDH (ft) *

Facilities vs. RVR/CMV (m) **, ***

FALS

IALS

BALS

NALS

250 – 299

600

800

1 000

1 000

300 – 449

800

1 000

1 000

1 000

450 and above

1 000

1 000

1 000

1 000

*:  The MDH refers to the initial calculation of MDH. When selecting the associated RVR, there is no need to take account of a rounding up to the nearest 10 ft, which may be done for operational purposes, e.g. conversion to MDA.

**:  The tables are only applicable to conventional approaches with a nominal descent slope of not greater than 4°. Greater descent slopes will usually require that visual glide slope guidance (e.g. precision path approach indicator (PAPI)) is also visible at the MDH.

***:  FALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 720 m or more of high intensity/medium intensity (HI/MI) approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.

IALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 420  719 m of HI/MI approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.

BALS comprise FATO/runway markings, < 420 m of HI/MI approach lights, any length of low intensity (LI) approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.

NALs comprise FATO/runway markings, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights, FATO/runway end lights or no lights at all.

Table 4.2.H: Onshore CAT I minima

DH (ft) *

Facilities vs. RVR/CMV (m) **, ***

FALS

IALS

BALS

NALS

200

500

600

700

1 000

201 – 250

550

650

750

1 000

251 – 300

600

700

800

1 000

301 and above

750

800

900

1 000

*:  The DH refers to the initial calculation of DH. When selecting the associated RVR, there is no need to take account of a rounding up to the nearest 10 ft, which may be done for operational purposes, e.g. conversion to DA.

**:  The table is applicable to conventional approaches with a glide slope up to and including 4°.

***: FALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 720 m or more of HI/MI approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.

IALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 420 – 719 m of HI/MI approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.

BALS comprise FATO/runway markings, < 420 m of HI/MI approach lights, any length of LI approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.

NALS comprise FATO/runway markings, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights, FATO/runway end lights or no lights at all.

CONVERSION OF REPORTED METEOROLOGICAL VISIBILITY TO RVR/CMV

(a) A conversion from meteorological visibility to RVR/CMV should not be used:

(1) when reported RVR is available;

(2) for calculating take-off minima; and

(3) for other RVR minima less than 800 m.

(b) If the RVR is reported as being above the maximum value assessed by the aerodrome operator, e.g. ‘RVR more than 1 500 m’, it should not be considered as a reported value.

(c) For all other circumstances, Table 5 should be used.

Table 5: Conversion of reported meteorological visibility to RVR/CMV

Lighting elements in operation

RVR/CMV = reported meteorological visibility x

Day

Night

High intensity (HI) approach and runway lights

1.5

2.0

Any type of light installation other than above

1.0

1.5

No lights

1.0

not applicable

AIRCRAFT CATEGORIES

(a) Aircraft categories should be based on the indicated airspeed at threshold (VAT), which is equal to the stalling speed (VSO) multiplied by 1.3 or where published 1-g (gravity) stall speed (VS1g) multiplied by 1.23 in the landing configuration at the maximum certified landing mass. If both VSO and VS1g are available, the higher resulting VAT should be used.

(b) The aircraft categories specified in the Table 6 should be used.

Table 6: Aircraft categories corresponding to VAT values

Aircraft category

VAT

A

Less than 91 kt

B

from 91 to 120 kt

C

from 121 to 140 kt

D

from 141 to 165 kt

E

from 166 to 210 kt

CONTINUOUS DESCENT FINAL APPROACH (CDFA) — AEROPLANES

(a) Introduction

(1) Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a major hazard in aviation. Most CFIT accidents occur in the final approach segment of non-precision approaches; the use of stabilised-approach criteria on a continuous descent with a constant, predetermined vertical path is seen as a major improvement in safety during the conduct of such approaches. The following techniques are adopted as widely as possible, for all approaches.

(2) The elimination of level flight segments at MDA close to the ground during approaches, and the avoidance of major changes in attitude and power/thrust close to the runway that can destabilise approaches, are seen as ways to reduce operational risks significantly.

(3) The term CDFA has been selected to cover a flight technique for any type of NPA operation.

(4) The advantages of CDFA are as follows:

(i) the technique enhances safe approach operations by the utilisation of standard operating practices;

(ii) the technique is similar to that used when flying an ILS approach, including when executing the missed approach and the associated missed approach procedure manoeuvre;

(iii) the aeroplane attitude may enable better acquisition of visual cues;

(iv) the technique may reduce pilot workload;

(v) the approach profile is fuel efficient;

(vi) the approach profile affords reduced noise levels; and

(vii) the technique affords procedural integration with APV operations.

(b) CDFA

(1) Continuous descent final approach is defined in Annex I to the Regulation on Air operations.

(2) An approach is only suitable for application of a CDFA technique when it is flown along a nominal vertical profile; a nominal vertical profile is not forming part of the approach procedure design, but can be flown as a continuous descent. The nominal vertical profile information may be published or displayed on the approach chart to the pilot by depicting the nominal slope or range/distance vs. height. Approaches with a nominal vertical profile are considered to be:

(i) NDB, NDB/DME (non-directional beacon/distance measuring equipment);

(ii) VOR (VHF omnidirectional radio range), VOR/DME;

(iii) LOC (localiser), LOC/DME;

(iv) VDF (VHF direction finder), SRA (surveillance radar approach); and

(v) GNSS/LNAV (global navigation satellite system/lateral navigation).

(3) Stabilised approach (SAp) is defined in Annex I to the Regulation on Air operations.

(i) The control of the descent path is not the only consideration when using the CDFA technique. Control of the aeroplane’s configuration and energy is also vital to the safe conduct of an approach.

(ii) The control of the flight path, described above as one of the requirements for conducting an SAp, should not be confused with the path requirements for using the CDFA technique.

(iii) The predetermined approach slope requirements for applying the CDFA technique are established by the following:

(A) the published ‘nominal’ slope information when the approach has a nominal vertical profile; and

(B) the designated final-approach segment minimum of 3 NM, and maximum, when using timing techniques, of 8 NM.

(iv) An SAp will never have any level segment of flight at DA/H or MDA/H, as applicable. This enhances safety by mandating a prompt missed approach procedure manoeuvre at DA/H or MDA/H.

(v) An approach using the CDFA technique will always be flown as an SAp, since this is a requirement for applying CDFA. However, an SAp does not have to be flown using the CDFA technique, for example a visual approach.

ONSHORE AERODROME DEPARTURE PROCEDURES — HELICOPTERS

The cloud base and visibility should be such as to allow the helicopter to be clear of cloud at the take-off decision point (TDP), and for the pilot flying to remain in sight of the surface until reaching the minimum speed for flight in instrument meteorological conditions, as given in the AFM.

NCO.OP.111 Aerodrome operating minima — NPA, APV, CAT I operations

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The decision height (DH) to be used for a non-precision approach (NPA) flown with the continuous descent final approach (CDFA) technique, approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV) or category I (CAT I) operation shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the minimum height to which the approach aid can be used without the required visual reference;

(2) the obstacle clearance height (OCH) for the category of aircraft;

(3) the published approach procedure DH where applicable;

(4) the system minimum specified in Table 1; or

(5) the minimum DH specified in the AFM or equivalent document, if stated.

(b) The minimum descent height (MDH) for an NPA operation flown without the CDFA technique shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the OCH for the category of aircraft;

(2) the system minimum specified in Table 1; or

(3) the minimum MDH specified in the AFM, if stated.

Table 1

System minima

Facility

Lowest DH/MDH (ft)

Instrument landing system (ILS)

200

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS)/Satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) (Lateral precision with vertical guidance approach (LPV))

200

GNSS (Lateral Navigation (LNAV))

250

GNSS/Baro-vertical navigation (VNAV) (LNAV/VNAV)

250

Localiser (LOC) with or without distance measuring equipment (DME)

250

Surveillance radar approach (SRA) (terminating at ½ NM)

250

SRA (terminating at 1 NM)

300

SRA (terminating at 2 NM or more)

350

VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR)

300

VOR/DME

250

Non-directional beacon (NDB)

350

NDB/DME

300

VHF direction finder (VDF)

350

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

NCO.OP.111 Aerodrome operating minima — 2D and 3D approach operations

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

(a) The decision height (DH) to be used for a 3D approach operation or a 2D approach operation flown with the continuous descent final approach (CDFA) technique shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the obstacle clearance height (OCH) for the category of aircraft;

(2) the published approach procedure DH or minimum descent height (MDH), where applicable;

(3) the system minimum specified in Table 1;

(4) the minimum DH specified in the AFM or equivalent document, if stated.

(b) The MDH for a 2D approach operation flown without the CDFA technique shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the OCH for the category of aircraft;

(2) the published approach procedure MDH, where applicable;

(3) the system minimum specified in Table 1; or

(4) the minimum MDH specified in the AFM, if stated.

Table 1

System minima

Facility

Lowest DH/MDH (ft)

ILS/MLS/ GLS

200

GNSS/SBAS (LPV)

200

Precision approach radar (PAR)

200

GNSS/SBAS (LP)

250

GNSS (LNAV)

250

GNSS/Baro-VNAV (LNAV/VNAV)

250

Helicopter point-in-space approach

250

LOC with or without DME

250

SRA (terminating at ½ NM)

250

SRA (terminating at 1 NM)

300

SRA (terminating at 2 NM or more)

350

VOR

300

VOR/DME

250

NDB

350

NDB/DME

300

VDF

350

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

NPA FLOWN WITH THE CDFA TECHNIQUE

When flying a non-precision approach operation using the CDFA technique, the pilot-in-command should ensure that when executing a missed approach, the initiation of the go-around is done at or above the DA/H to avoid flying below the MDA/H.

NCO.OP.112 Aerodrome operating minima — circling operations with aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The MDH for a circling operation with aeroplanes shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the published circling OCH for the aeroplane category;

(2) the minimum circling height derived from Table 1; or

(3) the DH/MDH of the preceding instrument approach procedure.

(b) The minimum visibility for a circling operation with aeroplanes shall be the highest of:

(1) the circling visibility for the aeroplane category, if published;

(2) the minimum visibility derived from Table 2; or

(3) the runway visual range/converted meteorological visibility (RVR/CMV) of the preceding instrument approach procedure.

Table 1

MDH and minimum visibility for circling vs. aeroplane category

 

Aeroplane category

A

B

C

D

MDH (ft)

400

500

600

700

Minimum meteorological visibility (m)

1500

1600

2400

3600

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(a) The MDH for a circling approach operation with aeroplanes shall not be lower than the highest of:

(1) the published circling OCH for the aeroplane category;

(2) the minimum circling height derived from Table 1; or

 (3) the DH/MDH of the preceding IAP.

(b) The minimum visibility for a circling approach operation with aeroplanes shall be the highest of:

(1) the circling visibility for the aeroplane category, if published; or

(2) the minimum visibility derived from Table 1’.

Table 1

MDH and minimum visibility for circling per aeroplane category aeroplane category

 

Aeroplane category

A

B

C

D

MDH (ft)

400

500

600

700

Minimum VIS (m)

1 500

1 500

2 400

3 600

[applicable from 30 October 2022  Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION

(a) The purpose of this Guidance Material is to provide pilots with supplemental information regarding the application of aerodrome operating minima in relation to circling approaches.

(b) Conduct of flight — general:

(1) the MDH and obstacle clearance height (OCH) included in the procedure are referenced to aerodrome elevation;

(2) the MDA is referenced to mean sea level; and

(3) for these procedures, the applicable visibility is the meteorological visibility.

(c) Instrument approach followed by visual manoeuvring (circling) without prescribed tracks:

(1) When the aeroplane is on the initial instrument approach, before visual reference is stabilised, but not below MDA/H — the aeroplane should follow the corresponding instrument approach procedure until the appropriate instrument MAPt is reached.

(2) At the beginning of the level flight phase at or above the MDA/H, the instrument approach track determined by radio navigation aids, RNAV, RNP or ILS, microwave landing system (MLS) or GBAS landing system (GLS) should be maintained until the pilot:

(i) estimates that, in all probability, visual contact with the runway of intended landing or the runway environment will be maintained during the entire circling procedure;

(ii) estimates that the aeroplane is within the circling area before commencing circling; and

(iii) is able to determine the aeroplane’s position in relation to the runway of intended landing with the aid of the appropriate external references.

(3) When reaching the published instrument MAPt and the conditions stipulated in (c)(2) are unable to be established by the pilot, a missed approach should be carried out in accordance with that instrument approach procedure.

(4) After the aeroplane has left the track of the initial instrument approach, the flight phase outbound from the runway should be limited to an appropriate distance, which is required to align the aeroplane onto the final approach. Such manoeuvres should be conducted to enable the aeroplane:

(i) to attain a controlled and stable descent path to the intended landing runway; and

(ii) to remain within the circling area and in such a way that visual contact with the runway of intended landing or runway environment is maintained at all times.

(5) Flight manoeuvres should be carried out at an altitude/height that is not less than the circling MDA/H.

(6) Descent below MDA/H should not be initiated until the threshold of the runway to be used has been appropriately identified. The aeroplane should be in a position to continue with a normal rate of descent and land within the touchdown zone.

(d) Instrument approach followed by a visual manoeuvring (circling) with prescribed track:

(1) The aeroplane should remain on the initial instrument approach procedure until one of the following is reached:

(i) the prescribed divergence point to commence circling on the prescribed track; or

(ii) the MAPt.

(2) The aeroplane should be established on the instrument approach track determined by the radio navigation aids, RNAV, RNP, or ILS, MLS or GLS in level flight at or above the MDA/H at or by the circling manoeuvre divergence point.

(3) If the divergence point is reached before the required visual reference is acquired, a missed approach should be initiated not later than the MAPt and completed in accordance with the initial instrument approach procedure.

(4) When commencing the prescribed circling manoeuvre at the published divergence point, the subsequent manoeuvres should be conducted to comply with the published routing and published heights/altitudes.

(5) Unless otherwise specified, once the aeroplane is established on the prescribed track(s), the published visual reference does not need to be maintained unless:

(i) required by the State of the aerodrome; or

(ii) the circling MAPt (if published) is reached.

(6) If the prescribed circling manoeuvre has a published MAPt and the required visual reference has not been obtained by that point, a missed approach should be executed in accordance with (e)(2) and (e)(3).

(7) Subsequent further descent below MDA/H should only commence when the required visual reference has been obtained.

(8) Unless otherwise specified in the procedure, final descent should not be commenced from MDA/H until the threshold of the intended landing runway has been identified and the aeroplane is in a position to continue with a normal rate of descent to land within the touchdown zone.

(e) Missed approach:

(1) Missed approach during the instrument procedure prior to circling:

(i) if the missed approach is required to be flown when the aeroplane is positioned on the instrument approach track defined by radio navigation aids, RNAV, RNP or ILS, MLS or GLS and before commencing the circling manoeuvre, the published missed approach for the instrument approach should be followed; or

(ii) if the instrument approach procedure is carried out with the aid of an ILS, MLS or a stabilised approach (SAp), the MAPt associated with an ILS or MLS procedure without glide path (GP-out procedure) or the SAp, where applicable, should be used.

(2) If a prescribed missed approach is published for the circling manoeuvre, this overrides the manoeuvres prescribed below.

(3) If visual reference is lost while circling to land after the aeroplane has departed from the initial instrument approach track, the missed approach specified for that particular instrument approach should be followed. It is expected that the pilot will make an initial climbing turn toward the intended landing runway to a position overhead of the aerodrome where the pilot will establish the aeroplane in a climb on the instrument missed approach segment.

(4) The aeroplane should not leave the visual manoeuvring (circling) area, which is obstacle protected, unless:

(i) established on the appropriate missed approach procedure; or

(ii) at minimum sector altitude (MSA).

(5) All turns should be made in the same direction and the aeroplane should remain within the circling protected area while climbing either:

(i) to the altitude assigned to any published circling missed approach manoeuvre if applicable;

(ii) to the altitude assigned to the missed approach of the initial instrument approach;

(iii) to the MSA;

(iv) to the minimum holding altitude (MHA) applicable for transition to a holding facility or fix, or continue to climb to an MSA; or

(v) as directed by ATS.

When the missed approach procedure is commenced on the ‘downwind’ leg of the circling manoeuvre, an ‘S’ turn may be undertaken to align the aeroplane on the initial instrument approach missed approach path, provided the aeroplane remains within the protected circling area.

The pilot-in-command should be responsible for ensuring adequate terrain clearance during the above-stipulated manoeuvres, particularly during the execution of a missed approach initiated by ATS.

(6) Because the circling manoeuvre may be accomplished in more than one direction, different patterns will be required to establish the aeroplane on the prescribed missed approach course, depending on its position at the time visual reference is lost. In particular, all turns are to be in the prescribed direction if this is restricted, e.g. to the west/east (left or right hand) to remain within the protected circling area.

(7) If a missed approach procedure is published for a particular runway onto which the aeroplane is conducting a circling approach and the aeroplane has commenced a manoeuvre to align with the runway, the missed approach for this direction may be accomplished. The ATS unit should be informed of the intention to fly the published missed approach procedure for that particular runway.

(8) The pilot-in-command should advise ATS when any missed approach procedure has been commenced, the height/altitude the aeroplane is climbing to and the position the aeroplane is proceeding towards and/or heading the aeroplane is established on.

NCO.OP.113 Aerodrome operating minima – onshore circling operations with helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 379/2014

The MDH for an onshore circling operation with helicopters shall not be lower than 250 ft and the meteorological visibility not less than 800 m.

NCO.OP.115 Departure and approach procedures – aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command shall use the departure and approach procedures established by the State of the aerodrome, if such procedures have been published for the runway or FATO to be used.

(b) The pilot-in-command may deviate from a published departure route, arrival route or approach procedure:

(1) provided obstacle clearance criteria can be observed, full account is taken of the operating conditions and any ATC clearance is adhered to; or

(2) when being radar-vectored by an ATC unit.

NCO.OP.116 Performance-based navigation – aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2016/1119

The pilot-in-command shall ensure that, when PBN is required for the route or procedure to be flown:

(a) the relevant PBN navigation specification is stated in the AFM or other document that has been approved by the certifying authority as part of an airworthiness assessment or is based on such approval; and

(b) the aircraft is operated in conformance with the relevant navigation specification and limitations in the AFM or other document mentioned above.

PBN OPERATIONS

For operations where a navigation specification for performance-based navigation (PBN) has been prescribed and no specific approval is required in accordance with SPA.PBN.100, the pilot-in-command should:

(a) use operating procedures specifying:

(1) normal, abnormal and contingency procedures;

(2) electronic navigation database management; and

(3) relevant entries in the minimum equipment list (MEL), where applicable;

(b) ensure that he/she is appropriately trained for the intended operation.

MONITORING AND VERIFICATION

(a) Preflight and general considerations

(1) At navigation system initialisation, the pilot-in-command should confirm that the navigation database is current and verify that the aircraft position, if required, has been entered correctly.

(2) The active flight plan, if applicable, should be checked by comparing the charts or other applicable documents with navigation equipment and displays. This includes confirmation of the waypoint sequence, reasonableness of track angles and distances, any altitude or speed constraints, and, where possible, which waypoints are fly-by and which are fly-over. Where relevant, the RF leg arc radii should be confirmed.

(3) The pilot-in-command should check that the navigation aids critical to the operation of the intended PBN procedure are available.

(4) The pilot-in-command should confirm the navigation aids that should be excluded from the operation, if any.

(5) An arrival, approach or departure procedure should not be used if the validity of the procedure in the navigation database has expired.

(b) Departure

(1) Prior to commencing a take-off on a PBN procedure, the pilot-in-command should verify that the area navigation system is available and operating correctly and the correct aerodrome and runway data has been loaded. A positive check should be made that the indicated aircraft position is consistent with the actual aircraft position at the start of the take-off roll (aeroplanes) or lift-off (helicopters).

(2) Where GNSS is used, the signal should be acquired before the take-off roll (aeroplanes) or lift-off (helicopters) commences.

(3) Unless automatic updating of the actual departure point is provided, the pilot-in-command should ensure initialisation on the runway or FATO either by means of a manual runway threshold or intersection update, as applicable. This is to preclude any inappropriate or inadvertent position shift after take-off.

(c) Arrival and approach

(1) The pilot-in-command should verify that the navigation system is operating correctly and the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered and properly depicted.

(2) Any published altitude and speed constraints should be observed.

(3) The pilot-in-command should check approach procedures (including alternate aerodromes if needed) as extracted by the system (e.g. CDU flight plan page) or presented graphically on the moving map, in order to confirm the correct loading and the reasonableness of the procedure content.

(4) Prior to commencing the approach operation (before the IAF), the pilot-in-command should verify the correctness of the loaded procedure by comparison with the appropriate approach charts. This check should include:

(i) the waypoint sequence;

(ii) reasonableness of the tracks and distances of the approach legs and the accuracy of the inbound course; and

(iii) the vertical path angle, if applicable.

(d) Altimetry settings for RNP APCH operations using Baro VNAV

(1) Barometric settings

(i) The pilot-in-command should set and confirm the correct altimeter setting and check that the two altimeters provide altitude values that do not differ more than 100 ft at the most at or before the FAF.

(ii) The pilot-in-command should fly the procedure with:

(A) a current local altimeter setting source available — a remote or regional altimeter setting source should not be used; and

(B) the QNH/QFE, as appropriate, set on the aircraft’s altimeters.

(2) Temperature compensation

(i) For RNP APCH operations to LNAV/VNAV minima using Baro VNAV:

(A) the pilot-in-command should not commence the approach when the aerodrome temperature is outside the promulgated aerodrome temperature limits for the procedure, unless the area navigation system is equipped with approved temperature compensation for the final approach;

(B) when the temperature is within promulgated limits, the pilot-in-command should not make compensation to the altitude at the FAF; and

(C) since only the final approach segment is protected by the promulgated aerodrome temperature limits, the pilot-in-command should consider the effect of temperature on terrain and obstacle clearance in other phases of flight.

(ii) For RNP APCH operations to LNAV minima using Baro VNAV:

(A) the pilot-in-command should consider the effect of temperature on terrain and obstacle clearance in all phases of flight, in particular on any step-down fix; 

(B) if the temperature is outside promulgated limits for RNP APCH to LNAV/VNAV minima, the pilot-in-command should not use a Baro VNAV function for vertical guidance, unless the area navigation system is equipped with approved temperature compensation for the final approach.

(e) Sensor and lateral navigation accuracy selection

(1) For multi-sensor systems, the pilot-in-command should verify, during the approach, that the GNSS sensor is used for position computation.

(2) For aircraft with RNP input selection capability, the pilot-in-command should confirm that the indicated RNP value is appropriate for the PBN operation.

MANAGAMENT OF THE NAVIGATION DATABASE

(a) For RNAV 1, RNAV 2, RNP 1, RNP 2, and RNP APCH, the pilot-in-command should neither insert nor modify waypoints by manual entry into a procedure (departure, arrival or approach) that has been retrieved from the database. User-defined data may be entered and used for waypoint altitude/speed constraints on a procedure where said constraints are not included in the navigation database coding.

(b) For RNP 4 operations, the pilot-in-command should not modify waypoints that have been retrieved from the database. User-defined data (e.g. for flex-track routes) may be entered and used.

(c) The lateral and vertical definition of the flight path between the FAF and the missed approach point (MAPt) retrieved from the database should not be revised by the pilot-in-command.

DISPLAYS AND AUTOMATION

(a) For RNAV 1, RNP 1, and RNP APCH operations, the pilot-in-command should use a lateral deviation indicator, and where available, flight director and/or autopilot in lateral navigation mode.

(b) The appropriate displays should be selected so that the following information can be monitored:

(1) the computed desired path;

(2) aircraft position relative to the lateral path (cross-track deviation) for FTE monitoring; and

(3) aircraft position relative to the vertical path (for a 3D operation).

(c) The pilot-in-command of an aircraft with a lateral deviation indicator (e.g. CDI) should ensure that lateral deviation indicator scaling (full-scale deflection) is suitable for the navigation accuracy associated with the various segments of the procedure.

(d) The pilot-in-command should maintain procedure centrelines unless authorised to deviate by ATC or demanded by emergency conditions.

(e) Cross-track error/deviation (the difference between the area-navigation-system-computed path and the aircraft-computed position) should normally be limited to ± ½ time the RNAV/RNP value associated with the procedure. Brief deviations from this standard (e.g. overshoots or undershoots during and immediately after turns) up to a maximum of 1 time the RNAV/RNP value should be allowable.

(f) For a 3D approach operation, the pilot-in-command should use a vertical deviation indicator and, where required by AFM/POH limitations, a flight director or autopilot in vertical navigation mode.

(g) Deviations below the vertical path should not exceed 75 ft at any time, or half-scale deflection where angular deviation is indicated, and not more than 75 ft above the vertical profile, or half-scale deflection where angular deviation is indicated, at or below 1 000 ft above aerodrome level. The pilot-in-command should execute a missed approach if the vertical deviation exceeds this criterion, unless the pilot-in-command has in sight the visual references required to continue the approach.

VECTORING AND POSITIONING

(a) ATC tactical interventions in the terminal area may include radar headings, ‘direct to’ clearances which bypass the initial legs of an approach procedure, interceptions of an initial or intermediate segments of an approach procedure or the insertion of additional waypoints loaded from the database.

(b) In complying with ATC instructions, the pilot-in-command should be aware of the implications for the navigation system.

(c) ‘Direct to’ clearances may be accepted to the IF provided that it is clear to the pilot-in-command that the aircraft will be established on the final approach track at least 2 NM before the FAF.

(d) ‘Direct to’ clearance to the FAF should not be acceptable. Modifying the procedure to intercept the final approach track prior to the FAF should be acceptable for radar-vectored arrivals or otherwise only with ATC approval.

(e) The final approach trajectory should be intercepted no later than the FAF in order for the aircraft to be correctly established on the final approach track before starting the descent (to ensure terrain and obstacle clearance).

(f) ‘Direct to’ clearances to a fix that immediately precede an RF leg should not be permitted.

(g) For parallel offset operations en route in RNP 4 and A-RNP, transitions to and from the offset track should maintain an intercept angle of no more than 45° unless specified otherwise by ATC.

ALERTING AND ABORT

(a) Unless the pilot-in-command has sufficient visual reference to continue the approach operation to a safe landing, an RNP APCH operation should be discontinued if:

(1) navigation system failure is annunciated (e.g. warning flag);

(2) lateral or vertical deviations exceed the tolerances; and

(3) loss of the on-board monitoring and alerting system.

(b) Discontinuing the approach operation may not be necessary for a multi-sensor navigation system that includes demonstrated RNP capability without GNSS in accordance with the AFM/POH.

(c) Where vertical guidance is lost while the aircraft is still above 1 000 ft AGL, the pilot-in-command may decide to continue the approach to LNAV minima, when supported by the navigation system.

CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES

(a) The pilot-in-command should make the necessary preparation to revert to a conventional arrival procedure where appropriate. The following conditions should be considered:

(1) failure of the navigation system components including navigation sensors, and a failure effecting flight technical error (e.g. failures of the flight director or autopilot);

(2) multiple system failures affecting aircraft performance;

(3) coasting on inertial sensors beyond a specified time limit; and

(4) RAIM (or equivalent) alert or loss of integrity function.

(b) In the event of loss of PBN capability, the pilot-in-command should invoke contingency procedures and navigate using an alternative means of navigation.

(c) The pilot-in-command should notify ATC of any problem with PBN capability.

(d) In the event of communication failure, the pilot-in-command should continue with the operation in accordance with published lost communication procedures.

RNAV 10

(a) Operating procedures and routes should take account of the RNAV 10 time limit declared for the inertial system, if applicable, considering also the effect of weather conditions that could affect flight duration in RNAV 10 airspace.

(b) The operator may extend RNAV 10 inertial navigation time by position updating. The operator should calculate, using statistically-based typical wind scenarios for each planned route, points at which updates can be made, and the points at which further updates will not be possible.

DESCRIPTION

(a) For both, RNP X and RNAV X designations, the ‘X’ (where stated) refers to the lateral navigation accuracy (total system error) in NM, which is expected to be achieved at least 95 % of the flight time by the population of aircraft operating within the airspace, route or procedure. For RNP APCH and A-RNP, the lateral navigation accuracy depends on the segment.

(b) PBN may be required on notified routes, for notified procedures and in notified airspace.

RNAV 10

(c) For purposes of consistency with the PBN concept, this Regulation is using the designation ‘RNAV 10’ because this specification does not include on-board performance monitoring and alerting.

(d) However, it should be noted that many routes still use the designation ‘RNP 10’ instead of ‘RNAV 10’. ‘RNP 10’ was used as designation before the publication of the fourth edition of ICAO Doc 9613 in 2013. The terms ‘RNP 10’ and ‘RNAV 10’ should be considered equivalent.

NCO.OP.120 Noise abatement procedures – aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2018/1975

The pilot-in-command shall take into account published noise abatement procedures to minimise the effect of aircraft noise while ensuring that safety has priority over noise abatement.

NCO.OP.125 Fuel and oil supply – aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command shall only commence a flight if the aeroplane carries sufficient fuel and oil for the following:

(1) for visual flight rules (VFR) flights:

(i) by day, taking-off and landing at the same aerodrome/landing site and always remaining in sight of that aerodrome/landing site, to fly the intended route and thereafter for at least 10 minutes at normal cruising altitude;

(ii) by day, to fly to the aerodrome of intended landing and thereafter to fly for at least 30 minutes at normal cruising altitude; or

(iii) by night, to fly to the aerodrome of intended landing and thereafter to fly for at least 45 minutes at normal cruising altitude;

(2) for IFR flights:

(i) when no destination alternate is required, to fly to the aerodrome of intended landing and thereafter to fly for at least 45 minutes at normal cruising altitude; or

(ii) when a destination alternate is required, to fly to the aerodrome of intended landing, to an alternate aerodrome and thereafter to fly for at least 45 minutes at normal cruising altitude.

(b) In computing the fuel required including to provide for contingency, the following shall be taken into consideration:

(1) forecast meteorological conditions;

(2) anticipated ATC routings and traffic delays;

(3) procedures for loss of pressurisation or failure of one engine while en-route, where applicable; and

(4) any other condition that may delay the landing of the aeroplane or increase fuel and/or oil consumption.

(c) Nothing shall preclude amendment of a flight plan in-flight, in order to re-plan the flight to another destination, provided that all requirements can be complied with from the point where the flight is re-planned.

[applicable until 29 October 2022]

NCO.OP.125 Fuel/energy and oil supply – aeroplanes and helicopters

Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

(a) The pilot-in-command shall ensure that the quantity of fuel/energy and oil that is carried on board is sufficient, taking into account the meteorological conditions, any element affecting the performance of the aircraft, any delays that are expected in flight, and any contingencies that may reasonably be expected to affect the flight.

(b) The pilot-in-command shall plan a quantity of fuel/energy to be protected as final reserve fuel/energy to ensure a safe landing. The pilot-in-command shall take into account all of the following, and in the following order of priority, to determine the quantity of the final reserve fuel/energy:

(1) the severity of the hazard to persons or property that may result from an emergency landing after fuel/energy starvation; and

(2) the likelihood of unexpected circumstances that the final reserve fuel/energy may no longer be protected.

(c) The pilot-in-command shall commence a flight only if the aircraft carries sufficient fuel/energy and oil:

(1) when no destination alternate is required, to fly to the aerodrome or operating site of intended landing, plus the final reserve fuel/energy; or

(2) when a destination alternate is required, to fly to the aerodrome or operating site of intended landing, and thereafter, to an alternate aerodrome, plus the final reserve fuel/energy.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

PLANNING CRITERIA — FINAL RESERVE FUEL/ENERGY

The final reserve fuel (FRF)/energy should be no less than the required fuel/energy to fly:

(a) for aeroplanes:

(1) for 10 minutes at maximum continuous cruise power at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination under VFR by day, taking off and landing at the same aerodrome/landing site, and always remaining within sight of that aerodrome/landing site;

(2) for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination under VFR by day; and

(3) for 45 minutes at holding speed at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination or destination alternate aerodrome under VFR flights by night and IFR; and

(b) for helicopters:

(1) for 10 minutes at best-range speed under VFR by day, taking off and landing at the same aerodrome/landing site, and always remaining within 25 NM of that aerodrome/landing site, when needed for the purpose of specialised operations;

(2) for 20 minutes at best-range speed for other VFR flights; and

(3) for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1 500 ft (450 m) above the destination or destination alternate aerodrome under IFR.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

FINAL RESERVE FUEL/ENERGY

The quantity of the FRF/energy should be planned before flight and be an easily recalled figure against which the pilot-in-command can assess the current fuel/energy state of the aircraft.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

FINAL RESERVE FUEL/ENERGY PROTECTION

The planned FRF/energy should be protected as a reserve in normal operations. If the fuel/energy on board falls below the FRF/energy, the pilot-in-command should consider this to be an emergency. The FRF/energy should not be used as contingency fuel in normal operations.

When the FRF/energy can no longer be protected, then a fuel/energy emergency should be declared and any landing option explored, including deviating from rules, operational procedures, and methods in the interest of safety (as per point CAT.GEN.MPA.105(b)).

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

LIKELIHOOD OF UNEXPECTED CIRCUMSTANCES TO INCREASE WITH FLIGHT DURATION

The likelihood of unexpected circumstances arising after the aircraft is fuelled may increase with the duration of the planned flight (for example, during a long flight, a problem at the destination aerodrome or operating site is more likely to have occurred than during a short local flight).

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

PLANNING of FUEL/ENERGY QUANTITY — HOLDING

When planning the fuel/energy quantity, in case of holding, and if the aircraft documentation does not provide approved data for the holding regime, the pilot should derive the fuel/energy flow data from the long-range/best-range cruise data or, if this is not provided, from the lowest available cruise data in power setting tables.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

NCO.OP.126 Fuel and oil supply – helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command shall only commence a flight if the helicopter carries sufficient fuel and oil for the following:

(1) for VFR flights, to fly to the aerodrome/operating site of intended landing and thereafter to fly for at least 20 minutes at best-range-speed; and

(2) for IFR flights:

(i) when no alternate is required or no weather-permissible alternate aerodrome is available, to fly to the aerodrome/operating site of intended landing, and thereafter to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m (1 500 ft) above the destination aerodrome/operating site under standard temperature conditions and approach and land; or

(ii) when an alternate is required, to fly to and execute an approach and a missed approach at the aerodrome/operating site of intended landing, and thereafter:

(A) to fly to the specified alternate; and

(B) to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m (1 500 ft) above the alternate aerodrome/operating site under standard temperature conditions and approach and land.

(b) In computing the fuel required including to provide for contingency, the following shall be taken into consideration:

(1) forecast meteorological conditions;

(2) anticipated ATC routings and traffic delays;

(3) procedures for loss of pressurisation or failure of one engine while en-route, where applicable; and

(4) any other condition that may delay the landing of the aircraft or increase fuel and/or oil consumption.

(c) Nothing shall preclude amendment of a flight plan in-flight, in order to re-plan the flight to another destination, provided that all requirements can be complied with from the point where the flight is re-planned.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

NCO.OP.130 Passenger briefing

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall ensure that before or, where appropriate, during the flight, passengers are given a briefing on emergency equipment and procedures.

GENERAL

(a) The briefing should include the locations and use of seat belts and if applicable:

(1) emergency exits;

(2) passenger emergency briefing cards;

(3) life-jackets;

(4) oxygen dispensing equipment;

(5) life rafts; and

(6) other emergency equipment provided for individual passenger use.

(b) The briefing should also include the location and general manner of use of the principal emergency equipment carried for collective use.

NCO.OP.135 Flight preparation

Regulation (EU) 2016/1119

(a) Before commencing a flight, the pilot-in-command shall ascertain by every reasonable means available that the space-based facilities, ground and/or water facilities, including communication facilities and navigation aids available and directly required on such flight, for the safe operation of the aircraft, are adequate for the type of operation under which the flight is to be conducted.

(b) Before commencing a flight, the pilot-in-command shall be familiar with all available meteorological information appropriate to the intended flight. Preparation for a flight away from the vicinity of the place of departure, and for every flight under IFR, shall include:

(1) a study of available current weather reports and forecasts; and

(2) the planning of an alternative course of action to provide for the eventuality that the flight cannot be completed as planned, because of weather conditions.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(b) Before commencing a flight, the pilot-in-command shall be familiar with all available meteorological information appropriate to the intended flight. Preparation for a flight away from the vicinity of the place of departure, and for every flight under IFR, shall include:

(1) a study of the available current meteorological reports and forecasts; and

(2) the planning of an alternative course of action to provide for the eventuality that the flight cannot be completed as planned, because of meteorological conditions.

[applicable from 30 October 2022  Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

NCO.OP.140 Destination alternate aerodromes — aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

For IFR flights, the pilot-in-command shall specify at least one weather-permissible destination alternate aerodrome in the flight plan, unless:

(a) the available current meteorological information indicates that, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period, the approach and landing may be made under visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or

(b) the place of intended landing is isolated and:

(1) an instrument approach procedure is prescribed for the aerodrome of intended landing; and

(2) available current meteorological information indicates that the following meteorological conditions will exist from 2 hours before to 2 hours after the estimated time of arrival:

(i) a cloud base of at least 300 m (1 000 ft) above the minimum associated with the instrument approach procedure; and

(ii) visibility of at least 5,5 km or of 4 km more than the minimum associated with the procedure.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

For IFR flights, the pilot-in-command shall specify at least one destination alternate aerodrome in the flight plan, unless the available current meteorological information for the destination indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period, a ceiling of at least 1 000ft above the DH/MDH for an available instrument approach procedure (IAP) and a visibility of at least 5 000m.

[applicable from 30 October 2022  Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

NCO.OP.141 Destination alternate aerodromes — helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

For IFR flights, the pilot-in-command shall specify at least one weather-permissible destination alternate aerodrome in the flight plan, unless:

(a) an instrument approach procedure is prescribed for the aerodrome of intended landing and the available current meteorological information indicates that the following meteorological conditions will exist from 2 hours before to 2 hours after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 2 hours after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period:

(1) a cloud base of at least 120 m (400 ft) above the minimum associated with the instrument approach procedure; and

(2) visibility of at least 1 500 m more than the minimum associated with the procedure; or

(b) the place of intended landing is isolated and:

(1) an instrument approach procedure is prescribed for the aerodrome of intended landing;

(2) available current meteorological information indicates that the following meteorological conditions will exist from 2 hours before to 2 hours after the estimated time of arrival:

(i) the cloud base is at least 120 m (400 ft) above the minimum associated with the instrument approach procedure;

(ii) visibility is at least 1 500 m more than the minimum associated with the procedure; and

(3) a point of no return (PNR) is determined in case of an offshore destination.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

For IFR flights, the pilot-in-command shall specify at least one destination alternate aerodrome in the flight plan, unless the available current meteorological information for the destination indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period, a ceiling of at least 1 000ft above the DH/MDH for an available IAP and a visibility of at least 3 000m.

[applicable from 30 October 2022  Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

NCO.OP.142 Destination aerodromes — instrument approach operations

Regulation (EU) 2016/1119

The pilot-in-command shall ensure that sufficient means are available to navigate and land at the destination aerodrome or at any destination alternate aerodrome in the case of loss of capability for the intended approach and landing operation.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

NCO.OP.142 Destination alternate aerodromes — instrument approach operations

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

The pilot-in-command shall only select an aerodrome as a destination alternate aerodrome if either:

(a) an IAP that does not rely on GNSS is available either at the destination aerodrome or at a destination alternate aerodrome, or

(b) all of the following conditions are met:

(1) the onboard GNSS equipment is SBAS-capable;

(2) the destination aerodrome, any destination alternate aerodrome, and the route between them are within SBAS service area;

(3) ABAS is predicted to be available in the event of the unexpected unavailability of SBAS;

(4) an IAP is selected (either at destination or destination alternate aerodrome) that does not rely on the availability of SBAS;

(5) an appropriate contingency action allows the flight to be completed safely in the event of unavailability of GNSS.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

PBN OPERATIONS

The pilot-in-command may only select an aerodrome as a destination alternate aerodrome if an instrument approach procedure that does not rely on GNSS is available either at that aerodrome or at the destination aerodrome.

NCO.OP.143 Destination alternate aerodromes planning minima — aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

An aerodrome shall not be specified as a destination alternate aerodrome unless the available current meteorological information indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period:

(a) for an alternate aerodrome with an available instrument approach operation with DH less than 250 ft,

(1) a ceiling of at least 200 ft above the decision height (DH) or minimum descent height (MDH) associated with the instrument approach operation; and

(2) a visibility of at least 1 500m; or

(b) for an alternate aerodrome with an instrument approach operation with DH or MDH 250 ft or more,

(1) a ceiling of at least 400 ft above the DH or MDH associated with the instrument approach operation; and

(2) a visibility of at least 3 000m; or

(c) for an alternate aerodrome without an IAP,

(1) a ceiling of at least the higher of 2 000ft and the minimum safe IFR height; and

(2) a visibility of at least 5 000m.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

NCO.OP.144 Destination alternate aerodromes planning minima — helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/2237

An aerodrome shall not be specified as a destination alternate aerodrome unless the available current meteorological information indicates, for the period from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, or from the actual time of departure to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is the shorter period,

(a) for an alternate aerodrome with an IAP:

(1) a ceiling of at least 200 ft above the DH or MDH associated with the IAP; and

(2) a visibility of at least 1 500m by day or 3 000m by night; or

(b) for an alternate aerodrome without an IAP:

(1) a ceiling of at least the higher of 2 000ft and the minimum safe IFR height; and

(2) a visibility of at least 1 500m by day or 3 000m by night.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

NCO.OP.145 Refuelling with passengers embarking, on board or disembarking

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The aircraft shall not be refuelled with aviation gasoline (AVGAS) or wide-cut type fuel or a mixture of these types of fuel, when passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking.

(b) For all other types of fuel, the aircraft shall not be refuelled when passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking, unless it is attended by the pilot-in-command or other qualified personnel ready to initiate and direct an evacuation of the aircraft by the most practical and expeditious means available.

[applicable until 29 October 2022]

(b) For all other types of fuel/energy, the aircraft shall not be refuelled when passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking, unless it is attended by the pilot-in-command or other qualified personnel ready to initiate and direct an evacuation of the aircraft by the most practical and expeditious means available.

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296]

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

If passengers are on board when refuelling with other than aviation gasoline (AVGAS), wide-cut type fuel or a mixture of these types of fuel, the following precautions should be taken:

(a) the pilot-in-command should remain at a location during fuelling operations with passengers on board which allows him to handle emergency procedures concerning fire protection and fire-fighting and initiate and direct an evacuation;

(b) personnel and passengers should be warned that refuelling will take place;

(c) passengers should be instructed to unfasten their seat belts and refrain from smoking; and

(d) if the presence of fuel vapour is detected inside the aircraft, or any other hazard arises during refuelling, fuelling should be stopped immediately.

NCO.OP.147 Refuelling with engine(s) and/or rotors turning – helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

Refuelling with engine(s) and/or rotors turning shall only be conducted if all those conditions are met simultaneously:

(a) if it is not practical to shut down or restart the engine;

(b) in accordance with any specific procedures and limitations in the aircraft flight manual (AFM);

(c) with JET A or JET A-1 fuel types;

(d) with no passengers or task specialists on board, embarking or disembarking;

(e) if the operator of the aerodrome or operating site allows such operations;

(f) in the presence of the appropriate rescue and firefighting (RFF) facilities or equipment; and

(g) in accordance with a checklist that shall contain:

(1) normal and contingency procedures;

(2) the required equipment;

(3) any limitations; and

(4) responsibilities and duties of the pilot-in-command and, if applicable, crew members and task specialists.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

CHECKLIST — HELICOPTERS

(a) Before commencing a refuelling with rotors turning, the pilot-in-command should conduct a risk assessment, assessing the complexity of the activity in order to determine the hazards and associated risks inherent in the operation, and establish mitigating measures.

(b) Refuelling with rotors turning should be performed in accordance with a checklist. Based on the risk assessment, the pilot-in-command should establish a checklist appropriate to the activity and aircraft used, taking into account this AMC.

(c) The checklist should cover relevant elements of GM1 NCO.SPEC.105.

(d) The checklist that is relevant to the duties of the pilot-in-command, crew members, and task specialists should be readily accessible.

(e) The checklist should be regularly reviewed and updated, as appropriate.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

PROCEDURES — HELICOPTERS

AMC1 SPO.OP.157 and GM1 SPO.OP.157 provide a generic framework for the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for refuelling with the rotors turning.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

NCO.OP.150 Carriage of passengers

Regulation (EU) 2018/394

The pilot-in-command shall ensure that, prior to and during taxiing, take-off and landing, and whenever deemed necessary in the interest of safety, each passenger on board occupies a seat or berth and has his/her safety belt or restraint device properly secured.

NCO.OP.155 Smoking on board — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall not allow smoking on board:

(a) whenever considered necessary in the interest of safety; and

(b) during refuelling of the aircraft.

NCO.OP.160 Meteorological conditions

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command shall only commence or continue a VFR flight if the latest available meteorological information indicates that the weather conditions along the route and at the intended destination at the estimated time of use will be at or above the applicable VFR operating minima.

(b) The pilot-in-command shall only commence or continue an IFR flight towards the planned destination aerodrome if the latest available meteorological information indicates that, at the estimated time of arrival, the weather conditions at the destination or at least one destination alternate aerodrome are at or above the applicable aerodrome operating minima.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(a) The pilot-in-command shall only commence or continue a VFR flight if the latest available meteorological information indicates that the meteorological conditions along the route and at the intended destination at the estimated time of use will be at or above the applicable VFR operating minima.

(b) The pilot-in-command shall only commence or continue an IFR flight towards the planned destination aerodrome if the latest available meteorological information indicates that, at the estimated time of arrival, the meteorological conditions at the destination or at least one destination alternate aerodrome are at or above the applicable aerodrome operating minima.

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(c) If a flight contains VFR and IFR segments, the meteorological information referred to in (a) and (b) shall be applicable as far as relevant.

APPLICATION OF AERODROME FORECASTS (TAF & TREND) — AEROPLANES AND HELICOPTERS

Where a terminal area forecast (TAF) or meteorological aerodrome or aeronautical report (METAR) with landing forecast (TREND) is used as forecast, the following criteria should be used:

(a) From the start of a TAF validity period up to the time of applicability of the first subsequent 'FM...' or 'BECMG' or, if no 'FM' or ‘BECMG' is given, up to the end of the validity period of the TAF, the prevailing weather conditions forecast in the initial part of the TAF should be applied.

(b) From the time of observation of a METAR up to the time of applicability of the first subsequent 'FM...' or 'BECMG' or, if no 'FM' or ‘BECMG' is given, up to the end of the validity period of the TREND, the prevailing weather conditions forecast in the METAR should be applied.

(c) Following FM (alone) or BECMG AT, any specified change should be applied from the time of the change.

(d) Following BECMG (alone), BECMG FM, BECMG TL, BECMG FM TL:

(1) in the case of deterioration, any specified change should be applied from the start of the change; and

(2) in the case of improvement, any specified change should be applied from the end of the change.

(e) In a period indicated by TEMPO (alone), TEMPO FM, TEMPO TL, TEMPO FM TL, PROB30/40 (alone):

(1) deteriorations associated with persistent conditions in connection with e.g. haze, mist, fog, dust/sandstorm, continuous precipitation should be applied;

(2) deteriorations associated with transient/showery conditions in connection with short-lived weather phenomena, e.g. thunderstorms, showers may be ignored; and

(3) improvements should in all cases be disregarded.

(f) In a period indicated by PROB30/40 TEMPO:

(1) deteriorations may be disregarded; and

(2) improvements should be disregarded.

Note: Abbreviations used in the context of this AMC are as follows:

FM:   from

BECMG: becoming

AT:   at

TL:   till

TEMPO:  temporarily

PROB:  probability

CONTINUATION OF A FLIGHT — AEROPLANES AND HELICOPtERS

In the case of in-flight re-planning, continuation of a flight refers to the point from which a revised flight plan applies.

EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS — AEROPLANES AND HELICOPTERS

It is recommended that the pilot-in-command carefully evaluates the available meteorological information relevant to the proposed flight, such as applicable surface observations, winds, temperatures aloft, terminal and area forecasts, air meteorological information reports (AIRMETs), significant meteorological information (SIGMET) and pilot reports. The ultimate decision whether, when, and where to make the flight rests with the pilot-in-command. The pilot-in-command also should continue to re-evaluate changing weather conditions.

NCO.OP.165 Ice and other contaminants – ground procedures

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

The pilot-in-command shall only commence take-off if the aircraft is clear of any deposit that might adversely affect the performance or controllability of the aircraft, except as permitted in the AFM.

NCO.OP.170 Ice and other contaminants – flight procedures

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command shall only commence a flight or intentionally fly into expected or actual icing conditions if the aircraft is certified and equipped to cope with such conditions as referred to in 2.a.5 of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008.

(b) If icing exceeds the intensity of icing for which the aircraft is certified or if an aircraft not certified for flight in known icing conditions encounters icing, the pilot-in-command shall exit the icing conditions without delay, by a change of level and/or route, and if necessary by declaring an emergency to ATC.

KNOWN ICING CONDITIONS

Known icing conditions are conditions where actual ice is observed visually to be on the aircraft by the pilot or identified by on-board sensors.

NCO.OP.175 Take-off conditions — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

Before commencing take-off, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that:

(a) according to the information available, the weather at the aerodrome or operating site and the condition of the runway or FATO intended to be used would not prevent a safe take-off and departure; and

(b) applicable aerodrome operating minima will be complied with.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

Before commencing take-off, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that:

(a) according to the information available, the meteorological conditions at the aerodrome or the operating site and the condition of the runway/FATO intended to be used will not prevent a safe take-off and departure; and

(b) the selected aerodrome operating minima are consistent with all of the following:

(1) the operative ground equipment;

(2) the operative aircraft systems;

(3) the aircraft performance;

(4) flight crew qualifications.

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

NCO.OP.180 Simulated situations in flight

Regulation (EU) 2018/1975

(a) The pilot-in-command shall, when carrying passengers or cargo, not simulate:

(1) situations that require the application of abnormal or emergency procedures; or

(2) flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).

(b) Notwithstanding (a), when training flights are conducted by a training organisation referred to in Article 10a of Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011, such situations may be simulated with student pilots on-board.

DESIGNATION OF PERSONS AS CREW MEMBERS

(a) The operator may designate any person as a crew member (including a task specialist) provided that:

(1) the role, according to the reasonable expectation of the operator, will enhance the safety of the flight or achieve an operational objective of the flight;

(2) the person, according to the reasonable expectation of the operator, is capable of fulfilling the role;

(3) the person has been briefed on the role as a crew member and informed that they are crew, not a passenger; and

(4) the person agrees to the role as a crew member.

(b) Crew members are not considered to be passengers.

(c) Crew members may be required, by specific provisions of this Regulation and other Implementing Rules, to hold licences, ratings or other personnel certificates to fulfil certain roles such as instructor, examiner or flight engineer in certain circumstances.

NCO.OP.185 In-flight fuel management

Regulation (EU) 2018/394

The pilot-in-command shall check at regular intervals that the amount of usable fuel remaining in flight is not less than the fuel required to proceed to a weather-permissible aerodrome or operating site and the planned reserve fuel as required by points NCO.OP.125 or NCO.OP.126.

[applicable until 29 October 2022]

NCO.OP.185 In-flight fuel/energy management

Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1296

(a) The pilot-in-command shall monitor the amount of usable fuel/energy remaining on board to ensure that it is protected and not less than the fuel/energy that is required to proceed to an aerodrome or operating site where a safe landing can be made.

(b) The pilot-in-command of a controlled flight shall advise air traffic control (ATC) of a ‘minimum fuel/energy’ state by declaring ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ when the pilot-in-command has:

(1) committed to land at a specific aerodrome or operating site; and

(2) calculated that any change to the existing clearance to that aerodrome or operating site, or other air traffic delays, may result in landing with less than the planned final reserve fuel/energy.

(c) The pilot-in-command of a controlled flight shall declare a situation of ‘fuel/energy emergency’ by broadcasting ‘MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL’ when the usable fuel/energy estimated to be available upon landing at the nearest aerodrome or operating site where a safe landing can be made is less than the planned final reserve fuel/energy.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

‘MINIMUM FUEL’ DECLARATION

(a) The pilot-in-command may consider reporting the remaining fuel/energy endurance after a ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ or ‘MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL’ declaration.

Note: For Part-NCO operators, the FRF/energy varies; therefore, the ATC may not be aware of the amount of the remaining fuel/energy endurance.

(b) The ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ declaration informs the ATC that all planned landing options have been reduced to a specific aerodrome or operating site of intended landing, and that for helicopters, no other landing site is available. It also informs the ATC that any change to the existing clearance may result in landing with less than the planned FRF/energy. This is not an emergency situation but an indication that an emergency situation is possible, should any additional delay occur.

The pilot should not expect any form of priority handling as a result of a ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ declaration. However, the ATC should advise the flight crew of any additional expected delays, as well as coordinate with other ATC units when transferring the control of the aircraft, to ensure that the other ATC units are aware of the flight’s fuel/energy state.

(c) The requirement for declaring ‘MINIMUM FUEL’ and ‘MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL’ applies only to controlled flights; however, these declarations may also be made during uncontrolled flights if the pilot-in-command considers this advisable.

[applicable from 30 October 2022]

NCO.OP.190 Use of supplemental oxygen

Regulation (EU) 2016/1119

(a) The pilot-in-command shall ensure that all flight crew members engaged in performing duties essential to the safe operation of an aircraft in flight use supplemental oxygen continuously whenever he/she determines that at the altitude of the intended flight the lack of oxygen might result in impairment of the faculties of crew members, and shall ensure that supplemental oxygen is available to passengers when lack of oxygen might harmfully affect passengers.

(b) In any other case when the pilot-in-command cannot determine how the lack of oxygen might affect all occupants on board, he/she shall ensure that:

(1) all crew members engaged in performing duties essential to the safe operation of an aircraft in flight use supplemental oxygen for any period in excess of 30 minutes when the pressure altitude in the the passenger compartment will be between 10 000 ft and 13 000 ft; and

(2) all occupants use supplemental oxygen for any period that the pressure altitude in the the passenger compartment will be above 13 000 ft.

DETERMINATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN NEED

When determining the need for supplemental oxygen carriage and use, the pilot-in-command should:

(a) in the preflight phase:

(1) be aware of hypoxia conditions and associated risks;

(2) consider the following objective conditions for the intended flight:

(i) altitude;

(ii) duration of the flight; and

(iii) any other relevant operational conditions.

(3) consider individual conditions of flight crew members and passengers in relation to:

(i) altitude of the place of residence;

(ii) smoking;

(iii) experience in flights at high altitudes;

(iv) actual medical conditions and medications;

(v) age

(vi) disabilities; and

(vii) any other relevant factor that may be detected, or reported by the person; and

(4) when relevant, ensure that all flight crew members and passengers are briefed on hypoxia conditions and symptoms, as well as on the usage of supplemental oxygen equipment.

(b) during flight:

(1) monitor for early symptoms of hypoxia conditions; and

(2) if detecting early symptoms of hypoxia conditions:

(i) consider to return to a safe altitude, and

(ii) ensure that supplemental oxygen is used, if available.

GENERAL

(a) The responsibility of the pilot-in-command for safety of all persons on board, as required by NCO.GEN.105(a)(1), includes the determination of need for supplemental oxygen use.

(b) The altitudes above which NCO.OP.190(b) requires oxygen to be available and used are applicable to those cases when the pilot-in-command cannot determine the need for supplemental oxygen. However, if the pilot-in-command is able to make this determination, he/she may elect in the interest of safety to require oxygen also for operations at or below such altitudes.

(c) The pilot-in-command should be aware that flying below altitudes mentioned in NCO.OP.190(b) does not provide absolute protection against hypoxia symptoms, should individual conditions and aptitudes be prevalent.

DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN NEED — BEFORE FLIGHT

Detailed information and guidance on hypoxia conditions and symptoms, content of the briefing on hypoxia and assessment of individual conditions may be found in the EASA leaflet ‘Hypoxia’.

DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN NEED — IN FLIGHT

Several methods for monitoring hypoxia early symptoms may be used and some methods may be aided by personal equipment, such as finger-mounted pulse oximeters. Detailed information and guidance on entering hypoxia conditions, on hypoxia symptoms early detection, and on use of personal equipment such as finger-mounted pulse oximeters or equivalent may be found in the EASA leaflet ‘Hypoxia’.

NCO.OP.195 Ground proximity detection

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

When undue proximity to the ground is detected by the pilot-in-command or by a ground proximity warning system, the pilot-in-command shall take corrective action immediately in order to establish safe flight conditions.

NCO.OP.200 Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II)

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

When ACAS II is used, operational procedures and training shall be in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1332/2011.

NCO.OP.205 Approach and landing conditions — aeroplanes

Regulation (EU) 2019/1387

Before commencing an approach to land, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that, according to the information available, the weather at the aerodrome or the operating site and the condition of the runway intended to be used do not prevent a safe approach, landing or missed approach.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

Before commencing an approach to land, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that:

(a) according to the information available, the meteorological conditions at the aerodrome or the operating site, and the condition of the runway intended to be used will not prevent a safe approach, landing, or missed approach; and

(b) the selected aerodrome operating minima are consistent with all of the following:

(1) the operative ground equipment;

(2) the operative aircraft systems;

(3) the aircraft performance, and

(4) flight crew qualifications.

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

LANDING DISTANCE ASSESSMENT

(a) The in-flight landing distance assessment should be based on the latest available weather report and, if available, runway condition report (RCR).

(b) The assessment should be initially carried out when weather report and RCR, if available, are obtained, usually around top of descent. If the planned duration of the flight does not allow to carry out the assessment in non-critical phases of flight, the assessment should be carried out before departure.

(c) When meteorological conditions may lead to a degradation of the runway surface condition, the assessment should include consideration of how much deterioration in runway surface friction characteristics may be tolerated, so that a quick decision can be made prior to landing.

(d) Whenever the RCR is in use and the runway braking action encountered during the landing roll is not as good as reported by the aerodrome operator in the RCR, the pilot-in-command should notify the air traffic services (ATS) by means of a special air-report (AIREP) as soon as practicable.

RUNWAY CONDITION REPORT (RCR)

When the aerodrome reports the runway conditions by means of an RCR, the information contained therein includes a runway condition code (RWYCC). The determination of the RWYCC is based on the use of the runway condition assessment matrix (RCAM). The RCAM correlates the RWYCC with the contaminants present on the runway and the braking action.

A detailed description of the RCR format and content, the RWYCC and the RCAM may be found in Annex V (Part-ADR.OPS) to Regulation (EU) No 139/2014, in Regulation (EU) 2017/373 and in Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 (SERA). Further guidance may be found in the following documents:

(a) ICAO Doc 9981 ‘PANS Aerodromes’;

(b) ICAO Doc 4444 ‘PANS ATM’;

(c) ICAO Doc 10064 ‘Aeroplane Performance Manual’; and

(d) ICAO Circular 355 ‘Assessment, Measurement and Reporting of Runway Surface Conditions’.

NCO.OP.206 Approach and landing conditions — helicopters

Regulation (EU) 2019/1387

Before commencing an approach to land, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that, according to the information available, the weather at the aerodrome or the operating site and the condition of the final approach and take-off area (FATO) intended to be used do not prevent a safe approach, landing or missed approach.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

Before commencing an approach to land, the pilot-in-command shall be satisfied that:

(a) according to the information available, the meteorological conditions at the aerodrome or the operating site and the condition of the final approach and take-off area (FATO) intended to be used will not prevent a safe approach, landing or missed approach; and

(b) the selected aerodrome operating minima are consistent with all of the following:

(1) the operative ground equipment;

(2) the operative aircraft systems;

(3) the aircraft performance;

(4) flight crew qualifications.

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

FATO SUITABILITY

The in-flight determination of the FATO suitability should be based on the latest available meteorological report.

NCO.OP.210 Commencement and continuation of approach — aeroplanes and helicopters

Regulation (EU) No 800/2013

(a) The pilot-in-command may commence an instrument approach regardless of the reported runway visual range/visibility (RVR/VIS).

(b) If the reported RVR/VIS is less than the applicable minimum, the approach shall not be continued:

(1) below 1 000 ft above the aerodrome; or

(2) into the final approach segment in the case where the decision altitude/height (DA/H) or minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) is more than 1 000 ft above the aerodrome.

(c) Where the RVR is not available, RVR values may be derived by converting the reported visibility.

(d) If, after passing 1 000 ft above the aerodrome, the reported RVR/VIS falls below the applicable minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or MDA/H.

(e) The approach may be continued below DA/H or MDA/H and the landing may be completed provided that the visual reference adequate for the type of approach operation and for the intended runway is established at the DA/H or MDA/H and is maintained.

(f) The touchdown zone RVR shall always be controlling.

[applicable until 29 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

(a) If the controlling RVR for the runway to be used for landing is less than 550 m (or any lower value established in accordance with an approval under SPA.LVO), then an instrument approach operation shall not be continued:

(1) past a point at which the aircraft is 1 000 ft above the aerodrome elevation; or

(2) into the final approach segment if the DH or MDH is higher than 1 000 ft.

(b) If the required visual reference is not established, a missed approach shall be executed at or before the DA/H or the MDA/H.

(c) If the required visual reference is not maintained after DA/H or MDA/H, a go-around shall be executed promptly.

[applicable from 30 October 2022 — Regulation (EU) 2021/2237]

VISUAL REFERENCES FOR NPA, APV AND CAT I OPERATIONS

(a) At DH or MDH, at least one of the visual references specified below should be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot:

(1) elements of the approach lighting system;

(2) the threshold;

(3) the threshold markings;

(4) the threshold lights;

(5) the threshold identification lights;

(6) the visual glide slope indicator;

(7) the touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings;

(8) the touchdown zone lights;

(9) FATO/runway edge lights; or

(10) other visual references specified in the operations manual.

NCO.OP.220 Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II)

Regulation (EU) 2016/1199

When ACAS II is used, pilot-in-command shall apply the appropriate operational procedures and be adequately trained.