New standards

The latest global environmental standards were adopted by ICAO in 2017. These cover both aeroplane CO2 emissions and aircraft engine non-volatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) mass concentration. EASA has subsequently supported the process to integrate these standards into European legislation [19], and will implement them as of the applicability date of 1 January 2020.

The CO2 standard provides an additional requirement into the design process that increases the priority of fuel efficiency in the overall aeroplane design. It is an important step forward to address the growing CO2 emissions from the aviation sector, and will contribute to the climate change mitigation objectives of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement [26].

The nvPM mass concentration standard is expected to ultimately replace the existing Smoke Number requirement. ICAO is also working on future standards for both nvPM mass and nvPM number, which are based on the emissions that occur during landing and take-off operations. These proposed standards will be discussed at the CAEP/11 meeting in 2019. If agreed, it is expected that they too will be implemented into the European legislative framework.

One of the substances considered to cause significant damage to the ozone layer is Halon. Additional measures for the protection of the ozone layer were adopted in 2008 under the Montreal Protocol. Consequently the European Commission and EASA are working with industry to conduct research that supports compliance with the on-going phase out of Halon in aircraft [27], while avoiding the risk of phasing in alternatives with high global warming potential.