This leaflet focusses on piston engine icing. Induction system icing in piston engines is commonly referred to as ‘carburettor icing’. Although that is only one form, such icing can occur at any time, even on warm days, particularly humid ones… If correct action is not taken, the engine may stop, especially at low power settings during approach. This leaflet is intended to assist pilots of carburetted piston engined aircraft operating below 10 000 feet by providing background information and a few practical tips.
This leaflet gives tips to flight close to high grounds (mountain flying). It gives some basic information and advice to pilots of light aircraft who wish to cross ranges of hills or even mountains. As in all flying, pre-flight preparation is essential for success and reading this brochure could be one element of it!
This leaflet emphasises the advantages of simulators in helicopter flight training. The document presents the various helicopter flight simulation training devices available and reviews the additional training and safety benefits related to recent technological and regulatory developments.
The EHEST Safety Management Toolkit for Complex Operators has been developed by the Specialist Team Operations and Safety Management System (EHSIT ST Ops and SMS) of EHEST. It has been developed with consideration given to Annex III of the EU regulation on Air Operations, Part ORO Subpart GEN Section II ‘Management System’ and the relevant AMCs and GM published in October 2012, and is therefore specially adapted to European operators.
This leaflet provides tools and methods to improve risk management in training. Training for autorotation is used as a practical example to illustrate the method.
The US Helicopter Association International (HAI) produced a 30-minute video taking us through the 12 principles of SMS.
This leaflet focuses on Decision Making.
Decision Making is a major factor in aircraft accidents and incidents. Pilots intend to fly safely, but can make errors. EHST data show that the majority of fatal crashes are attributable to decision errors rather than to perceptual or execution errors.
While human error can not be eliminated, a thorough understanding of human factors principles can lead to appropriate strategies, means and approaches to prevent most errors, better detect and manage them, and mitigate their adverse consequences on safety.
Aviation forecasts are important, and pilots must always expect to meet the forecast conditions.
However, a forecast only describes what is most likely to happen, and pilots must consider other possible scenarios. This leaflet help pilots recognise the approach of worsening weather before they fly into it.
This leaflet covers the main topics related to off field landing site operations:
- Planning and Preparation,
- Landing Site Identification,
- Landing Site Recce,
- Types of Approach,
- Manoeuvring in the landing site,
- Departure, and
- Pilot errors.
This leaflet presents the main helicopter ground operations signals.
This leaflet deals with Airmanship in helicopter operations.
Airmanship is defined by EASA Part FCL as: “The consistent use of good judgement and well-developed knowledge, skills and attitudes to accomplish flight objective”. The EHEST analysis of helicopter accidents occurred in Europe between 2000 and 2005 revealed 140 General Aviation accidents. The report identifies the following major factors:
This video presents the importance of Decision Making for all kinds of helicopter operations.
It emphasises flight preparation and the benefit to revisit decisions during the flight: "There is no shame in declining, diverting or landing in a field" to preserve safety on board!
This video raises awareness on Loss of Control in flight, due to poor weather conditions where visual references may be lost, and explains how not to get caught in these conditions.
Developed by the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), this study report addresses just culture and human factors training in ground service providers.
It is generally understood that most accidents are the result of the pilot actions and decisions. This leaflet reviews some of the factors that influence decision making and how pilot's decisions can affect the safety of the flight.
Every flight requires the pilot to make decisions. Some are between two exclusive choices; the ‘go/no-go’ decision. Others require the pilot to work out a course of action from available information. The same factors affect both types of decision.
The following link redirects to the safety culture framework web-page of the Netherlands Aerospace Laboratory - Air Transport Safety Institute (NLR-ATSI) website.
This document is an example of pre-flight planning checklist.
Operators should adapt it to their operations.
This Leaflet covers the following subjects:
- Degraded Visual Environment (DVE),
- Vortex Ring State (VRS),
- Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness (LTE),
- Static & Dynamic Rollover, and
- Pre-flight planning Checklist.
The priorities for safe flying are ‘Aviate, Navigate, then Communicate’. Whilst this is always true, correct standard radiotelephony phraseology makes an important contribution to the safe and efficient operation of aircraft.
Communication errors and inappropriate use of phraseology continue to feature as contributory factors in aviation incidents and accidents in Europe.
Developed by the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), this study report addresses the causal factors of errors in ground handling.
The following link opens a document hosted on the SkyBrary website describing the ARMS methodology for operational risk management developed by the Aviation Risk Management Solutions (ARMS) group under the aegis of ECAST.
This video raises awareness on the dangers of electric wires and towers, standing below 1000ft and how to avoid collision with cables.
This video provides helicopter pilots with some advice to manage their passengers, and not to compromise flight safety.
This video aims at explaining helicopter passengers how to behave when flying in a helicopter. It also emphasises that poor weather conditions may lead to flight delay or cancellation, in order to ensure safety. Passengers should accept pilot decisions and avoid pressing the pilot to fly in unsafe conditions.
French version of the video
See-and-avoid’ is the main method used to minimise the risk of collision when flying in visual meteorological conditions. It is an integral part of a pilot’s ‘situational awareness’, in other words the skill involved in looking outside the cockpit or flight deck and becoming aware of what is happening around the aircraft. Actively looking for possible traffic and obstacles, for instance.