The aviation industry operates in environments which are highly challenging, due to the varied conditions in which aircraft are operated, such as extremes of temperature and humidity, and the stringent aviation safety requirements which must be met.
Miscellaneous Papers & Reports
This leaflet presents techniques for helicopter operations in hilly and mountainous terrain. It helps pilots and instructors understand basic principles, threats, errors and possible undesirable aircraft states when flying in mountainous terrain. Developed in partnership with major stakeholders, the leaflet also provides guidance to manage the risks associated with these operations.
This leaflet focusses on the use of Flight Information Service (FIS). It is intended to assist pilots – particularly VFR pilots – in the correct use of FIS frequencies. As pilots are required to contact FIS at AFIS aerodromes or in certain circumstances such as crossing international borders, this leaflet describes the advantages and limitations of using the service.
The leaflet aims to help light aeroplane pilots recognise situations potentially leading to stall, while also providing generic principles for stall and spin prevention and recovery. Loss of Control Inflight (LoC-I) has been repeatedly identified as the main accident category in light aeroplanes. The stall recovery procedure in the leaflet is consistent with the new standard approach described in the FAA AC 120-109 and EASA Safety Information Bulletin 2013-02, on Stall and Stick Pusher Training.
This leaflet helps pilots in Using Advanced Navigation Technology Safely. The market for on-board navigation technology is evolving quickly. The immediate potential safety benefits are numerous including reduced workload and unprecedented information to enhance situational awareness but may induce overreliance on systems and distraction. This leaflet intends to raise awareness on potential traps and share good practices for better and safer use of advanced technology for navigation in day VFR.
This leaflet deals with bird strikes. Yes, a collision with a nice soft-feathered bird can lead to serious damage; such as a destroyed windshield (that can injure the pilots), clogged air intakes, a broken pitot tube, damaged brake lines, holes or dents in the fuselage or wings… This leaflet was translated from a German AOPA Safety Letter.
This leaflet focusses on piston engine icing. Induction system icing in piston engines is commonly referred to as ‘carburettor icing’. Although that is only one form, such icing can occur at any time, even on warm days, particularly humid ones… If correct action is not taken, the engine may stop, especially at low power settings during approach. This leaflet is intended to assist pilots of carburetted piston engined aircraft operating below 10 000 feet by providing background information and a few practical tips.
This leaflet gives tips to flight close to high grounds (mountain flying). It gives some basic information and advice to pilots of light aircraft who wish to cross ranges of hills or even mountains. As in all flying, pre-flight preparation is essential for success and reading this brochure could be one element of it!
This leaflet emphasises the advantages of simulators in helicopter flight training. The document presents the various helicopter flight simulation training devices available and reviews the additional training and safety benefits related to recent technological and regulatory developments.
The EHEST Safety Management Toolkit for Complex Operators has been developed by the Specialist Team Operations and Safety Management System (EHSIT ST Ops and SMS) of EHEST. It has been developed with consideration given to Annex III of the EU regulation on Air Operations, Part ORO Subpart GEN Section II ‘Management System’ and the relevant AMCs and GM published in October 2012, and is therefore specially adapted to European operators.
This leaflet provides tools and methods to improve risk management in training. Training for autorotation is used as a practical example to illustrate the method.
The US Helicopter Association International (HAI) produced a 30-minute video taking us through the 12 principles of SMS.
This leaflet focuses on Decision Making.
Decision Making is a major factor in aircraft accidents and incidents. Pilots intend to fly safely, but can make errors. EHST data show that the majority of fatal crashes are attributable to decision errors rather than to perceptual or execution errors.
While human error can not be eliminated, a thorough understanding of human factors principles can lead to appropriate strategies, means and approaches to prevent most errors, better detect and manage them, and mitigate their adverse consequences on safety.
Aviation forecasts are important, and pilots must always expect to meet the forecast conditions.
However, a forecast only describes what is most likely to happen, and pilots must consider other possible scenarios. This leaflet help pilots recognise the approach of worsening weather before they fly into it.
This leaflet covers the main topics related to off field landing site operations:
- Planning and Preparation,
- Landing Site Identification,
- Landing Site Recce,
- Types of Approach,
- Manoeuvring in the landing site,
- Departure, and
- Pilot errors.
This leaflet presents the main helicopter ground operations signals.
This leaflet deals with Airmanship in helicopter operations.
Airmanship is defined by EASA Part FCL as: “The consistent use of good judgement and well-developed knowledge, skills and attitudes to accomplish flight objective”. The EHEST analysis of helicopter accidents occurred in Europe between 2000 and 2005 revealed 140 General Aviation accidents. The report identifies the following major factors:
This video presents the importance of Decision Making for all kinds of helicopter operations.
It emphasises flight preparation and the benefit to revisit decisions during the flight: "There is no shame in declining, diverting or landing in a field" to preserve safety on board!
This video raises awareness on Loss of Control in flight, due to poor weather conditions where visual references may be lost, and explains how not to get caught in these conditions.
Developed by the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), this study report addresses just culture and human factors training in ground service providers.
It is generally understood that most accidents are the result of the pilot actions and decisions. This leaflet reviews some of the factors that influence decision making and how pilot's decisions can affect the safety of the flight.
Every flight requires the pilot to make decisions. Some are between two exclusive choices; the ‘go/no-go’ decision. Others require the pilot to work out a course of action from available information. The same factors affect both types of decision.
The following link redirects to the safety culture framework web-page of the Netherlands Aerospace Laboratory - Air Transport Safety Institute (NLR-ATSI) website.