EASA Newsletter: On Air
Miscellaneous Papers & Reports
The analysis in this paper seeks to identify the main safety risks involving Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations.
The European Aviation Safety Agency Task Force has assessed the risks resulting from collisions between drones of varying masses and different categories of manned aircraft, considering their design characteristics and operational requirements.
The growth in numbers of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), or “drones”, is matched by the significant range of benefits that their use promises. Those benefits will not be fully realised, however, unless there can be confidence that such UAS can be operated safely.
The aviation industry operates in environments which are highly challenging, due to the varied conditions in which aircraft are operated, such as extremes of temperature and humidity, and the stringent aviation safety requirements which must be met.
General Aviation Leaflet
The EHEST MARIA Risk Assessment Toolkit contains a methodology and a database system that support safety studies and keep track of hazards and other risk assessment elements. Safety studies are organised around causes, hazardous events (or hazards), consequences and safety barriers. Elements are linked together to describe cause-effect relations and orient action. MARIA functionalities include producing reports and exporting data to external databases and safety documents.
This tool has been developed to allow pilots and technicians to evaluate the actual risk of the flight or of the maintenance.
The tool is based on the PAVE (Pilot, Aircraft, environment, External pressure) check list and adapted for the type of flight (HEMS, leisure, training, passenger, etc.).
The final purpose is to make pilots and technicians aware that simple factors, when combined, can raise the total risk significantly, eventually resulting in a situation where the helicopter should not flight unless some of the risk factors are mitigated.
The following link redirects to the Runway Incursion Portal of the SkyBrary website.
This leaflet provides guidance and safety tips for pilots, instructors and examiners on the subject of training and testing of emergency and abnormal procedures.
This leaflet provides guidance to helicopter instructors and examiners on how to conduct aircrew training and testing in Flight Simulator Training Devices (FSTDs), and provides basic principles on how to get the best use of this invaluable training asset. The benefits of FSTDs are covered in the previously published leaflet HE6 Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training.
This leaflet addresses safety at flying displays and events and provides guidance for pilots. Originally published by UK CAA, the leaflet was adapted by EGAST for wider use in Europe. The European Airshow Council (EAC) supported this work. The leaflet addresses various important subjects such as managing the risk involved in airshows, planning your display, and practicing and preparing for your display. It also addresses the airshow itself and provides measures to take on the display day and after the display.
This leaflet identifies current best practice on automation and flight path management. Over the years helicopter manufacturers have used more automation to assist crews and reduce manual flying workload. The rapid advances in technology have given rise to significant capabilities. Automation has contributed substantially to the sustained improvement of flight safety. Automation increases the timeliness and precision of routine procedures reducing the opportunity for errors and the associated risks to the safety of the flight.
ECAST sponsored the European Plan for the Prevention of Runway Excursion (EAPPRE) and ECAST organisations participated in its development.
The link below redirects to the EAPPRE web-page of the SKYbrary website.
The EHEST European Helicopter Safety Analysis Team (EHSAT) published between 2008 and 2015 three accidents reports using an adapted version of the taxonomy developed by the IHST Join Helicopter Safety Analysis Team (JHSAT) and the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).
EHSAT Regional Teams (RTs) spread all through Europe analysed hundreds of national accident reports and EASA aggregated and further analysed results centrally.
The following link redirects to the Runway Excursion Portal of the SkyBrary website.
This leaflet focusses on In-Flight Icing.
It provides guidance to pilots of non-complex aeroplanes without modern ice protection systems. Topics include icing after landing, effects of icing, propeller icing, pre-flight planning, pre-flight checks and ground de-icing, and typical in-flight icing scenarios.
Actions to be taken when encountering icing are presented in a summary section.
EHEST has developed this Helicopter Flight Instructor manual based on a manual developed by the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA), incorporating extensive feedback from the helicopter training community. CASA has kindly made this manual available to EHEST for dissemination. EHEST has incorporated changes to reflect European terminology and syllabus contents and also enriched the manual.
This leaflet introduces and illustrates the concept of Threat and Error Management (TEM) to flight crews and training organisations. Data analysis confirms that a continuing significant number of helicopter accidents occur due to poor decision making and human performance both prior and during flight. This leaflet contributes to address these weaknesses by describing and illustrating a methodology to manage threats and errors.
Technology is not high on the list of accident factors, as it is merely the lack of technology that may have led to an accident.
Technology provides a variety of solutions that can contribute to prevent various types of accidents or to increase survivability.
The EHSIT Specialist Team Technology of EHEST was created to assess the potential of existing and emerging technologies to mitigate accident factors.
This Toolkit has been created by the Specialist Team Operations & SMS of EHEST. The SMM Version 1 for Non-Complex operators has been developed with consideration of Annex III of the EU regulation on Air Operations, Part ORO Subpart GEN Section II ‘Management System’ and the relevant AMCs and GM published in October 2012. It will be particularly useful for Non-Complex operators with limited experience of running a Safety Management System (SMS).
This leaflet presents techniques for helicopter operations in hilly and mountainous terrain. It helps pilots and instructors understand basic principles, threats, errors and possible undesirable aircraft states when flying in mountainous terrain. Developed in partnership with major stakeholders, the leaflet also provides guidance to manage the risks associated with these operations.
This leaflet focusses on the use of Flight Information Service (FIS). It is intended to assist pilots – particularly VFR pilots – in the correct use of FIS frequencies. As pilots are required to contact FIS at AFIS aerodromes or in certain circumstances such as crossing international borders, this leaflet describes the advantages and limitations of using the service.
Annual Safety Review
Annual Activity Report
Annual Safety Recommendations Review
European Plan for Aviation Safety
Easy access rules - technical publications
Easy Access Rules for ATCO, Air Traffic Controllers’ Licensing and Certification, issued August 2015.